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  • Personal protection

2011

CIS 12-0251 Ceballos D.M., Fent K.W., Whittaker S.G., Gaines L.G., Thomasen J.M., Flack S.L., Nylander-French L.A., Yost M.G., Reeb-Whitaker C.K.
Survey of dermal protection in Washington State collision repair industry
This study investigated the personal and workplace factors associated with painters' dermal protection use during a large-scale exposure assessment. Survey data indicated that 69% of painters always used gloves, with latex gloves and nitrile gloves used most frequently. Among latex glove users, 53% used thin latex, 6% used medium latex and 12% used thick latex. Among nitrile glove users, 27% used thin nitrile and 45% used medium nitrile. Sixty-three percent of painters always used coveralls, 44% preferring one particular brand. Although overspray presents an opportunity for dermal exposure to the neck and face, only 19% of painters protected these areas with personal protective equipment. Exact logistic regressions along with random sample calculations indicated that the survey results were independent of the shops. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2011, Vol.8, No.9, p.551-560. 40 ref.
Survey_of_dermal_protection_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0338 Yoo I.G., Lee J., Jung M.Y., Lee J.H.
Effects of wearing the wrong glove size on shoulder and forearm muscle activities during simulated assembly work
This study was performed to determine the changes in electromyography activity in the shoulder and forearm muscles when using the bare hands, well-fitting gloves and gloves that are one size smaller or one size larger for simulated assembly operations. Sixteen asymptomatic seated workers with normal hands and no obvious deformities, skin diseases, or allergies were recruited and were asked to simulate assembly operations. It was found that wearing the wrong glove size led to a decrease in forceful activation of the forearm muscle and a compensatory increase in shoulder movement. In contrast, use of the bare hands or wearing well-fitting gloves led to effective forearm muscle activation, which decreased inefficient shoulder movement. These data indicate that wearing the wrong glove size will lead to continuous inefficient use of the forearm and shoulder muscles, and result in overuse of the shoulder.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.575-581. Illus. 24 ref.
Effects_of_wearing_the_wrong_glove_size_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 11-0851 Krzemińska S., Rzymski W.M.
Barrierity of hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butyl rubber after exposure to organic solvents
Resistance of chemical protective clothing primarily depends on its constituent materials, in particular on the type of polymer used for coating the fabric carrier. This article reports on systematic investigations on the influence of the cross-linking density of an elastomer and the composition of a cross-linked elastomer on its resistance to permeation of selected organic solvents. Tests of barrier material samples made from nonpolar butyl rubber (IIR) and polar hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (HNBR) showed that in rubber-solvent systems with medium thermodynamic affinity, cross-linking density influenced resistance to permeation and the polarity of the system had a significant influence on the barrier properties.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.1, p.41-47. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 11-0683 Blanco-Muñoz J., Lacasaña M.
Practices in pesticide handling and the use of personal protective equipment in Mexican agricultural workers
In this study, information was collected by means of questionnaires from 99 Mexican agricultural workers (35 women and 64 men) concerning sociodemographic data, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and risk perception. As expected, men handled pesticides more frequently than women (67% versus 20%). The workers carried out several agricultural tasks, used a great number of pesticide products (59 commercial brands of pesticides, 33 active ingredients, and 20 chemical families), used mostly manual application equipment, and showed a low rate of correct usage of PPE (2%) and insufficient levels of proper hygienic practices. In addition, storage of pesticide products and application equipment at home was frequent among this group of workers (42%), and provides a significant source of exposure for the workers' families. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd quarter 2011, Vol.16, No.2, p.117-126. 30 ref.

CIS 11-0722 Chou C., Tochihara Y., Ismail M.S., Lee J.Y.
Physiological strains of wearing aluminized and non-aluminized firefighters' protective clothing during exercise in radiant heat
This study examined the influences of aluminized and non-aluminized firefighters' protective clothing on physiological and subjective responses in radiant heat. Eight firefighters performed exercise at an air temperature of 30°C with 50%RH. Three bouts of 10 min-bicycle exercise in radiant heat (a globe temperature of 70°C) were spaced by a 10 min rest with no radiant heat. Results showed that rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, and body weight loss were significantly greater for the aluminized clothing than for all types of non-aluminized clothing. For the aluminized clothing, thermal gradient of the body reached 0.0 ± 0.7°C, heart rate showed a maximum level of 183 ± 11 bpm and 1.9% of body weight was lost due to sweat secretion. Firefighters felt the hottest and most discomfort in the aluminized clothing. It appeared that firefighters' thermoregulatory mechanism was severely challenged by wearing aluminized protective clothing during exercise in strong radiant heat. Therefore, it is suggested that the safe upper limits while wearing aluminized firefighters' clothing should be distinguished from those for typical firefighters' protective clothing.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.49, No.2, p.185-194. Illus. 35 ref.
Physiological_strains.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0414 Cabeças J.M., Milho R.J.
The efforts in the forearm during the use of anti-vibration gloves in simulated work tasks
The objective of this study was to analyze the levels of forearm muscular contraction associated with the use of anti-vibration gloves. Two vibrating tools (multi-cutter and rotary hammer) were used in a simulated work environment. Standard operations were performed by each of the 14 subjects using the two tools. Forearm muscular efforts were measured by surface electromyography (EMG) in four muscles: flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU). For the flexor muscles (FDS and FCU), a decrease tendency in the measured EMG was observed when the operations are performed with gloves relative to the bare hand (a reduction of 5-23% in the percentage of maximum voluntary exertion (%MVE)). For the extensor muscles (ECU), a tendency toward increased muscular contraction was observed when the operations were performed with gloves (an increase of 3-20% in the %MVE). No such tendency was found in the ECRL muscle. It is concluded that anti-vibration gloves may increase forearm fatigue in the posterior forearm (ECU muscle) and decrease forearm fatigue in the FDS muscle during operations with the vibrating tools.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.289-297. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 11-0176 Dolez P., Vu-Khanh T., Gauvin C., Lara J.
Effect of contaminants on the mechanical resistance of protective gloves - Preliminary analysis
Effet des contaminants sur la résistance mécanique des gants de protection - Analyse préliminaire [en francés]
In many industrial sectors, workers use protective gloves against mechanical hazards in the presence of contaminants such as oils or greases. Such contamination can, however, reduce the resistance of the gloves to mechanical hazards. This study was undertaken to evaluate the extent of this phenomenon on cut, puncture and tear resistance properties of a range of gloves after their contact with a series of industrial contaminants and to compare the results to measured values on new gloves. It also examines the effects of glove washing. Findings are discussed. The collected data will be incorporated into a protective glove selection guide currently being developed, which users can consult on the IRSST's web site.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. ix, 33p. Illus. 37 ref.
R-683.pdf [en francés]

CIS 10-0852 Rengasamy S., Miller A., Eimer B.C.
Evaluation of the filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 filtering facepiece respirators by photometric and number-based test methods
N95 particulate filtering facepiece respirators are certified by measuring penetration levels photometrically with a presumed severe case test method using charge neutralized NaCl aerosols at 85L/min. However, penetration values obtained by photometric methods have not been compared with count-based methods using contemporary respirators composed of electrostatic filter media and challenged with both generated and ambient aerosols. To understand the effects of particle charge and detection methods, penetration levels for five filtering facepiece respirators were measured using NaCl aerosols with the aerosol challenge and test equipment employed in the NIOSH respirator certification method, and compared with an ultrafine condensation particle counter method. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.23-30. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 10-0851 Gao P., Jaques P.A., Hsiao T.C., Shepherd A., Eimer B.C., Yang M., Miller A., Gupta B., Shaffer R.
Evaluation of nano- and submicron particle penetration through ten nonwoven fabrics using a wind-driven approach
This study focused on the design and characterization of a method for evaluating the performance of materials used in protective clothing. Ten nonwoven fabrics were selected, and physical properties including fiber diameter, fabric thickness, air permeability, porosity, pore volume and pore size were determined. Each fabric was sealed flat across the wide opening of a cone-shaped penetration cell that was then housed in a recirculation aerosol wind tunnel. The flow rate naturally driven by wind through the fabric was measured, and the sampling flow rate of the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer used to measure the downstream particle size distribution and concentrations was then adjusted to minimize filtration effects. Results show that particle penetration increased with increasing face velocity, and penetration also increased with increasing particle size up to about 300 to 500nm. Penetrations measured by the wind-driven method were lower than those obtained with the filtration method for most of the fabrics selected, and the relative penetration performances of the fabrics were very different due to the vastly different pore structures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.13-22. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 10-0850 Birkner J.S., Kovalchik S., Fung D., Hinds W.C., Kennedy N.J.
Particle release from respirators, Part II: Determination of the effect of tension applied in simulation of removal
This study evaluated the potential for disposable filtering facepiece respirators (hereafter termed masks) contaminated with 1μm particles to release particles as a result of lateral tension applied to the mask. The lateral tension was designed to simulate the removal of a contaminated mask from a user's head. Four brands of filtering facepieces were loaded with approximately 20 million 1.0μm polystyrene latex microspheres. The respirators were then placed in a test chamber and subjected to lateral tension between 17.8-26.7 for 1-2sec. Findings suggest that neither mask type nor loading condition affects particle release. This supports the hypothesis that when filtering facepiece respirators are properly removed from the head they will not release a significant number of particles. See also ISN 111322.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.10-12. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 10-0849 Birkner J.S., Fung D., Hinds W.C., Kennedy N.J.
Particle release from respirators, Part I: Determination of the effect of particle size, drop height, and load
In late 2001, some United States Postal Service workers and a few members of Congress were exposed to anthrax spores. This led to an increased effort to develop employable methods to protect workers from exposure to anthrax. This study evaluated the potential for several types of half-mask respirators to release deposited particles. Four brands of the most commonly used filtering facepiece respirators were loaded with 0.59μm, 1.0μm, and 1.9μm polystyrene latex microspheres and then dropped onto a rigid surface. The load conditions were 10, 20, or 40 million particles, and drop heights were 0.15, 0.76 and 1.37 m. Results of these tests were inconclusive. Part II (see ISN 111323) addresses the release of particles when simulating removal of a filtering facepiece from a wearer's head.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.1-9. Illus. 15 ref.

2010

CIS 12-0059 Guidelines for the use of personal protective equipment
These guidelines address good practices in the use of the following types of personal protective equipment: safety helmets; eye protectors; ear protectors; masks and respirators; protective gloves; safety belts; safety footwear; protective clothing.
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2010. 14p. Illus.
Guidelines_for_the_use_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0301 Guía para la selección y control de equipos de protección personal para trabajos con riesgo de caídas
Contents of this guide to the selection and control of personal protective equipment against the risk of falls: introduction; general considerations; selection of fall arresters; recommendations for the testing of fall arresters. Appendices include: treatment of suspension trauma; check-list of fall hazards at the place of work; marking; log sheet for periodical checks; glossary.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2010, 25p. Illus. 12 ref.
Guía_para_la_selección_y_control_(03)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en español]

CIS 12-0275 Guía para la selección y control de protectores auditivos
Contents of this guide to the selection and testing of hearing protection: introduction; objective; terminology; selection of hearing protectors; purchase of hearing protectors; reception and supply of hearing protectors; training; substitution: Appendices include: flowchart of factors to be considered in the selection of hearing protectors; examples of calculations of the sound attenuation factor; example of a checklist the selection of noise protectors.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2010, 27p. Illus.
Guía_para_la_selección_y_control_(01)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en español]

CIS 11-0829 Janssen L., McCullough N.V.
Elastomeric, half-facepiece, air-purifying respirator performance in a lead battery plant
This workplace protection factor (WPF) study of a half facepiece air-purifying respirator with P100 filters was done in a lead battery manufacturing plant. Paired air samples for lead were collected inside and outside respirators worn by workers who were properly trained and quantitatively fit tested. Of the 45 valid sample sets, only four had detectable lead on the inside sample. WPFs were calculated for these sample pairs by dividing the outside sample lead concentration (C(o)) by the inside concentration (C(i)). For the remaining 41 sample pairs, the detection limit for lead was used to calculate a maximum estimated C(i) concentration. The C(o) for each of these sample pairs was divided by the C(i) estimate to obtain a minimum WPF value. All the WPFs were rounded down to two significant figures, resulting in values ranging from 12 to over 2500. A rank and percentile procedure resulted in a 50th percentile WPF of 270 and a lower 5th percentile estimate of above 50. These WPFs exceed the assigned protection factor of 10 for half facepieces published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.46-53. Illus. 26 ref.
Elastomeric.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0859 Sierra Alonso S., Cáceres Amendáriz P., Pérez Formigo M.
Calzado y ropa de protección "antiestáticos"
This technical information sheet explains the degree of protection against static electricity provided by personal protective equipment, footwear, clothing and gloves, and proposes a set of guidelines for selecting these PPEs.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 16 ref.
NTP_887.pdf [en español]

CIS 11-0538 Calleja Vila A., Hernández Carracosa S., Freixa Blanxart A.
Operaciones de demolición, retirada o mantenimiento con amianto: ejemplos prácticos
This technical note describes three demolition, removal and maintenance operations of materials containing asbestos: the removal of a non-friable material not releasing asbestos fibers, such as asbestos-cement panels, together with two examples of work on brittle materials, namely the removal of insulation containing asbestos on the metallic structure of an office building and the repair of pipes with thermal insulation containing asbestos. It explains the precautions to be taken when entering and exiting the work areas and the personal protective equipment required to perform this work.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 6 ref.
NTP_862.pdf [en español]

CIS 11-0555 Nélisse H., Gaudreau M.A., Boutin J., Laville F., Voix J.
Study of sound transmission through hearing protectors and application of a method for evaluating their efficiency in the workplace - Part 1 - Field study (revised version)
Etude de la transmission sonore à travers les protecteurs auditifs et application d'une méthode pour évaluer leur efficacité en milieu de travail - Partie 1 - Etude terrain (version révisée) [en francés]
The method for evaluating the noise attenuation characteristics of hearing protectors is based on laboratory tests. However, many studies have shown that the actual effectiveness of this protective equipment is, more often than not, much lower than the results thus obtained. This study examined the time evolution of the performance of this equipment during one work shift, with 24 workers, in different sound environments, in Quebec, Canada. This mainly enabled them to develop a method for measuring the real effectiveness of earmuffs and moulded ear plugs, and then to compare it to measurements taken in the laboratory. Findings show protection values lower than those documented by the manufacturers (measured in the laboratory); for a given worker, the protection varies significantly in relation to the time during a work shift; the protection can vary greatly from one worker to the next but also from one ear to the other for a given worker. The developed attenuation index shows a high dependency on the frequency spectra of the ambient noise, thus highlighting the inadequacy of some hearing protectors at low frequencies and the importance of properly understanding the ambient noise so that a judicious choice of hearing protectors can be made.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. x, 95p. Illus. 49 ref.
R-662.pdf [en francés]

CIS 11-0406 Feola G., Binder C.R.
Why don't pesticide applicators protect themselves? Exploring the use of personal protective equipment among Colombian smallholders
The misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticide application was investigated among smallholders in Colombia. Findings suggest that the descriptive social norm was significantly influencing PPE use. The following were also important: having experienced pesticide-related health problems; age; the share of pesticide application carried out; the perception of PPE hindering work. Interestingly, the influence of these factors differed for different pieces of PPE. Since conformity to the social norm is a source of rigidity in the system, behavioural change may take the form of a discontinuous transition. Suggestions for triggering a transition towards more sustainable PPE use are formulated.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.16, p.11-23. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 11-0381 LaTourrette T.
The life-saving effectiveness of body armor for police officers
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of protective body armour on a police officer's risk of being killed and estimate the benefits and costs of outfitting police with body armour. In the United States, for the 262 cases of police being shot in the torso from 2004 to 2007, the study calculates the relative risk of death from a gunshot without and with body armour. The benefit of body armour is estimated using the willingness-to-pay approach and compares it with the cost of supplying armour to police not currently wearing armour. The results show that the relative risk of dying without armour is 3.4. Outfitting all police with armour would save at least 8.5 lives per year, resulting in a benefit that is nearly twice the cost, or a net benefit of approximately USD100/officer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2010, Vol.7, p.557-562. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 11-0215 Lemarié J.
Conservation-renovation: Protecting one's self for better protecting historical works of art
Conservation-restauration: savoir se protéger pour mieux protéger [en francés]
This article discusses occupational safety and health among renovators of works of art, ancient artefacts or historical monuments, who are exposed to various hazards: chemicals used in the renovation process; cramped or unsuited work areas, coupled with often awkward postures that involve onsite work; noise; lifting of heavy loads; work at height and risk of falls; stress resulting from urgent orders. The article emphasizes the importance of raising consciousness of the risks involved and informing workers.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2010, No.711, p.42-43. Illus.
Conservation-restauration.pdf [en francés]

CIS 11-0273 Balty I.
Respirators and protection against bioaerosols: What are the filtration media efficiencies?
Appareils de protection respiratoire et bioaérosols: quelle est l'efficacité des médias filtrants? [en francés]
Since the middle of the nineteen eighties, successive health hazards including tuberculosis, SARS, bioterrorism and influenza pandemics have lead scientists to study means of respiratory protection aimed at health care and other workers exposed to bioaerosols. This article reviews these research efforts and answers frequently-asked questions concerning the efficiency of respirators and the possible proliferation of microorganisms in these filters. It also reviews recent research on biocidal filters and inactivation processes for contaminated filters.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2010, No.221, p.41-49. Illus. 43 ref.
PR 46-221.pdf [en francés]

CIS 11-0220 Certin J.F.
Reducing the CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic) hazards: Follow-up of actions undertaken in enterprises
Réduction du risque CMR (cancérogènes, mutagènes et reprotoxiques): suivi des actions en entreprises [en francés]
This article consists of the full text of a guide aimed at occupational physicians for the follow-up of actions undertaken in enterprises to reduce the risk of exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances, including by means of substitution, collective protection measures and personal protection.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2010, No.121, p.111-118. Illus.
TP_9.pdf [en francés]

CIS 11-0116 Lara Laguna A.
Guantes de protección contra riesgos mecánicos
This information note concerns the classification, standards, testing and selection of protective gloves against abrasion, cuts, tears and punctures.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, ca. 2010. 4p. Illus. 10 ref.
NTP_882.pdf [en español]

CIS 10-0690 Medidas de seguridad en la manipulación de medicamentos tóxicos por personal de medicina veterinaria
Safe handling of hazardous drugs for veterinary healthcare workers [en inglés]
Veterinary healthcare employees working where hazardous drugs are handled may face health risks. Many of these workers treat small companion animals (primarily cats and dogs), but also larger animals such as horses, with antineoplastic and other drugs that may be hazardous to humans. This information note explains the hazards and the protective measures for veterinary healthcare workers exposed to hazardous drugs.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2010, USA, June 2010. 4p. 16 ref.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2010-150.pdf [en inglés]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2010-150.pdf [en español]

CIS 10-0369 Goh Y.M., Love P.E.D
Adequacy of personal fall arrest energy absorbers in relation to heavy workers
Despite the increasing weight of workers, most energy absorbers of personal fall arrest systems are only tested to 100 kg. This research aims to evaluate the capacity of fall arrest energy absorbers in relation to the weight of heavy workers, so as to provide recommendations for improvements to current fall arrest standards. A series of dynamic drop tests based on the Australian and New Zealand fall protection equipment standard were conducted. A total of 31 samples on seven types of energy absorbers were undertaken. The experiment simulated a worst credible scenario of a 3.8 m fall of a rigid mass which was connected using inelastic material. The capacity of each type of energy absorber was determined using the test mass that caused one or both of the following test criteria to be breached: at least two samples reached the maximum possible extension and at least two samples had the maximum arrest force exceeding 7 kN. The estimated capacities were then compared with the 95th percentile weight of worker working at height. The research demonstrates that most energy absorbers are not able to ensure that the two test criteria are not breached during the arrest of a heavy worker in the worst case scenario fall. It is recommended that the test mass stipulated in fall arrest standards should be revised and increased to accommodate the increasing weight of workers.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.747-754. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 10-0195
State Administration of Work Safety (SAWS), International Labour Organization (ILO), International Social Security Association (ISSA), International Association of Labour Inspection (IALI)
The 5th China International Forum on Work Safety - Speakers and abstracts
List of authors and abstracts of papers presented at a conference on occupational safety held in Beijing, China, from 31 August to 2 September 2010 (see ISN 110689).
National Center for International Cooperation on Work Safety, Room 409 Hepingli Beijie, Dongcheng District, Beijing, P.R. China, 2010. 216p. Illus.

CIS 10-0194
State Administration of Work Safety (SAWS), International Labour Organization (ILO), International Social Security Association (ISSA), International Association of Labour Inspection (IALI)
The 5th China International Forum on Work Safety - Proceedings
Transliterate Chinese title please [en chino]
Proceedings of a conference on occupational safety held in Beijing, China, from 31 August to 2 September 2010. Papers are grouped under the following headings: new practices and development of OSH; economic policies and investment in work safety; identification of potential risks in metallic and non-metallic underground mines; work safety promotion plans and promotion of new technologies in work safety; gas control in coal mines; disaster prevention, reduction and emergency rescue; risk assessment in mining companies; perfection of laws, regulation and standards in work safety; construction safety; safety evaluation and certification; on-site testing technologies of occupational hazards; corporate safety culture; OSH management in SMEs; new approaches of labor inspection; improvement of research and development capabilities and policies in work safety; technology development and application of personal protection equipments; training and education in work safety; monitoring of major hazards and treatment of hidden hazards.
National Center for International Cooperation on Work Safety, Room 409 Hepingli Beijie, Dongcheng District, Beijing, P.R. China, 2010. 691p. Illus.

CIS 10-0255 Stone tiles and decorative stones - A guide for importers, suppliers and tilers
Many tiles and decorative stones contain significant amounts of silica and other minerals that may pose serious health risks. This leaflet contains guidance on safe work procedures aimed at limiting workers' exposure to airborne silica and mineral dust (wet cutting methods, respirators, exhaust ventilation, cleaning and maintenance of work clothing).
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 2p. Illus.
http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/WorkSafe/PDF/Guides/importers_of_stone_tiles.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0241 Mostofi R., Wang B., Haghighat F., Bahloul A., Jaime L.
Performance of mechanical filters and respirators for capturing nanoparticles - Limitations and future direction
There is an increasing concern about the health hazards posed to workers exposed to nanoparticles by inhalation, which is the most common route of exposure. Filtration is the simplest and most common method of aerosol control. It is widely used in mechanical ventilation and respiratory protection. However, concerns have been raised regarding the effectiveness of the filters for capturing nanoparticles. This article reviews the literature on the filtration performance of mechanical filters and respirators against nanoparticles. It discusses filtration mechanisms, theoretical models, affecting factors of the filtration efficiency and testing protocols for respirator and filter certification.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.296-304. 63 ref.

CIS 10-0051 PPEs for each job
A chaque métier, ses EPI [en francés]
This article describes specific personal protective equipment used in façade renovation work for protecting the head, eyes, hands, knees, feet and body, as well as for hearing and respiratory protection.
Prévention BTP, Summer 2010, No.132 (special issue), p.46-91. Illus.

CIS 10-0050 PPE trends - Equipments that are more readily accepted by workers
Tendances EPI - Les équipements mieux acceptés des salariés [en francés]
This article presents an overview of personal protective equipment for the construction sector in France, and particularly for work on building sites.
Prévention BTP, Summer 2010, No.132 (special issue), p.6-9. Illus.

CIS 10-0087 Judson M.
Fit for life
Each year in the United Kingdom, 6000 new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed and 4000 deaths occur from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, due to occupational exposures. This article outlines the efforts being undertaken to address the thousands of deaths and cases of ill-health caused by airborne hazardous substances through a new scheme aimed at ensuring that respiratory protective equipment is fitted, worn and maintained in good condition.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 2010, Vol.28, No.1, p.54-56. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 09-1349 Klapötke T.M., Krumm B., Steemann F.X., Steinhauser G.
Hands on explosives: Safety testing of protective measures
Several attempts have been made to test the effectiveness of protective measures for the handling of explosives in laboratories. This study investigated safety gloves and a combined safety helmet and face shield. Experimental setups were used to simulate the effects of an explosion in a glass flask on the glove or helmet protected body. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.28-34. Illus. 25 ref.

2009

CIS 12-0279 Brueck L.
Health and Safety Executive
Real world use and performance of hearing protection
This report considers the effectiveness of hearing protectors in everyday work situations. The study reported here was undertaken in two parts. The first consisted of interviews with employers to discuss management of noise and hearing protector use, and on site observation of hearing protector use. The second part consisted of laboratory measurements of hearing protector insertion loss. The purpose of these measurements was to quantify the reduction in protection due to poor fitting or maintenance for a range of hearing protectors. Earmuffs were tested using the MIRE (microphone in real ear) method while earplug insertion loss was measured using a head and torso simulator with a simulated pinna and ear canal. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, ii, 69p. Illus. 1 ref.
Real_world_use_and_performance_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 11-0843 Grinshpun S.A., Haruta H., Eninger R.M., Reponen T., McKay R.T., Lee S.A.
Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particulate respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: Two pathways for particle penetration
The protection level offered by filtering facepiece particulate respirators and face masks is defined by the percentage of ambient particles penetrating inside the protection device. There are two penetration pathways, through the faceseal leakage and through the filter medium. This study aimed at differentiating the contributions of these two pathways for particles in the size range of 0.03-1 μm under actual breathing conditions. One N95 filtering facepiece respirator and one surgical mask commonly used in health care environments were tested on 25 subjects (matching the latest National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health fit testing panel) as the subjects performed conventional fit test exercises. The respirator and the mask were also tested with breathing manikins that precisely mimicked the pre-recorded breathing patterns of the tested subjects. The penetration data obtained in the human subject- and manikin-based tests were compared for different particle sizes and breathing patterns. Overall, 5250 particle size- and exercise-specific penetration values were determined. For each value, the faceseal leakage-to-filter ratio was calculated to quantify the relative contributions of the two penetration pathways. The number of particles penetrating through the faceseal leakage of the tested respirator/mask far exceeded the number of those penetrating through the filter medium. Because most of the penetrated particles entered through the faceseal, the priority in respirator/mask development should be shifted from improving the efficiency of the filter medium to establishing a better fit that would eliminate or minimize faceseal leakage.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, No.10, p.593-603. Illus. 20 ref.
Performance_of_an_N95.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0418 Griffin S.C., Neitzel R., Daniell W.E., Seixas N.S.
Indicators of hearing protection use: Self-report and researcher observation
This study compares workers' self-reported use of hearing protection with their observed use in three workplaces with two types of noise environments: one construction site and one fixed industry facility with a variable noise environment, and one fixed industry facility with a steady noise environment. Subjects reported their use of hearing protection on self-administered surveys and activity cards, which were validated using researcher observations. Good agreement was found overall between subjects' self-reported HPD use and researcher observations. Workers in the steady noise environment self-reported hearing protection use more accurately on the surveys than workers in variable noise environments. The findings demonstrate the potential importance of noise exposure variability as a factor influencing reporting accuracy.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, p.639-647. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 11-0105 Dolez P.I., Bodila N., Lara J., Truchon G.
Personal protective equipment against nanoparticles: What to choose?
Equipements de protection personnelle contre les nanoparticules: que choisir? [en francés]
The number of workers in contact with nanoparticles is rapidly increasing in Quebec and elsewhere. Given the current lack of knowledge of their effects on health, this article argues in favour of using efficient personal protective equipment against nanoparticles. Contents: human exposures to nanoparticles; Canadian occupational safety and health regulations applicable to nanoparticles; selection of personal protective equipment; respiratory protection; skin protection; conclusions.
Travail et santé, June 2009, Vol.25, No.2, p.44-49. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 10-0282 Groneberg D.A., van Mark A., Wicker S., Fischer A., Quarcoo D.
The new influenza (porcine influenza/swine flu): A synopsis of current information on influenza A/H1N1
Die neue Grippe (porzine Influenza/Schweinegrippe): Eine Zusammenfassung aktueller Informationen zu Influenza A/H1N1 [en alemán]
This article presents recent information on influenza A/H1N1 relevant for occupational health (clinical picture, diagnosis, compulsory declaration, protective measures, personal protective equipment, transport of patients, handling of corpses). A flow chart of the procedures to be followed in case of suspected porcine influenza in humans is also presented.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, May 2009, Vol.59, No.5, p.152-156. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 10-0171 Annual report 2008
Jahresbericht 2008 [en alemán]
Annual report of the German regulatory accident insurance (BGIA) for 2008. Contents: mission; work area (overall activities, chemical, biological and physical effects, ergonomics, personal protective equipment, accident prevention and product safety); international collaboration; information dissemination; lists of ongoing and completed research projects, contributions at conferences, publications and theses.
Institut für Arbeitsschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (BGIA), Alte Heerstr. 111, 52757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2009, 71p. Illus. Index.
Jahresbericht_2008.pdf [en alemán]

CIS 09-1074 Carmody M., Winder C.
Use of personal protective equipment in the wet cement trades in the NSW construction industry
This article presents observational data regarding the personal protective equipment (PPE) worn by 612 workers observed across 84 residential construction sites throughout the Greater Sydney, Australia, area during the 18 months leading up to the Sydney Olympic Games. Bricklayers, floorlayers, renderers and concreters demonstrated a greater than 60% level of compliance in the wearing of PPE. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.197-208. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 09-558 Crepy M.N.
Contact dermatitis caused by personal protective equipment (PPE)
Dermatites de contact aux équipements de protection individuelle (EPI) [en francés]
Occupational skin diseases caused by personal protective equipment (PPE) essentially consist of irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. Exposed occupations depend on the type of PPE used. This information note describes the types of PPE likely to cause contact dermatitis (gloves, shoes and boots, work clothing, diving equipment) and the responsible allergens. Aetiological diagnosis is based on anamnesis, clinical examinations and allergy tests. Collective prevention should make full use all of measures likely to reduce exposure, and the substitution of latex and the most common allergens in PPEs should be implemented wherever possible. Medical prevention is based on stopping all occupational and non occupational contact with the responsible allergens.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.117, p.89-103. Illus. 93 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TA%2081/22.06File/TA81.pdf [en francés]

2008

CIS 10-0274 National Code of Practice for precast, tilt-up and concrete elements in building construction
The National Code provides practical guidance for employers and employees on ways to effectively manage the risks associated with using tilt-up and precast concrete elements in building construction. Contents: introduction; duty holder responsibilities; risk management; design considerations; fabrication and casting; handling, storage and transport; erection process.
Safe Work Australia, GPO Box 641, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 2008. 89p. Illus.
http://safeworkaustralia.gov.au/AboutSafeWorkAustralia/WhatWeDo/Publications/Documents/245/CodeOfPractice_PrecastTiltUpandConcreteElementsBuildingConstruction_2008_PDF.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0264 Thomas R.
In the line of fire - Protecting emergency services personnel from feeling the heat
Using the case of a fire having erupted in an Australian winery, this article explains the importance of protecting firefighters and volunteers not only from the fire itself, but also from the release of dangerous substances and from the high level of heat radiated by the fire. The conclusions of the investigations carried out after the fire are discussed, including the importance of carrying out regular hazard evaluations, training workers in emergency procedures, storing hazardous substances in dedicated areas and making the layout of the premises available and clearly visible to firefighting personnel.
National Safety - The Magazine of the National Safety Council of Australia, Apr. 2008, Vol.79, No.3, p.16-23. Illus.

CIS 09-1152 Fukaya K., Uchida M.
Protection against impact with the ground using wearable airbags
This article presents three types of wearable airbag systems for protection against falls from heights, wheelchair overturns and falls on the same level. The systems consist of an airbag, sensor, inflator, and jacket. The sensor detects the fall and the airbag inflates to protect the user. Fall tests using dummies with and without the airbags demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices. In fall heights of less than 2m, the airbags reduced the impact acceleration. Head Injury Criterion values were under 1000, as per the auto-crash test requirement. The limits to the amount of protection afforded are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.59-65. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 09-594 Giannandrea F., Settimi L., Figà Talamanca I.F.
The use of personal protective equipment in pregnant greenhouse workers
The objective of this study was to determine the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among pregnant greenhouse workers in Italy and to identify risk factors related to the non-use of appropriate preventive measures. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to 232 Italian female greenhouse workers regarding their use of PPE and the outcomes of their first pregnancy. Although most pregnant women used at least one form of PPE while working, there were differences in rates of PPE use according to social status. Overall, the protection was inadequate in the south of Italy and among the less educated. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.52-57. 29 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/52 [en inglés]

CIS 09-314 Lastras González S., Fernández de la Monja V.I.
El médico del trabajo en el control del uso de equipos de protección individual y los problemas de la salud derivados
All workers are exposed to a number of risks, most of them preventable in a collective manner, but in cases where these measures are not sufficient, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) becomes necessary. These items are intended to be carried or worn by workers to protect them from risks that may threaten their safety or health in the workplace, but are however themselves also capable of creating their own effects on the safety and health of workers. For this reason, occupational physicians should monitor the health of workers, assessing the personal factors that might hinder the use of PPEs, inform and train workers on all matters relating to their use, choose the appropriate PPE for each worker and, above all, follow up to detect possible effects of the use of PPE, thus avoiding their nonuse.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.212, p.21-32. Illus. 10 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n212/especial2.pdf [en español]

CIS 09-151 MacFarlane E., Chapman A., Benke G., Meaklim J., Sim M., McNeil J.
Training and other predictors of personal protective equipment use in Australian grain farmers using pesticides
The objective of this study was to investigate patterns of use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce pesticide exposure in a sample of Australian farmers and also to assess possible predictive factors. A cross-sectional survey of 1102 farmers was conducted by means of a questionnaire. Up to 40% of the farmers reported routinely using no PPE at all when exposed to pesticides. In multivariate analyses PPE use appeared to be most strongly associated with younger age and farm chemical training. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.141-146. 33 ref.

CIS 09-122 Nicol A.M., Kennedy S.M.
Assessment of pesticide exposure control practices among men and women on fruit-growing farms in British Columbia
Exposure to pesticides can be reduced by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) or by implementing alternative pest control techniques, such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to explore the prevalence of these practices among a total of 380 men and women involved in fruit growing in British Columbia, Canada. Among the 119 workers who applied pesticides, 63% indicated that they usually wore PPE during application. Individual equipment use varied. Gloves were worn most frequently (84%), followed by a spray suit (77%) and breathing protection (75%). Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.217-226. 42 ref.

CIS 08-1184 Owczarek G.
Exposure of the eyes and face to mechanical hazards at the workplace - Personal protective equipment
Zagrożenia mechaniczne oczu i twarzy w miejscu pracy - Ochrony indywidualne [en polonés]
Topics addressed in this review article on personal protective equipment (PPE) for the eyes and face: definitions and characteristics of mechanical factors and hazards; groups of employees exposed to risks to their eyes and face; description of the types of PPE for the eyes and face; requirements with respect to equipment testing.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2008, No.2, p.10-16. Illus.

CIS 08-961 Constans Aubert A., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Pérez Nicolás J.
Utilización de los equipos de protección individual frente al riesgo biológico por el personal sanitario
The aim of this questionnaire survey was to examine the degree of use of personal protective equipment against biological hazards in health care centres in Spain. The survey shows that: 87% of the centres have implemented an occupational safety and health policy; approximately 75% claim to apply a management system for personal protective equipment; a large majority supply gloves, eye protection and respirators, and have specified rules for their use; more than 90% of the centres train their personnel on the use of PPEs and inform them on the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of equipment. Other findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.210, p.35-45. Illus. 19 ref.

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