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- Occupational exposure limits
Safety in the use of solvents - Harmfulness of solvents and "hazard indices"
La sécurité dans l'emploi des solvants - La nocivité des solvants et les "indices de risque". [en francés]
A solvent may be characterised by its ability to reach a maximum concentration in air more or less rapidly. This makes it possible to define a "hazard index" and to compare the various solvents according to the speed of reaching their respective threshold limit values. About 20 common solvents have been classified according to this criterion. The "hazard indices" confirm that high concentrations of toxic vapours in work premises are reached more rapidly by light solvents (benzene) than by heavy solvents (isophorone).
Revue de la protection, Mar. 1973, No.167, p.21-23. 4 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of acute and chronic health disorders due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 0.005 ppm (0.036 mg/m3); the concentration of TDI in air should not exceed 0.02 ppm (0.14 mg/m3) in any 20 min period. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices and control procedures, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of the standard; work practices. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of TDI in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HSM 73-11022, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 10852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 97 p. 84 ref. Price: US-$1.25.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to chromic acid.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases caused by exposure to chromic acid. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 0.05 mg of CrO3 per m3; the ceiling concentration is fixed at 0.1 mg/m3. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of chromic acid in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HSM 73-11021, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 83 p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: US-$1.10.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to toluene.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of acute and chronic health disorders due to toluene. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 100 ppm (375 mg/m3) and the ceiling concentration is fixed at 200 ppm (750 mg/m3). Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of toluene in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HSM 73-11023, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 99 p. Illus. 87 ref. Price: US-$1.25.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases caused by exposure to elemental arsenic and its inorganic compounds other than arsine and lead arsenate. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure should not exceed 0.05 mg As/m3 over a 40-hour week. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of arsenic in air and its determination in urine are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 105 p. Illus. 87 ref. Price: US-$1.25.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to elemental mercury, to its inorganic compounds and to its organic compounds other than ethyl and methyl mercury compounds. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 0.05 mg Hg/m3. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of the standard; work practices and sanitation; compatibility with emission standards. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of mercury in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HSM 73-11024, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 127 p. Illus. 153 ref. Price: US-$1.50.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of acute and chronic health disorders due to trichloroethylene. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 100 ppm, and the ceiling concentration is fixed at 150 ppm. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of trichloroethylene in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HSM 73-11025, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 103 p. Illus. 118 ref. Price: US-$1.30.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 10 Aug. 1973.
Maximum permissible concentrations of harmful substances in workplaces, 1973
Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe (MAK-Werte) 1973 [en alemán]
Definition and preliminary remarks on the importance and application of TLVs and ceiling values, on sensitisation and on cutaneous absorption. There is a list of some 330 substances, giving chemical formulae and concentration values in ppm and mg/m3. Appendices contain: enumeration of carcinogenic substances (no concentration is given); definitions and values for fine dusts (general, inert and fibrogenic - quartz and asbestos); cutaneous effects of organic peroxides.
Arbeitsschutz, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.366-373.
Imamura T., Ikeda M.
Lower fiducial limit of urinary metabolite level as an index of excessive exposure to industrial chemicals.
A discussion of the utilisation of the lower confidence limit (p=0.10), rather than the mean urinary metabolite level, as an index of excessive exposure to industrial chemicals. Cases of exposure to trichloroethylene, phenol and toluene are used to illustrate this approach.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1973, Vol.30, No.3, p.289-292. Illus. 21 ref.
Standards for chromic acid concentration in air for use with the Chromium Plating Regulations 1931 and 1973.
After referring to the requirements of the Chromium Plating Regulations regarding testing for chromic acid in air, control of vapour or spray at plating baths, and the Factories Act 1961 regarding reporting of cases of chrome ulceration, this note gives guidance on procedures to check the efficiency of control standards at plating baths. Short sections cover: threshold limit values (0.1 mg/m3 for chromic acid); maintenance of control standards; and medical supervision of employees. Appendices include: test method for the detection of chromic acid mist in air and notes on the availability of apparatus and reagents used in the test method.
Technical Data Note No.40, Department of Employment, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 3p. Illus. Gratis.
Criteria for hazardous exposure limits.
Topics discussed include: distinction between a state of health and one of potential ill health; evidence required to demonstrate absence of long-term contribution to chronic ill health; acceptable probability of occurrence of responses above established limits; special protection for workers who are particularly vulnerable because of chronic illness or other impairment.
Archives of Environmental Health, Oct. 1973, Vol.27, No.4, p.231-235. Illus.
Study of the biological effects of vanadium for the restriction of its concentration in environmental air
Zur biologischen Wirkung von Vanadin im Hinblick auf eine Immissionsbegrenzung [en alemán]
Review of the sources and industrial applications of vanadium. Bibliographic survey of the effects of vanadium in animals and man. An account of concentrations measured in environmental air and existing and proposed threshold limit values. The maximum atmospheric concentration proposed in Germany (0.001 mg/m3) is considered justified as regards hygiene and engineering.
Staub, July 1973, Vol.33, No.7, p.276-279. 29 ref.
Einbrodt H.J., Grussendorf J.
The harmful effects of kieselguhr in man
Kieselgur und ihre gesundheitsschädliche Wirkung beim Menschen [en alemán]
An account of the difficulty of setting a threshold limit value for kieselguhr and a review of the literature on the harmful effects of this substance. Results are given of microscopic, chemical, radiographic and spectroscopic analysis of dust isolated in the lungs of 3 workers in the kieselguhr industry. It is concluded that there is no similarity in the dust retention and the silicosis development found in the kieselguhr industry and that found in coal mines. A restriction of the air concentration of kieselguhr seems justifiable; however, this restriction should not be based on the TLV of quartz alone.
Staub, July 1973, Vol.33, No.7, p.273-276. 21 ref.
New dry-cleaning solvent
Ein neues Lösemittel für die Chemischreinigung [en alemán]
Presents a fluorinated hydrocarbon (FKW11, Dional, CCl3F) with a relatively low cost price and greater cleansing efficiency than trichloro-trifluoroethane (FKW 113). Its physical properties are given and compared with those of other solvents. Threshold limit value is fixed at 1,000 ppm; experimental studies did not reveal any organic disorder. Olfactory threshold and narcotic effects.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Oct. 1973, Vol.23, No.10, p.309-315. Illus. 8 ref.
Amendment to the mining instructions (No.67).
Ändring av berganvisningar (nr.67) [en sueco]
This amendment to the mining instructions (CIS 124-1970, Jpah (625)), entered into force on 1 Oct. 1973, specifies maximum permissible 30-min and 8-h concentrations for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and Diesel exhaust gases in underground mines. Concentrations of blasting fumes, engine exhaust gases and stone dust are to be kept as low as possible by adequate ventilation; the values measured must be recorded. A formula is given for calculating the volume of clean air required for diluting Diesel exhaust gases. There are appendices on measuring instruments for certain gases, continuous monitoring for Diesel exhaust gases and procedures for determining concentrations of harmful gases in air.
Meddelanden 1973:18, National Workers' Protection Board (Kungliga Arbetarskyddstyrelsen), Postfack, Stockholm 34, Sweden, 27 June 1973. 8p.
Main physical properties, uses, hazards to health, control measures, personal protective equipment and first aid. No TLV value has been established for the metallic dust; for titanium dioxide (an inert dust), the TLV is 10 mg/m3 (total dust with less than 1% α-quartz). The inhalation hazard is very slight. Titanium powder is highly pyrophoric; molten titanium burns in air and in pure carbon dioxide and pure nitrogen atmospheres. Titanium and its alloys can react violently with oxidisers. Titanium powders should be stored in water; adequate ventilation and lubrication should be provided during machining. Titanium dust collection ducts should not be connected to other ventilation systems.
Hygienic guide series, American Industrial Hygiene Association. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Akron, USA, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.275-277. 13 ref.
Hazucha M., Silverman F., Parent C., Field S., Bates D.V.
Pulmonary function in man after short-term exposure to ozone.
Normal subjects, smokers and non-smokers, were exposed to 0.37 or 0.75 ppm ozone for 2 h in an environmental chamber. 2 h of intermittent exercise in such atmospheres of ozone produced major changes in lung function. At higher concentrations of ozone, slightly greater effects were noted in smokers than in non-smokers, but at lower concentrations this difference was not evident. It is concluded that a concentration of 0.37 ppm ozone for a period of 2 h is unacceptably high if impairment of pulmonary function is to be avoided in a normal, active population.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep. 1973, Vol.27, No.3, p.183-188. Illus. 19 ref.
Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
Solvent naphtha and aromatic solvents
Solvants naphta et solvants aromatiques. [en francés]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 9 avenue Montaigne, 75008 Paris, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, Note No.861-72-72, p.389-393. 13 ref.
Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
Acrylonitrile. [en francés]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
Fiche toxicologique No.105, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 9 avenue Montaigne, 75008 Paris, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, Note No.860-72-72, p.383-387. 23 ref.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, USA.
Toxic substances list - 1973 edition.
This list includes 25,043 entries; approximately 11,000 main entries are accompanied by a description of the substance, information on its toxicity and references to existing USA standards and criteria documents, the remaining 14,000 entries being synonyms and cross-references. The specific data provided on the toxicity of each substance relate to: route of administration, animal species involved, type of exposure reported (e.g. lethal), dose which caused the toxic response (usually mg/kg or ppm), and body system affected. The bibliographical sources from which the toxicty data were extracted are all listed. The vast amount of information added to the 1973 edition (the 1972 edition listed 13,340 entries) is the result of a remarkable effort on the part of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and will be of immense value to industrial physicians, industrial hygienists, toxicologists and research workers. Absence of a substance from the list does not, however, imply that it is innocuous.
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, June 1973. 1001p. Price: US-$10.00.
Dunsky I.L., Fife W.A., Richey E.O.
Determination of revised Air Force permissible exposure levels for laser radiation.
A review of available data concerning biological eye damage caused by laser radiation has led to a reduction of the permissible exposure levels adopted in 1969 by the US Air Force. Exposure data for continuous-wave lasers and pulsed lasers are tabulated, and the corresponding ED50 (effective dose) values are given. A safety factor of 10 was chosen to allow for biological variation among subjects, extrapolation from rhesus monkeys to humans, etc. Revised permissible levels are given for lasers operating in the visible spectrum (400-700 nm) and for neodymium lasers (1060 nm).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.235-240. Illus. 16 ref.
Laser beams from the occupational health point of view
Laser in ihrer arbeitshygienischen Bedeutung [en alemán]
Recalls the principle of operation and applications of laser beams and discusses the hazards involved in their use, particularly eye and skin damage. Compares permissible exposure limits laid down by various institutions. Information concerning medical check-ups and counter-indications for work in a zone swept by a laser beam.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Mar. 1973, Vol.19, No.3, p.169-177. Illus. 36 ref.
The ocular ultraviolet action spectrum and protection criteria.
Human eyes were exposed to ultraviolet radiant energy over the range 220-310 nm in 10-nm waveband steps, and the action spectra compared with previously established rabbit and primate spectra. The human ultraviolet action spectrum extended from 220-310 nm. Human photokeratitis thresholds were also determined in this range; the 270-nm waveband was found to be the most dangerous in this connection, the corresponding threshold being 4.0 J/cm2. Formulas are presented for the calculation of safety criteria against ultraviolet radiation.
Health Physics, Dec. 1973, Vol.25, No.6, p.559-566. Illus. 20 ref.
Noise-induced hearing loss: The energy principle for recurrent impact noise and noise exposure close to the recommended limits.
Discusses the approach needed to confirm D.W. Robinson's energy principle as applying to noise exposure. Data are presented supporting the energy principle for exposure to recurrent impact noise and exposure corresponding closely to 2 recommended exposure limits: the British Occupational Hygiene Society's 1971 hygiene standard for wide-band noise (CIS 198-1972, Bik Qez (627)) specifying a maximum noise immission level for a working lifetime, and the U.K. Department of Employment's 1972 code of practice for reducing the exposure of employed persons to noise (CIS 2682-1972, Bik Qay Sgw (627)). Data from a previously published study of drop forgers (CIS 1921-1971, Bik Qay) are used to exemplify the method used. A discussion between the author and various experts is briefly reported.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.183-194. Illus. 14 ref.
Present state of development of measurement technique and evaluation of mechanical vibrations
Über den Stand der Messtechnik und der Bewertung mechanischer Schwingungen [en alemán]
Discusses briefly the points of application and directional characteristics of body vibrations to be taken into consideration in testing for mechanical vibrations at the workplace. Information is given briefly for persons operating the measuring instruments and concerning the instruments themselves. The evaluation criteria for whole-body and hand-arm vibrations, according to the German VDI directive 2057 and ISO standards, are compared in detail. As a consequence of closer relations between nations, compulsory international standards on vibration measurement are necessary.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, May 1973, Vol.23, No.5, p.138-143. Illus. 6 ref.
Threshold limit values and their psycho-physiological significance in noise control
Grenz- und Richtwerte in der Lärmbekämpfung und ihr psycho-physiologischer Aussagewert [en alemán]
Article discussing threshold limit values for noise established by examination of the ear and the neurovegetative system, followed by an account of recent findings of research on the psychosomatic effects of noise. These studies show that above 90 dB(A), effects recorded can no longer be considered as normal reactions to noise stimuli. This leads to the conclusion that health is endangered between 90 and 100 dB. The author proposes the substitution of a "threshold limit area" for "threshold limit value".
Kampf dem Lärm, June 1973, Vol.20, No.3, p.71-78. Illus. 9 ref.
Merchant J.A., Lumsden J.C., Kilburn K.H., O'Fallon W.M., Ujda J.R., Germino V.H., Hamilton J.D.
Dose response studies in cotton textile workers.
This study offered the opportunity to observe biological effects in a large working population over a wide range of dust exposure. The primary objectives were to evaluate the vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler and to develop dose-response relationships to help establish the safe level of exposure to lint-free cotton dust. The vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler has, over a period of 2 years, proved to be a durable, practical instrument.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1973, Vol.15, No.3, p.222-230. Illus. 25 ref.
Prevention of asbestosis
Forebyggelse av asbestose [en noruego]
These rules made under the Norwegian Workers' Protection Act of 1956 deal with: compulsory notification of asbestosis; hazards of asbestos handling and processing (threshold limit values, definitions of asbestos and asbestosis, operations involving asbestos hazards); preventive measures (age limit for asbestos exposure: 18 years; substitution by harmless and less harmful substances; enclosure of dusty processes; dust control; washing facilities, etc.); inspection; medical examinations; briefing of exposed workers.
Verneregler Nr.5, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Directoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, 20 Feb. 1973. 7p.
The development of gravimetric dust threshold values
Entwicklung zu gravimetrischen Staubgrenzwerten [en alemán]
Results of British and German studies of dust threshold limit values are given, and the danger of fine dust in relation to quartz content as well as the respective TLVs are discussed. The TLV for quartz-containing respirable dust of 4.0 mg/m3 is based on results of epidemiological research in bituminous coal mines in the enlarged European Community. The TLV for respirable quartz dust of 0.15 mg/m3 applies only when the quartz content exceeds 5% by weight. The basis of a measuring method for the determination of dust exposure (measurements at the worker's face or at fixed points in the plant) is then considered. Thanks to the switch to gravimetric dust measurement in German coal mines, there is now the possibility for comparison with other countries.
Glückauf, 24 May 1973, Vol.109, No.11, p.574-579. Illus. 14 ref.
Acceptable concentrations of hydrogen sulfide.
This standard, sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association and approved on 14 Aug. 1972, provides information for the recognition, evaluation and control of occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide. Sections cover: chemical, physical and toxic properties of hydrogen sulfide and its occurrence; acceptable concentrations (maximum peak exposure, 50ppm for 10min; ceiling concentration, 20ppm; time-weighted average (8-h working day), 10ppm); sampling procedures and analytical methods.
ANSI Z37.2-1972, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 1972. Standard approved 14 Aug. 1972. 8p. 12 ref. Price: US-$2.50.
Ivanova-Chemishanska L., Kaloyanova F., Izmirova N., Zlateva M., Valcheva V.
Experimental inhalatory toxicity and substantiation of the maximum allowable concentration for some dithiocarbamates in the air of the working area.
Results of animal experiments carried out with a view to assessing the inhalation toxicity of zineb, maneb and mancozeb, and to establishing threshold limit values for long-term exposure. Toxic effects consisted of inflammatory, and sometimes ulcerative, changes in the trachea, inflammatory vascular damage to the lung which sometimes degenerated into emphysematous and atelectatic changes, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic changes (severity according to concentration). Maneb and mancozeb, which contain manganese, have a more severe toxic action on the respiratory tract and other parenchymatous organs than zineb. The following threshold limit values are recommended: 1mg/m3 for zineb; 0.4mg/m3 for maneb; 0.5mg/m3 for mancozeb.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.55-64. Illus. 14 ref.
Portable power tools - Permissible vibration levels
Mašiny ručnye - Dopustimye urovni vibracii [en ruso]
This standard, which entered into force on various dates between 1 July 1972 and 1 Jan. 1975 for various types of portable power tools (pneumatic picks, mine drills, portable grinders, nut runners, etc.), prescribes the permissible vibration velocities in m/s and effective levels in dB for 9 octave bands from 8 to 2,000Hz. It also stipulates that the force applied by the operator on the tool should not exceed 200N (20kg), and that portable power tools should not weigh more than 100N (10kg).
GOST 17770-72, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 1 July 1972. Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-22, USSR. 3p. Price: Rbl.0.16.
Acceptable concentrations of inorganic mercury and non-alkyl organo compounds.
This American National Standard applies to elemental mercury vapour, to inorganic compounds of mercury and to all organic compounds of mercury except alkyl mercury compounds. The acceptable time-weighted (8h) average concentration for mercury in air is fixed at 0.05mg/m3. Sections are devoted to: properties of mercury and its compounds, acceptable concentrations, sampling procedures and analytical methods.
ANSI Z37.8-1972, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 18 Apr. 1972. 8p. 16 ref. Price: US-$2.50.
Bojcov A.N., Rotenberg Ju.S., Mulenkova V.G.
Toxicological evaluation of chloral liberated during spraying and moulding of polyurethane foam
Evaluation toxicologique du chloral libéré lors du pistoletage et du coulage de mousses de polyuréthane. [en francés]
French translation of: K voprosu o toksikologiceskoj ocenke hloralja v processe ego vydelenija pri napylenii i zalivke penopoliuretanov. Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Moskva, USSR, June 1970, Vol.14, No.6, p.26-29. 2 ref. Occupational hygiene studies carried out during the application of certain polyurethane foams used for insulation, etc. disclosed that, in addition to isocyanates, tertiary amines, etc., chloral (CCl3CHO) also was given off during spraying or moulding. Chloral readily combines with water and water vapour to form chloral hydrate which is known to be acutely toxic (LD50=710 mg/kg, LC50=32 mg/l). Study of the toxic properties of chloral hydrate in cases of chronic exposure has shown that a concentration of 0.06 mg/l is already toxic and that a concentration of 0.02 mg/l is very close to the threshold limit value. The authors recommend that the ceiling value for chloral in air be fixed at 10 mg/m3.
Translation INRS 123 B-72, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1972. 9p. 2 ref.
Laboratory waste disposal manual.
This revised edition covers some 1,200 chemical compounds. The following data are set out for each compound in chart form under the headings: name and chemical formula; waste disposal procedure (according to an appended classification); threshold limit values; numerical identification of fire, health and reactivity hazards (according to the National Fire Protection Association classification); specific gravity, vapour density, flash point, ignition temperature, flammability or explosivity limits in air, boiling point, melting point, solubility in water, other solvents; bibliographical references. The disposal procedure charts indicate for each chemical group: protective equipment to be worn, treatment of spills, packaging instructions and examples of the substances in the group. Similar information is given for recovery procedures.
Manufacturing Chemists Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, USA, Nov. 1972. 176p. 41 ref. Price: US-$3.50.
The accuracy and precision of the Kusnetz method for the determination of the working level in uranium mines
A re-assessment of the method which is in general use in the USA to determine the working level in underground uranium mines, following the establishment of a new, lower standard for the annual accumulated dose due to airborne radon daughters. In the majority of cases, the Kusnetz method (which is described in the paper) will under-estimate the actual working level of "young" air in a uranium mine atmosphere (i.e., of a mixture of air, radon and radon daughters where the radon daughters RaA, RaB and RaC have had little time - compared to their half lives - to grow to their equilibrium values).
Health Physics, July 1972, Vol.23, No.1, p.106-109. 2 ref.
Permissible levels of exposure to hazardous agents in industry
A general review of the principles underlying the study and practical determination of dose-response curves and threshold limit values. A diagram illustrates the joint use of impairment-disability and dose-response curves to clarify the physiological meaning of different criteria for establishing threshold limit values. The contrasting views held in the USA and the USSR are briefly discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1972, Vol.14, No.2, p.134-137. Illus. 7 ref.
Guidelines for experiments to predict the degree of safety of a material for man
A questionnaire survey was conducted among toxicologists and pharmacologists on the basis of a statement proposing 5 guidelines believed to be valid and applicable to animal experiments for predicting the degree of safety of a material for man. 66 replies were received and evaluated. Revised guidelines are proposed. There was unanimous agreement that effects obtained by one route of administration to test animals were not a priori applicable to effects by another route of administration to man.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1972, Vol.21, No.2, p.194-199. 3 ref.
TLV - MAC - ceiling limits - ambient air quality standards - in the USA
A review of different concepts of maximum concentrations in the USA is followed by a survey of the history behind these standards. Definition of each type of standard and practical application.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1972, Vol.24, No.2-3, p.83-86. 7 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to beryllium
Recommendations are made for the control of occupational exposures to beryllium and its compounds. The time-weighted average exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 2µg/m3, and the peak concentration should not exceed 25µg/m3. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information to employees, operating procedures, sanitation and monitoring. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: properties and sources; biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of the standard; compatibility with emission standards. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of beryllium in air are given in an appendix. Numerous tables provide additional useful information.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852, USA, 1972. 128p. Illus. 117 ref.
Various concepts of maximum allowable concentrations of toxic substances in the workplace air
Některé koncepce nejvýše přípustných koncentrací toxických látek v průmyslovém ovzduší [en checo]
Following a review of the American and Soviet definitions of maximum allowable concentration and threshold limit value (in particular, the new official Soviet definition of 1971), the author deals with the question of the harmlessness of concentrations considered allowable. He discusses the definition of health (or normal status) as it is understood East and West and gives examples taken from international publications which show that chronic exposure to harmful substances (lead, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide) at concentrations lower than the American threshold limit values may, over the long-term, result in organic lesions (e.g. arteriosclerosis) or aggravate existing lesions.
Pracovní lékařství, 1972, Vol.24, No.5, p.185-187. 10 ref.
Substantiation of maximum permissible levels of infrared radiation in the radiant heating of workplaces
Gigieničeskoe obosnovanie dopustimyh urovnej infrakrasnogo oblučenija pri lučistom otoplenii proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [en ruso]
Physiological reaction to radiant heaters with a radiation energy of 30-40kcal/m2 h at air temperatures of 14-16°C and of 50-60kcal/m2 h at 10-13°C, and body function of persons working in radiant heated premises were studied to determine maximum levels of infrared radiation to the head. The radiation intensities and temperatures did not lead to abnormal physiological or functional changes. These values are therefore proposed as preliminary maximal permissible levels.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1972, Vol.37, No.4, p.30-34. 7 ref.
Ljarskij P.P., Pavlovskaja N.A., Kapitanov J.T.
Determining maximum allowable concentrations for 232Th compounds and natural thorium in workplace air
Normirovanie nerastvorimyh soedinenij Th232 i estestvennogo torija v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [en ruso]
Having discussed the measurements necessary for calculating maximum allowable concentrations (effective energy, effective decay constants, etc.), which are obtained partly from the literature and partly from experiments, the authors calculate the maximum allowable mean annual concentration and the maximum allowable uptake of 232Th-compounds and natural thorium in the form of insoluble aerosols (1.04 x 10-14Ci/L or 2.6 x 10-2Ci/year for compounds and 0.25 x 10-14Ci/L or 0.63 x 10-2Ci/year for natural thorium at a mean aerodynamic diameter of 1µm related to particle mass) and compare these results with the values recommended in the Soviet radiation protection standard of 1969. Since the latter figures are between 1.5 and 3.7 times higher, the authors consider that a revision is not required.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1972, Vol.37, No.4, p.64-68. 9 ref.
Substances hazardous to health - Toxicological and occupational medical foundation of MAC values
Gesundheitsschädliche Arbeitsstoffe - toxikologisch-arbeitsmedizinische Begründung von MAK-Werten [en alemán]
This collection of material, published in loose-leaf form and in a plastic folder by the Hazardous Industrial Substances Testing Committee of the German Research Association, contains literature surveys for 39 chemicals and for fine particulate quartz. It is intended to include only those industrial substances widely used in the Federal Republic of Germany. The documentation for each substance covers toxicological data, human experience, animal experimental findings and the arguments that led the Committee to establish the MAC values. Attention is drawn to gaps or defects in the documentation.
Verlag Chemie GmbH, Postfach 129/149, 694 Weinheim/Bergstrasse, Federal Republic of Germany, 1972. 220p. 997 ref.
Data for substantiating the maximum allowable concentration for aniline
Materialy po obosnovaniju sniženija predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii anilina v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Fifty-eight employees in a diphenylamine-production plant were observed for a year; the aniline concentration was monitored and it was found that over a 6-year period this concentration was below the Soviet MAC of 3mg/m3. The majority of the exposed workers presented neurological changes (vegetative disorders, disturbed conditioned reflexes and changes in vibration sensitivity, deviations in temporal artery pressure). 51% of exposed workers presented vegetative vascular dystonia or neurasthenia (in comparison with 27.2% in a control group). The main laboratory findings are tabulated. Long-term animal experiments with 3mg/m3 aniline also indicated the harmfulness of this concentration. The threshold value for chronic aniline poisoning was found to be 0.3mg/m3, and the authors recommend that the Soviet MAC should be reduced to 0.1mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1972, Vol.37, No.5, p.31-35. 3 ref.
Microwave exposure safety standards - Physiologic and philosophic aspects
A general review of the thermal effects of exposure to microwaves is followed by a brief discussion of exposure standards in the USA, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc. It is concluded that the existing US standard (10mW/cm2) should be retained, pending the availability of more accurate means of dosimetry and additional data concerning possible non-thermal effects.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.156-164. 34 ref.
AIHA-ACGIH Aerosol Hazards Evaluation Committee statement
At ist annual meeting held on 15 May 1972, the Aerosol Hazards Evaluation Committee established jointly by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) adopted and issued a statement emphasising that threshold limit values (based on 8h time-weighted average concentrations) should not be used as exact dividing lines between safe and unsafe work conditions. In view of the limited accuracy of current air sampling procedures, the temporal variability of environmental concentrations and the extrapolation of sampling data, the TLVs should be construed as guidelines and not as absolute standards.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1972, Vol.33, No.8, p.510.
Concepts of thresholds in standards setting
A discussion of the premises on which the concept of threshold of toxicological response is based, confined to chemical substances in the air of workplaces, for which the threshold concept is represented by a non-linear relationship between dose and initial response. The metabolic factors governing toxicological response - particularly homeostasis and adaptation, are reviewed. The precautions to be observed in establishing threshold limit values for man in industry are discussed at some length (heterogeneity of the human species, synergistic factors - alcohol drinking, smoking, dietary habits, predisposing diseases, etc.).
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep. 1972, Vol.25, No.3, p.153-157. Illus. 5 ref.
Kommission zur Prüfung gesundheits-schädlicher Arbeitsstoffe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Maximum allowable concentrations of harmful substances at the workplace (MAC values), 1972
Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe (MAK-Werte) 1972 [en alemán]
The list of MAC values decided upon on 21 May 1972 to replace the 1971 values abstracted on CIS 72-538. Preliminary remarks deal with the definition and application of maximum allowable concentrations. Particular reference is made to skin absorbtion, sensitization and carcinogenic hazards. Around 460 substances are listed together with their chemical formulae and their MAC values in ppm and mg/m3. Few values have been changed in comparison with the 1971 list. The appendix contains special comments on organic peroxides, classification of skin effects, turpentine oil, inert dusts, fine particular quartz, carcinogenic substances and gasoline.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Oct. 1972, Vol.22, No.10, p.301-312.
Kagan Ju.S., Sasinovič L.M., Ovseenko G.I.
Computer analysis of toxicity and accumulation indices, and their correlation with the determination of maximum permissible atmospheric concentrations of pesticides
Ispol'zovanie korreljacionnogo analiza pokazatelej toksičnosti i kumuljacii dlja gigienečeskogo normirovanija pesticidov v vozduhe rabočej zony (s primeneniem ėlektronno-vyčislitelnyh mašin) [en ruso]
Results of investigations into the correlations between indices of toxicity and accumulation of pesticides, on the one hand, and their atmospheric threshold limit values (TLV), on the other. In the case of close correlations, regression equations were used; 6 equations are suggested for a closer determination of TL for different degrees of toxicity. Normograms are given for reading off approximate TLV values without calculation.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1972, Vol.16, No.8, p.21-25. Illus. 11 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide
Recommendations are made for the control of occupational exposure to carbon monoxide. The time-weighted average exposure (8h) should not exceed 35ppm, and the ceiling concentration 200ppm. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, emergency procedures, information of employees, work practices and monitoring. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of he standard; compatibility with air quality standards. Procedures for the sampling of CO in air and the analysis of carboxyhaemoglobin and additional useful information are given in appendices.
National Institute for Occuaptional Safety and Health, 5600 Fischers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852, USA, 1972. 132p. Illus. 129 ref.
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