Electricidad - 651 entradas encontradas
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Higher risk? Lower voltage
Meer risico's? Minder spanning [en holandés]
Data sheet for the information of all workers who may be called upon to use electric tools, hand lamps, etc., in highly conductive environments (damp locations, metal enclosures). Contents: elevated risks due to electrical faults in the equipment and/or contact with conducting surfaces (including damp clothing or skin); necessity of low voltage; protective value of an isolating transformer; possibility of welding with an isolating transformer having a relay which limits the voltage between the welding electrode and the grounded environment to 42V as soon as the arc is broken; suggestions for even lower voltages under dangerous conditions.
Veiligheidsinstituut, Postbus 5665, 1007 AR Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1983. 4p. Illus.
Van Dort T.J.
Safe work on low-voltage installations
Veiligheid voor alles - Het werken aan laagspanningsinstallaties [en holandés]
The most frequent causes of elecrical accidents due to work on low-voltage installations are unsafe working methods, inadequately designed equipment and installations not complying with safety standards. Figures showing the evolution of electrical accidents in the Netherlands between 1973 and 1979 are followed by the description of 2 fatal accidents (repair of a washing machine on board a ship, replacement of an overhead-line pole). Detailed commentaries on the safe wiring of control and distribution installations with circuit examples showing the correct separation of lighting from power networks. Dutch standards and regulations are recalled in connection with the prevention of accidents due to unsafe installations.
Polytechnisch tijdschrift - Elektrotechniek/elektronica, Mar. 1983, Vol.38, No.3, p.15-19. Illus.
Reglamento de la electricidad de acuerdo a los términos de la Ley de Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo [Canadá - Terranova]
Electrical Regulations under the Occupational Health and Safety Act [Canada - Newfoundland] [en inglés]
Este Reglamento (en vigor desde el 1.12.82) prevé la adopción del Código Canadiense de Electricidad, 1ª Parte C.S.A. norma C22.1, 1982 (14ª edición) como código provincial de Terranova. Se deroga el Reglamento de electricidad de 1980.
Canadian OSH Legislation CD-ROM, CCOHS, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canadá, 1982. 1p.
Health and Safety Executive
Cuestión de vida o muerte
Alive...or dead [en inglés]
Cinta de video sobre la seguridad de los trabajos realizados en las proximidades de tendidos eléctricos
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, Reino Unido, 1982. Videocasete. Duración: 21min. Precio: GBP 28,68 (alquiler), GBP 85,10 (venta). ###
Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Electricity) Regulations [Hong Kong]
Regulations effective 1 Dec. 1982 (updated to 1990) and issued under the authority of the 1955 Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (see CIS 89-6). It applies to all industrial undertakings where electricity is generated, transformed, transmitted or used, with the exception of the supply of electricity in accordance with the Electricity Ordinance and the use of electricity for the purposes of moving transport vehicles. Aspects treated by the Regulations are: general safety requirements relating to electricity; switches, conductors and electric motors; switchboards and switchboard apparatus; protective equipment, lighting and special risks; substations; duties, offences and penalties.
Government Printer, Hong Kong, 1991. 7p. Price: HKD 14.00.
Kieback D., Schaefer H.
Bibliography on the biological effects of electricity
Literatursammlung zur biologischen Wirkung von Elektrizität [en alemán]
This bibliography contains more than 2300 items classified under the following headings: monographs; statistical studies; technical conditions for electrical accidents; electric and electromagnetic fields, static and atmospheric electricity; pathology and histology of electrical injuries, evaluation of disability; electrical accidents (direct, alternating and rectified current); effects of electrical shock on body organs; unusual cases; accidents of electric therapy; consequences of being struck by lightning; first aid and treatment. Alphabetical authors' index.
Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle, Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 155p.
Characteristics of low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic fields produced by video display terminals
This research report describes the methodology and instrumentation used to measure electrostatic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0 to 10MHz produced by 4 different brands of VDTs. None of the fields detected and measured were at levels which could be hazardous to an operator according to any known occupational health and safety guideline.
Ontario Hydro Research Division, 800 Kipling Ave., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5S4, Canada, 15 Dec. 1982. 33p. Illus. Appendices.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Electrical Safety. Maximum acceptable contact voltages and currents
Ėlektrobezopasnost'. Predel'no dopustimye urovni naprjaženij prikosnovenija i tokov [en ruso]
This standard is effective from 1 July 1983 to 1 July 1988. It prescribes limits for the passage of electricity through the human body, as a guide for the design of protective equipment. Under normal conditions, the maximum direct current passing through the body should be no more than 1.0mA at 8.0V; lower values are prescribed for alternating current. Tables give maximum times of exposure to various combinations of current, voltage and frequency under fault conditions. Conditions of measurement are specified and technical terms are defined.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, D-557 Moskva, USSR, 1982. 6p. Prix: Rbl.0.03.
Static electricity in explosive atmospheres - Formation, hazards, prevention
Electricité statique en atmosphère explosive - Formation, danger, prévention [en francés]
General information on static electricity, flammable substances and precautions to be observed. Different manifestations of static electricity depending on the physical state of the matter on which it is present (dispersed phases: solid-gas, solid-liquid, liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, gas-liquid; continuous phases: solid-liquid, solid-solid, solid-gas). Means of protection. Index of processes and operations cited. Table of the most important hazards in explosive atmospheres.
Union des industries chimiques, 64 ave. Marceau, 75008 Paris, France, Sep. 1982. 76p. Illus. 40 ref.
Use of electricity
Utilisation de l'électricité [en francés]
A manual on the use of electricity in the construction industry, to be used by teachers and course directors in communicating safety concepts. Contents: physiological effects of low-voltage current on the human body; electrical resistance of the body; distribution of alternating current; hazards of direct contact with electricity; prevention by making conductors inaccessible and insulating them; hazards of indirect contact; prevention by grounding, circuit breakers, differential fault current sensors, and isolation transformers; electrical safety with various classes of portable tools; use of these tools in relation to the location of the work site. Review of regulations and other documents to be consulted.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Tour Amboise, 204 Rond-Point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France, 1982. 31p. Illus.
(Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission im DIN und VDE)
Hazards due to electromagnetic fields - Methods of measurement and calculation
Gefährdung durch elektromagnetische Felder - Mess- und Berechnungsverfahren [en alemán]
This DIN standard, also approved as a VDE rule, specifies the methods of measurement and calculation for evaluating the potential hazard associated with electromagnetic fields of frequency 10kHz-3000GHz. Definitions of technical terms. Description of methods for measuring electric and magnetic field strength, flux density, electric voltage and current, and available power. Calculation of parameters. (English translation may be obtained from: Health and Safety Executive, Translation Services, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN, United Kingdom).
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-10, D-1000 Berlin 30, Feb. 1982. 16p. Illus. Price: DM.16.80.
Savel'ev Ju.Ja., Makarov N.P., Kruk P.T., Nedel'skij A.G., Pis'mennyj V.P.
Sensitivity of electric detonators to static electricity
Čuvstvitel'nost' ėlektrodetonatorov k ėlektrostatičeskim zarjadam [en ruso]
Granular explosives are often transported and loaded into boreholes by pneumatic means; this can produce static electric charges on the explosive and on the pipes, hoses and rock through which it moves, and poses a threat of premature detonation, especially when detonators are being placed. To model possible situations, charged capacitors were connected to one lead of detonators. The voltage and charge of the capacitors and the connections and grounding of the detonators were all varied; 13 configurations were tested. The minimal energy required for detonation (110mJ) was observed when one end of the capacitor and one lead were connected and the other end of the capacitor and the other lead were grounded; energies required for detonation in other configurations were much higher. It is very unlikely that electrostatic energies of such magnitudes will be built up under underground conditions. Not placing detonators in boreholes until loading is completed will add an extra measure of safety.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Nov. 1982, No.11, p.44-45. Illus.
Skobareva Z.A., Tekševa L.M.
Assessment of the health effects of pulsation of the light in mixed lighting systems
Gigieničeskaja ocenka pul'sacii osveščennosti v uslovijah sovmeščennogo osveščenija [en ruso]
Volunteers conducted a quantitative analytical task under 3 different lighting regimes: fluorescent lighting powered with alternating current at normal mains frequency (100Hz), fluorescent lighting powered by a high-frequency source (4kHz) and a mixture of natural light with normal-frequency fluorescent light. Visual fatigue was least with the high-frequency illumination and worst with the normal-frequency illumination; mixed lighting gave intermediate values of the performance criteria measured. Thus, the 100-Hz flicker of normal fluorescent lights has definitely deleterious effects. These effects are best obviated by changing the power supply (revision of lighting codes may be required), but they can be counteracted to some extent by including natural light in the illumination of the workplace.
Svetotehnika, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.10-13. Illus. 13 ref.
Electrostatic capacitance of the human body relative to the ground
Die elektrostatische Kapazität des menschlichen Körpers gegen Erde [en alemán]
In the introduction, the significance of the electrostatic capacitance of the human body in medicine, technology and occupational safety is emphasised, and test results published by 34 authors are reviewed. Differences between results are explained by the influence of various factors (heights, posture, shoes, ground, humidity, static and dynamic behaviour). The results of new tests confirm this variation as a function of the individual. Generally, however, an electrostatic capacitance of 100-300pF is measured.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1982, No.12, p.18-21. Illus. 3 ref.
Fire hazard from electrostatic charging of carbon dioxide
Zündgefahren durch elektrostatische Aufladung von Kohlendioxid [en alemán]
Many accidents involving tanks can be attributed to ignition of explosive gas/air mixtures by discharge of electrostatically charged carbon dioxide, which is used for fire extinguishing or displacement of explosive atmospheres. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the electrostatic charging of carbon dioxide at the outlet of a tank of compressed gas. The electric charge can vary from 0.01 to 30µC/kg, depending on the way the gas expands and on the shape of the outlet. Thus, CO2 tanks and installations should be earthed if they are to be used in the presence of explosive mixtures. Dry ice would be a safe means of displacing explosive gases and mixtures.
Chemische Technik, 1982, Vol.34, No.7, p.393-393. 13 ref.
Safety evaluation of electrical engineering installations
Sicherheitsbewertung elektrotechnischer Anlagen [en alemán]
This number is devoted to papers presented at a scientific meeting on the safety evaluation of electrical equipment and installations (Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Sep. 1982). Topics covered: methods of mathematical and electronic evaluation of electrical safety; measures for the improvement of electrical safety; efficiency of protective measures. Specialised topics covered: classification criteria for quality control of electrical installations; development of a warning device for a mobile crane approaching overhead electric lines; flameproof enclosures for electrical equipment; reliability of protective measures against direct and indirect contact with live elements; determination of protection levels in industrial 220/230V installations earthed to neutral; enhanced electrical safety by use of short circuit current controllers with rectifiers; use of medium voltage installations and equipment as a calculated risk measure; technical safety of power stations and electric networks.
Elektrie, 1982, Vol.36, No.6, p.281-331. Illus. Bibl.
Antoni H., Hohnloser S., Weirich J.
What is the reason for the difference in the biological effect on the heart of direct and alternating current?
Worauf beruht der Unterschied in der biologischen Wirksamkeit von Gleichstrom und von Wechselstrom am Herzen? [en alemán]
Ventricular fibrillation is more easily induced by alternating than by direct electric current. Alternating current can also mimic the effects of autonomic stimulation. The different effects of the 2 types of current are due to the fact that alternating current acts like a series of impulses, whereas direct current acts like a pulse only at the moment of switching on or off. The relation of these phenomena to the basic mechanisms of cardiac excitation and fibrillation is discussed.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1982, Vol.17, No.7, p.167-173. Illus. 10 ref.
Carino M., Assenato G., De Marinis L., Sborgia G.F.
Eye changes in arc welders
Le alterazioni dell'apparato visivo nei saldatori ad arco [en italiano]
120 arc welders, with an average welding experience of 15.8 years, and 120 controls had comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations. The most significant difference was in the prevalence of cortical opacities in the eyes of the welders: 21 (17.5%) had them, against 1 (0.8%) in the control group, significantly different at the p<0.001 level. A questionnaire was used to disclose the working hours, wearing of corrective lenses and other information relating to the arc welders, and its results were further used to analyse the occupational risks to the eye run by welders.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1982, Vol.73, No.6, p.581-585. Illus. 9 ref.
Egyptien H.H., Schliephacke J., Siller E.
Electrical installations and equipment - VBG 4, the new safety rules
Elektrische Anlagen und Betriebsmittel - VBG 4 - die neue Unfallverhütungsvorschrift [en alemán]
This book is intended to help the electrician apply safety rules VBG 4, published in 1979 (CIS 80-1523). A general introduction on the origin and importance of the rules is followed by definitions of general and electrotechnical terms used in the rules. Most of the book is devoted to a reproduction of VBG 4, with each section followed by detailed comments and illustrated examples. A list of relevant regulations and standards is appended.
Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 151p. Illus. Price: DM.9.70.
Safety during maintenance work on electrical installations and equipment
Sigurnost pri održavanju električnih instalacija i uredaja [en serbocroata]
Subjects covered by this training manual for maintenance workers and electricians: movement in the workplace; use of ladders and scaffolding; pole-top work; work in cable tunnels and trenches; use of portable power tools and hand tools; use of synthetic resins; degreasing and washing of machine parts; batteries; electric hazards and electrical safety (physiological effects of electric current, protective measures, switchgear, electric power tools, lamps, circuit breakers and fuses, voltage detectors, connection and disconnection of current, work on "live" installations, fire protection, first aid).
Zavod za nakladničku djelatnost iz sigurnosti na radu, Kroflinova 34, 41000 Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1982. 134p. Illus.
Wright W.E., Peters J.M., Mack T.M.
Leukaemia in workers exposed to electrical and magnetic fields
The Cancer Surveillance Programme, a population-based registry that collects information on incidence cases of cancer in Los Angeles county (USA), was reviewed for leukaemia cases in men who were listed as having jobs with exposure to electric or magnetic fields. For white males between 1972 and 1979 there was a trend towards increased proportional incidence ratios for all leukemias, and the risk was greatest for acute myelogenous leukaemia. The excess risk was significant for power and telephone linemen. Other shared exposures in these occupational groups may also contribute to this risk.
Lancet, 20 Nov. 1982, Vol.2, No.8308, p.1160-1161. 6 ref.
Safe agricultural electrical installations
Die sichere Elektroinstallation in der Landwirtschaft [en alemán]
A review is given of the special requirements for electrical installations on the farm and the relevant safety measures in the light of new safety regulations issued by the Agricultural Mutual Accident Insurance Associations in the Federal Republic of Germany: maximum nominal fault current of 0.03A, distribution box, equipotential bridging and earthing to the building foundations, distribution installation and meter, conductors and electrical wiring, connectors. Comments on protection against indirect contact, in particular specifications for and use of fault current circuit breakers. List of relevant VDE and DIN specifications.
D E - Der Elektromeister und Deutsches Elektrohandwerk, 1982, No.8, p.489-493, 530, and No.16, p.1137-1139. Illus.
Grant G.D., Hastbacka M.A.
In conveying grain - Static electricity: Problems and solutions
Grain conveyor and elevator systems have all the potential ingredients needed for static ignition. Aspects dealt with here are: materials for conveyor and elevator installations; PVC and rubber belting; spark generation; containment of fires.
National Safety News, June 1982, Vol.125, No.6, p.38-40. Illus.
Mortality from leukemia in workers exposed to electrical and magnetic fields
438,000 deaths were analysed. The proportionate mortality ratio for leukaemia was elevated in 10 of 11 occupations with presumed exposure to electrical or magnetic fields, especially television and radio repairmen, power station operators, aluminium workers, radio and telegraph operators, linemen, and electricians.
New England Journal of Medicine, 22 July 1982, Vol.307, No.4, p.249. 1 ref.
Protection of workers against electrical hazards - Order of 16 Feb. 1982
La sécurité des travailleurs contre les dangers d'origine électrique - Décret du 16 février 1982 [en francés]
These 2 articles analyse the content of the Order and compare it with previous legislation. Comments on the new provisions (see above).
Journal de l'équipement électrique et électronique, Oct. 1982, No.482, p.29-31; Nov. 1982, No.483, p.51-54.
Decree No.82-167 of 16 Feb. on measures designed to ensure protection of workers against electrical hazards in the construction, use and maintenance of electrical power distribution plant
Décret n°82-167 du 16 février 1982 relatif aux mesures particulières destinées à assurer la sécurité des travailleurs contre les dangers d'origine électrique lors des travaux de construction, d'exploitation et d'entretien des ouvrages de distribution d'énergie électrique [en francés]
Provisions applicable to work in these installations as laid down by the Act of 15 June 1906 with the exception of electric traction installations: operating electric power distribution plant (modifications, extensions, maintenance), plant in the course of construction when in the vicinity of other operating power distribution plant. Plant is considered to be operating as soon as the circuits are rendered live, even for testing.
Journal officiel de la République française, 17 Feb. 1982, p.601-603.
Movilliat P., Dangreaux J.
Experimental study of electrostatical hazards linked with the use of non-conductive pipes in an explosive atmosphere
Etude expérimentale des risques d'origine électrostatique liés à l'emploi de tuyaux non conducteurs en atmosphère explosive [en francés]
Paper presented to the 19th International Conference on Mine Safety (Katowice, Poland, Oct. 1981). The study covers 2 aspects: (1) to check that the circulation of a liquid, which may entrain air, does not bring about a significant build-up of an electric charge on the surface of water and hydraulic-fluid pipes in a gassy mine atmosphere; (2) to check if dangerous sparks may be obtained between this pipe and the earth. Description of pipes tested and of the electrostatic charge phenomenon. Analysis of the ignition potential of the electrostatic discharge sparks. The conclusions eliminate certain types of pipe.
Industrie minérale - les techniques, 1982, No.4, supplement to number of Apr. 1982, p.271-276. Illus. 7 ref.
Vasconcelos J.F., Vilela Pinto L.M.
The safe use of electricity
A utilização da electricidade com toda a segurança [en portugués]
This brochure draws attention to safety problems linked with the use of electricity. Sections cover: effects of electrical current on the human body; protective systems for electrical installations (protection of persons and circuits); examples of electrical installations for domestic use; examples of unsafe practices; first aid.
Edições Asa, R.D. Alfonso Henriques 742, 4435 Rio Tinto, Portugal, 1982. 48p. Illus.
Schernthanner J., Nemetz W.
Electrical accident hazards for firefighters in the use of water guns in the vicinity of high-voltage installations
Die Gefährdung des Löschpersonals beim Einsatz von Wasserwerfern im Bereich von Hochspannungsanlagen [en alemán]
Tank-truck mounted water guns, used more and more frequently by firefighters, may be the cause of electrical accidents when fires are being fought in the vicinity of high-voltage electrical installations. If the water jet is aimed at a high-voltage or even low-voltage installation whilst the insulated motorised pump is short-circuited by a low-impedence body (e.g. a human body), a leakage current flows back to the voltage source via the earth. A description is given of trials carried out on 110 and 220kV installations, aimed at measuring the leakage current in relation to the distance from the source. Types of nozzle that should be used are discussed.
ÖZE, 1982, Vol.35, No.9, p.473-478. Illus. 7 ref.
Adventitious x radiation from high-voltage equipment: Hazards and precautions
Contents: introduction; definition of units; production of x-radiation; biological effects; protection standards; radiation monitoring; shielding and control of access; medical and dosimetric supervision; types of high-voltage equipment liable to give rise to adventitious x-radiation (television receivers and cathode ray tubes; thermionic rectifiers, regulators and transmitting tubes; thyratrons and high-voltage mercury arc switches; magnetrons and klystrons; cold cathode discharge tubes and high-voltage vacuum switches and capacitors; electron-beam welders, evaporators and zone melting ovens; electron microscopes and microprobe analysers; positive ion accelerators); discussion and bibliography.
Science Reviews Ltd., 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, 1982. 43p. 99 ref. Price: £5.00.
De Almeida Dias D., Roveda M.E., Edson Eiras M., Moraes Bisso E., Rubens Antoniazzi J.
Research in induced voltages
Pesquisa e ensaios sobre tensões induzidas [en portugués]
Considerations on hazards of induced voltages; alerting workers to hazards of working on de-energised lines. Types of electromagnetically induced voltages; effects of electric shock; safe working methods; permissible values; proposed conclusions (revision of present safety regulations, chiefly those concerning horizontal and vertical spaces between power and distribution lines).
Saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Feb.-Mar. 1982, Vol.10, No.37, p.49-52. Illus.
Static electricity in coating processes
Fire hazards; fluid coating processes (compressed-air spraying high fluid-pressure airless atomising, electrostatic coating, disc atomising, dipping, etc.); dry powder coating (electrostatic spray guns, electrostatic fluidised beds); coating materials; hazards of static charges; precautions (earth monitoring; antistatic flooring in coating compartment; static elimination on coating equipment; paint/powder recovery systems); example of a plant for spraying aluminium coating on aluminium-alloy motor-car wheels (degreasing workpieces, maintaining earth contact, cleaning and maintenance).
Fire Prevention, July-Aug. 1982, No.151, p.22-26. Illus.
Safe work with electrical equipment
Bezpečná práca s elektrickým zariadením [en eslovaco]
Contents of this manual: basic information on electricity and electrical phenomena; circuit-breakers; physiological effects of electricity; first aid to victims of electrical accidents; causes and prevention of electrical accidents; protection against contact voltage; electric fire hazards; relations between electrical installations and environment; fire hazard environments; electrical explosion hazards; safe methods in maintenance, repair and other work on electrical installations; principles of safe use of electrical equipment; inspection of electrical equipment and installations; static electricity; lightning hazards; legislation, court decisions, administrative decisions and directives concerning OSH. Appendices and list of pertinent Czechoslovak laws, regulations and standards.
Vydavatel'stvo a nakladatel'stvo ROH, Ul. Obrancov mieru 19, 812 71 Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, 2nd edition 1982. 237p. Illus. 43 ref.
The manufacture and utilisation of electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres
Types of protection are outlined for use in potentially explosive atmospheres, with a comprehensive list of references to British standards on this subject: types of protection (type o - oil immersion, BS5501:Part 2 EN 50 015; type p - pressurised apparatus, BS5501:Part 3 EN 50 016; type q - powder filling (BS5501:Part 4 EN 50 017); type d - flameproof enclosure (BS5501-Part 5 EN 50 018); type e - increased safety (BS5501:Part 6 EN 50 019); type i - intrinsic safety (BS5501:Part 7 EN 50 020); type s - special protection (SFA 3009); type N - (BS4483:Part 2). Selection and manufacture of electrical equipment for use in flammable atmospheres; imported equipment; export of equipment (UK exporters must observe the requirements of the importing country).
Electrical and Mechanical Executive Engineer, May-June 1982. (2p. offprint available from BASEEFA, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN, United Kingdom).
Reiter R., Pötzl K.
Studies on generation and strength of electrical charges on aerosol particles in industrial processes and their retention in the respiratory tract
Untersuchungen über Entstehung und Stärke elektrischer Ladungen an Aerosolpartikeln bei industriellen Prozessen und ihr Verhalten im Atemtrakt [en alemán]
Introduction summarising the conditions and results of previous investigations (effects of electric charge on nearby installations and on the human body). Description of apparatus used to take aerosol samples, instruments for measuring electric charges and plants visited (iron and steel industry, foundries, kaolin and quartz production, a sugar refinery), and analysis of results of measures taken. Possible influence of the electric charge or field on production processes can be discounted, but a possibility of biological effect is envisaged. Proposed occupational health measures: better air conditioning; counteracting the positive charge by small negative ions.
Staub, Apr. 1982, Vol.42, No.4, p.155-163. Illus. 23 ref.
Respiratory therapy 1982
Contents of this safety standard: definitions; hazards (fire, chemical, mechanical, electrical hazards; toxic and flammable substances); equipment (gas supply and connections; dispensing equipment; labelling); elimination of sources of ignition; misuse of flammable substances; prevention of chemical breakdown; materials for cylinder and container connections; transfilling cylinders; transferring of liquid oxygen; care of safety mechanisms; transportation, storage, use, servicing and maintenance of equipment; elimination of electric shock hazards. Appended: gas cylinder table; medical safeguards; glossary of terminology.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 2 Dec. 1981. 35p. 20 ref.
Electrical fields in high-voltage installations - Results of measurements under overhead electricity lines, in distribution installations and power generating stations
Elektriske felt i høyspenningsanlegg - En kartlegging av elektriske felt under kraftledninger, i fordelingsanlegg of i kraftstasjoner [en noruego]
Sections cover: physics of electrical and magnetic fields; instruments and methods for measuring field intensity; results. These show that electrical field intensities, measured 1.8m above ground under overhead lines, depend on the voltage level, the height of the lines above ground and the type of pylon. Field intensity may be as high as 6kV/m in the case of a 420kV line 11.5m above ground (the natural atmospheric electrical field intensity being only 0.13kV/m). Intensity falls exponentially with increasing line height. Measurements at 1.8m above the ground in 420 and 300kV substations showed maximum intensities of 11kV/m and 6.4kV/m at a distance of 2.5m from the disconnecting switches.
Statens institutt for strålehygiene, Østerndalen 25, 1345 Østerås, Norway, 1982. 57p. Illus. 20 ref.
De Bennetot M.
The design of a VHV pylon with built-in safety
Réflexions sur la conception d'un pylône T.H.T. à sécurité intégrée [en francés]
The main causes of accidents in the construction of high-voltage overhead electricity distribution lines are listed (handling at ground level and at heights, movements of workers at heights, direct and indirect electrocution). Guidelines are proposed for reducing hazards at the pylon design stage: construction from factory prefabricated components; assembling the components on the ground; lifting into position by rotation on a hinged base; built-in safe acces facilities to the top of the pylon; where possible, the structure should be lifted into place with the insulators and wire pulleys already in position; where feasible, use of aluminium components to reduce the weight of the structures handled. Proposal and description of an "X" tripod structure that meets these criteria. Diagrams of the phases in pylon assembly. English translation may be obtained from the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8N 1H6.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1982, No.2, p.78-81. Illus.
Brinkmann K., Schaefer H.
Der Elektrounfall [en alemán]
Aspects of electrical accidents considered are: uses of electric current and inherent risks, biological effects of electric current, medical treatment, expertise, protection. Contents: introduction (regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany, present state of the art regarding medical research), basic information on electric power generation and distribution, electrical accident statistics, fatal and non-fatal accidents, first aid and medical treatment, human error and other human factors in the causality of accidents, evaluation of accidents, safety requirements for electrical installations, safety measures for work on electrical installations.
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, 1982. 324p. Illus. 680 ref. Price: DM.128.00; US-$59.60.
Stankevič K.I., Badaeva L.N., Samoš L.V., Šumova L.Z.
Cytogenetic and gonadotoxic action of a static electric field
Citogenetičeskoe i gonadotoksičeskoe dejstvija statičeskogo ėlektričeskogo polja [en ruso]
The widespread use of polymeric materials (textiles, construction materials, plastics) under conditions which promote the accumulation of static electric charges means that workers may be exposed to unnaturally high fields. To determine the effects of static fields, mice were subjected to static electric fields up to 700V/cm in intensity for 2h, after which testicular tissue was examined for chromosomal aberrations. 700V/cm produced both chromosomal aberrations and reduced spermatogenesis; 300V/cm had similar but less pronounced effects, while 150V/cm produced no changes. Thus, 300V/cm is a threshold exposure level.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1981, No.10, p.9-11. 5 ref.
Report on the Scientific Congress of the Research Institute for Electropathology
Bericht über die wissenschaftliche Tagung der Forschungsstelle für Elektropathologie [en alemán]
A collection of the 15 papers presented at a conference at Freiburg (Federal Republic of Germany, 17-18 Sep. 1981). Topics covered are: physiological effects of direct and alternating current on the heart; impedances in the human body; step and contact voltages; first aid in cases of low-voltage accidents; problems of defibrillation; biological effects on man of electric and magnetic fields; serious burns and causes of death; first aid in cases of high-voltage accidents.
Forschungsstelle für Elektropathologie, Reutebachgasse 11, 7800 Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany; Beiträge zur Ersten Hilfe und Behandlung von Unfällen durch elektrischen Strom, Heft 10, 1981. 329p. Illus. Bibl.
Effects of electric and magnetic fields on man
Wirkung elektrischer und magnetischer Felder auf den Menschen [en alemán]
Summary of the presentations and conclusions of 20 experts at a meeting on 12-13 June 1981 at Bad Münstereifel (Federal Republic of Germany). 90 studies under controlled conditions gave highly variable results, and none of the observed effects could be identified as a threat to health. Experiments with 50- and 60-Hz alternating electric and magnetic fields were emphasised.
Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1981, Vol.102, No.26, p.1399-1400. Illus.
Ministry of Coal and Energy (Ministerium für Kohle und Energie)
Work in the vicinity of high-voltage overhead electricity lines [German Democratic Republic]
Arbeiten und Aufenthalt im Freileitungsbereich [en alemán]
This standard applies solely to work in the vicinity of overhead electricity lines but not to the installation, maintenance or dismantling of such lines. Sections are devoted to: definition of zones; safe working practices (permit-to-work procedures, safety measures, restrictions, instructions, equipment); procedures to be followed in the event of damage to overhead lines; procedure in the event of an electrical accident; worker education and training.
Staatsverlag der DDR, Bereich Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, 3p. Illus.
Stainless steel fibres in textile filter materials for the prevention of explosions due to static electricity in dry filtering
Edelstahlfasern in textilen Filtermedien als Schutz gegen Explosion durch elektrostatische Aufladung bei der Trockenfiltration [en alemán]
Following a review of minimum ignition energy requirements for dust/air mixtures, the article defines conditions for the prevention of ignition by electrostatic discharge. Textile filters incorporating stainless steel fibres meet these safety requirements. Description of tests on this type of filter: conductivity and corona discharge capability. The corona effect ensures continuous discharge and prevents spontaneous discharge and sparking which may cause explosions.
Staub, 1981, Vol.41, No.11, p.425-427. Illus. 2 ref.
Ignition of dust/air mixtures by static discharges
Entzündung von Staub/Luft-Gemischen durch Entladungen statischer Elektrizität [en alemán]
Factors conditioning various types of discharge (lightning-like and brush discharges) and the relevant energy levels are reviewed. Research is described on minimum energy levels required to ignite dust/air mixtures. In view of the difficulties of this type of research, the practical value of the results for explosion prevention purposes is questioned.
Staub, 1981, Vol.41, No.11, p.411-415. Illus. 22 ref.
Lord H., Davidson L.
Fault arc detection within flameproof enclosures
An electrical fault arcing across certain plastic insulating materials within a flameproof enclosure can render traditional flameproof protection ineffective. Discussion of the problem and description of a solution which has recently been developed. Experiments with several devices (light, smoke, heat and pressure detectors) showed that a bi-metal, bi-stable thermostat was the most suitable, small, simple, reliable and cheap device to apply a low level of earth leakage to one phase to cause the back-up protection to trip out, thus preventing ignitions in flameproof enclosures. Table of tripping times for this thermal detector (arc current 400A, open circuit voltage 400V, arc power 120kW).
Electrical Review, 23 Feb. 1981. (Available as reprint REE 0452. 1p. Illus.)
Measures for protection against too high contact voltages in low-voltage installations
Schutzmassnahmen gegen zu hohe Berührungsspannungen in Niederspannungsanlagen [en alemán]
Introductory and reference manual for electrical engineers, including the most recent developments and international recommendations in this field. Contents: electric current and its effects on the human body; emergency treatment following electrical accidents; the earth as a conductor of electric current; earthing installations; network systems; protection against direct contacts; protection against indirect contacts (e.g. double insulation, extra low voltage, protection by separation of circuits, protective conductor system, protective earthing, earthing to neutral, protection against fault voltage and against fault current); safety measures for special cases.
VEB Verlag Technik, Oranienburger Strasse 13-14, DDR-120 Berlin, 1981. 387p. Illus. 888 ref. Prix: M.26.00.
Premises in which workers are employed - Part 1: Low-voltage electrical installations, LNE circuits. Part 2: High-voltage electrical installations; special rules for EN and IN circuits
Locaux recevant des travailleurs - 1re partie: Installations électriques base tension, schéma TT - 2e partie: Installations électriques à haute tension; règles particulières aux schémas TN et IT [en francés]
Guide for the application of French standards and regulations on electrical installations. Part 1: general requirements for low-voltage installations (live, neutral and earth circuits); choice and design of conduits (circuits, conductors); protection of persons against direct and indirect contacts; choice and installation of equipment; checking installation. Part 2: rules and requirements for all high-voltage installations; installation on poles; stations above and below 250kVA; special rules for earthed-neutral and isolated-neutral circuits.
Promotelec, 52 Bd Malesherbes, 75008 Paris. France, 1981. 124p. and 98p. Illus. 30 ref.
Nikolić N.Lj., Petrović M., Mijailović M., Rančić A.
Basic principles of work organisation and occupational safety in the use of electricity
Osnovi organizacije rada i zaštita na radu pri upotrebi električne energije [en serbocroata]
This manual is intended for industrial workers and covers: work organisation (man-work relations, technology and working capacity, work measurement and standardisation, workplace design and layout, modern methods); occupational safety (definitions, Yugoslav regulations, subjective and objective causes of accidents, mechanical hazards and safety measures, fire safety); protection against electrical hazards (danger of direct contact and contact voltages, short circuits, static electricity, electric fields, electric arcs; explosion-proof electrical equipment; physiological effects of electric current; group safety measures and personal protection).
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu "Edvard Kardelj", Višegradska 33, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1981. 204p. Illus. 50 réf. Price: Din.350.
Biological effects of electric and magnetic fields. Summary of a literature survey
This study is in the form of a literature review: biophysical description of fields; biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (genetic effects; effects on cell growth and division; effects on animal fertility, growth and development; effects on blood system, hormone system, nervous system, biological rhythms, the behaviour patterns of animals, and on human well-being)); epidemiological investigations; cancer hazards; effects on implanted cardiac pacemakers.
Statens institutt for strålehygiene, Østerndalen 25, 1345 Østerås, Norway, 1981. 44p. 280 ref.
European Committee of Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colours Manufacturers' Associations
Safe powder coating
Sécurité des revêtements en poudre [en francés]
Safety recommendations on the electrostatic application of powder coatings: explosion hazard of powder/air mixtures; precautions to prevent accidental powder ignition; health hazards. Safety measures for the construction of plant and equipment: spray booths, tunnels, stores, high-voltage equipment, ventilation and waste-powder extraction installations. Recommendation on appliance control and maintenance, and for personal protection.
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