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- Occupational exposure limits
Data for the establishment of the threshold limit value for aerosols of mineral oils without additives used as cutting fluids
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii aėrozolja neftjanyh masel bez prisadok, primenjaemyh v kačestve smazočno-ohlaždajuščih židkostej [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments. Cutting oil aerosols (concentrations of 60, 30 and 13mg/m3) have toxic effects on the function of various organs and systems and reduce immunological reactivity in animals. Since a concentration of 13mg/m3 produces supraliminal effects, the author recommends the adoption of a threshold limit value of 5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.49-52. 6 ref.
Tarasenko N.Ju., Spasskij S.S., Šubočkin L.N.
Establishment of a threshold limit value for cerium dioxide in the workplace air
Gigieničeskoe normirovanie aėrozolja dvuokisi cerija v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments to determine the effects of chronic inhalation of cerium dioxide aerosols (concentrations of 10 and 50mg/m3) on gas exchange, liver function and the respiratory system. The concentration of 10mg/m3 gives rise to borderline effects, so that the authors recommend a threshold limit value of 5mg/m3. They further recommend the adoption of technological measures (continuous manufacture, hermetic enclosure, automatisation, ventilation) to prevent atmospheric pollution of the workplace when metals of the rare earths group are being processed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.29-32. Illus. 11 ref.
Maksimov G.G., Dubinina O.N.
Experimental basis for a threshold limit value for monochloroacetic acid in the workplace air
Materialy ėksperimental'nogo obosnovanija predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii monohloruksusnoj kisloty v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments (rats). The authors observed that monochloroacetic acid (MCA) not only affects the respiratory system, but also acts by percutaneous absorption, having a strong irritant action on the skin. Prolonged inhalation of MCA vapours leads to weight loss, reduced oxygen consumption, haemoglobinaemia and inflammatory changes of the respiratory tract. The authors recommend a threshold limit value for MCA of 1mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.32-35. 16 ref.
Acceptable concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (fluorocarbon 12).
This standard sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association contains sections devoted to: properties of dichlorodifluoromethane, acceptable concentrations, sampling procedures and analytical methods. The acceptable concentrations are set as follows: 1,000ppm for the time-weighted average concentration for 8h exposures; 2,500ppm for the ceiling concentration in any 8h period; 10,000ppm for the maximum peak concentration for a period not exceeding 30min (once in a shift).
ANSI Z37.38-1974, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved 12 Nov. 1973. 8p. 18 ref. Price: US-$3.00.
Maximum allowable workplace concentrations 1974
Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen 1974 [en alemán]
Definition of the TLV and introductory remarks, concerning the scope and usefulness of this concept, limits exceeded, allergic symptoms and percutaneous absorption. List of some 300 substances with chemical formula and TLV in ppm and mg/m3. Certain TLVs have been modified in comparison with the 1973 list, and a value is no longer indicated for vinyl chloride on account of the carcinogenic effect of this substance. This brochure also gives information on carcinogens, dusts, peroxides, petrol and turpentine.
Mitteilung X, Committee for Testing Harmful Industrial Substances, German Research Centre (Kommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), Kennedyallee 40, 53 Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 14 June 1974. 41p. Price: DM.6.00.
Viklund B., Lindberg B.
Liver tumour in vinyl chloride workers - Drastic reduction of threshold limit value in 1974
Levercancer hos vinylkloridarbetare - Kraftig sänkning av gränsvärdet i år [en sueco]
An account of the latest findings concerning the carcinogenic action of vinyl chloride and the standard for occupational exposure to vinyl chloride recommended by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is followed by considerations on exposure other than in the plastics industry (insecticide sprays, cosmetics). While the American TLV was lowered from 200 to 50ppm on 5 Apr. 1974, the Swedish TLV was lowered from 500 to 20ppm (allowing for a 15min ceiling value of 50ppm) a few weeks later. The question is raised as to whether polyvinyl chloride sets free dangerous amounts of vinyl chloride during conversion or use.
Arbetsmiljö, 1974, No.8, p.24-25. Illus.
Bajkov B.K., Gorlova O.E., Gusev M.I., Novikov Ju.V., Judina T.V., Sergeev A.N.
Determination of the maximum allowable concentration, time-weighted for a day, of propyl and isopropyl alcohols in the air
Gigieničeskoe normirovanie srednesutočnyh predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij propilovogo i izopropilovogo spirtov v atmosfernom vozduhe [en ruso]
Results of physiological, biochemical, haematological and pathomorphological studies in animals. Propyl and isopropyl alcohols can reach concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6mg/m3, respectively, over 24h without having noxious effects on conditioned reflexes, blood enzyme activity, blood nucleic acid levels, etc. The authors recommend that these levels be adopted as maximum allowable concentrations.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.6-13. Illus. 4 ref.
Christensen H.E., Luginbyhl T.T., Carrol B.S.
Toxic substances list - 1974 edition.
42,000 listings of chemical substances (13,000 different chemicals, 29,000 synonyms and cross-references) with detailed toxicity data - toxic dose, route, species exposed, type of exposure reported (e.g. lethal), dose causing the toxic response (usually mg/kg or ppm), body system affected - with reference to bibliographical sources from which the toxicity data were extracted. 5,000 new substances have been included since the 1973 list. Occupational safety and health standards in force in the USA (air contaminants, asbestos, carcinogens, vinyl chloride, pesticides, requests for health hazard evaluation) are appended. The new edition also incorporates the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN) of chemical names with a full explanation of the system.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)74-134, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA, June 1974. 904p. Price: US-$10.00.
Set the threshold limit value at zero! A technique will be found
Sätt gränsvärden till noll! Tekniken finns [en sueco]
The author criticises the application of TLVs which still imply a great deal of uncertainty for the exposed worker. Although the definition of these values has been improved in the 1974 Swedish TLV list, it is legally still very difficult for a worker to claim compensation for overexposure to a harmful substance. As it is technically possible to lower the concentration of air pollutants to 0.000004ppm, which corresponds to the clean-room conditions necessary for handling certain products, the author suggests setting TLVs at zero. He also stresses the fact that the cost involved in protecting valuable products is 2-4 times higher than that required to protect workers exposed to harmful pollutants.
Arbetsmiljö, 1974, No.12, p.20-21.
Directives concerning threshold limit values for air pollutants at the workplace
Anvisningar om hygieniska gränsvärden för luftföroreningar på arbetsplatsen [en sueco]
These directives, which entered into force on 1 Jan. 1975, supersede the threshold limit values recommended by the Swedish Institute of Occupational Health in 1969. The present TLV list contains about 120 substances (against 76 in the old list). The TLVs for about 30 substances have been lowered (e.g. for arsenic, motor spirit, cadmium and certain solvents). A temporary TLV set for vinyl chloride in spring 1974 has been lowered from 20ppm to 1ppm. Carcinogens have been listed separately and divided into 2 categories: 6 substances which should on no account be used in occupational activities, and a number of substances which may be used only subject to special regulations issued by the Swedish Directorate of Labour Inspection. (A translation into English is available).
Anvisningar nr.100, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Stockholm, Nov. 1974. Liber Förlag, Fack, 16210 Vällingby, Sweden. 17p. Price: Swe-cr.6.20.
Maximum permissible concentrations: Are standpoints shifting?
Maximaal aanvaardbare concentraties: verschuiving van standpunten? [en holandés]
Review of recent US and USSR literature which shows that the gap between the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' approach to the setting of threshold limit values (TLVs) and the Soviet approach to the establishment of maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) has narrowed. Whereas more attention is now paid to nuisance effects and to influences on the nervous system and behaviour in the USA, the USSR Research Co-ordinating Committee for MACs no longer considers any effect as unallowable in itself but distinguishes between "effects" and "harmful effects". The differences in approach are tabulated.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 26 July 1974, Vol.52, No.15, p.529-531. 13 ref.
Technical Data Note 2/73, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London.
Threshold limit values for 1973.
This note reproduces, as a guide, the list of threshold limit values (TLVs, expressed in ppm or mg/m3) adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists in 1973 for over 500 hazardous substances which may be absorbed in the form of dust or fume in workroom air. A preface discusses briefly chemical contaminants, advantages and disadvantages of ceiling as against time-weighted average limits, nuisance particulates as opposed to fibrogenic dusts, short-term limits, biologic limit values, asphyxiants, etc. TLVs for mineral dusts, notice of intended changes in the list (especially carcinogens), mixtures, some nuisance particulates, some inert gases and vapours (simple asphyxiants), etc. are appended. Lower TLVs for some of these substances are recommended for the U.K. (in particular for asbestos and vinyl chloride).
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1, United Kingdom, 1974. 18p. 26 ref. Gratis.
Thomsen H.K., Kjeldsen K.
Threshold limit for carbon monoxide-induced myocardial damage - An electron microscopic study in rabbits.
Rabbits were exposed to carbon monoxide at varying concentrations and for varying lengths of time in order to estimate the threshold limit value for myocardial damage. Degenerative changes were seen in rabbits exposed for more than 4h to CO concentrations higher than 100ppm. This high sensitivity of the myocardium to CO is explained by the combination of the binding of CO to myoglobin and the prevailing low oxygen tension in the normal myocardium. The study suggests that the CO content in tobacco smoke and in polluted air may be deleterious to persons with ischaemic heart disease. A reevaluation of the recommended threshold limit for industrial CO exposure is proposed.
Archives of Environmental Health, Aug. 1974, Vol.29, No.2, p.73-78. Illus. 21 ref.
Zaeva G.N., Ordynskaja N.N., Dubinina L.I., Osipenko N.I., Ivanov V.N.
Establishing a maximum allowable concentration for pyrrolidine in the atmosphere of work premises
Obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii pirrolidina v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Results of animal research (acute, subacute and chronic exposures) aimed at determining the toxicity and gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of pyrrolidine. This substance is easily absorbed through the skin. A threshold limit value of 0.1mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1974, No.2, p.29-32. Illus. 9 ref.
Review of the toxicity of long-term phosgene exposure.
From the evaluation of available data concerning phosgene exposure, it is estimated that the current threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.4mg/m3 or 0.1ppm, adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, may not be sufficiently safe. It should be less than 0.08mg/m3 for a daily 8-h exposure of workers and less than 0.0025mg/m3 for the general population subject to a 24h/day exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, May 1974, Vol.28, No.5, p.272-275. 14 ref.
Ratney R.S., Wegman D.H., Elkins H.B.
In vivo conversion of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide.
The threshold limit value for methylene chloride (500ppm) has been set at a level which will avoid narcotic effects or liver injury. The results of a study carried out in a Massachusetts plastic film plant indicate that the endogenous conversion of inhaled methylene chloride to carbon monoxide should be the controlling factor. On the basis of the observations made, it is proposed that the TLV for methylene chloride be reduced to 75-100ppm to avoid excessive body burdens of carboxyhaemoglobin.
Archives of Environmental Health, Apr. 1974, Vol.28, No.4, p.223-226. Illus. 9 ref.
Recommendation for revised emergency exposure limits for spills of NF3.
The National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Committee on Toxicology has recommended the following emergency exposure limits for handling spills of NF3 on or about rocket launching facilities or in the testing of rocket motors: 2,250ppm for 10 min exposure, 750ppm for 30 min, and 375ppm for 60 min.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, June 1974, Vol.28, No.3, p.498-499. 4 ref.
Zaugol'nikov S.D., Kočanov M.M., Lojt A.O., Stavčanskij I.I.
Nomograms for determining approximate threshold values for harmful substances
Nomogrammy dlja ustanovlenija orientirovočnyh predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij vrednyh veščestv [en ruso]
The 2 nomograms reproduced are based on experimentally-established toxicity indices (lethal concentration 50 and lethal dose 50); one of them refers to hazardous substances in workplace air and the other to substances polluting drinking water. The equations used in the construction of the nomograms are reproduced and explained. A comparative table of threshold values of about 40 substances, determined experimentally and by calculation, is presented.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1974, No.1, p.28-30. Illus. 9 ref.
Express method for assigning threshold values to chemical substances
Ėkspress-metod gigieničeskogo normirovanija himičeskih veščestv [en ruso]
The express method proposed is based on the evaluation of the cumulative capacity of a substance in relation to its biological period (or in relation to its excretion rate). Examples are given of the applicability of other parameters introduced in equations including: lethal concentration 50 and lethal dose 50.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1974, No.1, p.23-28. 16 ref.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland.
Recommended standard for occupational exposure to vinyl chloride.
Background (events and toxicological findings) of the standard; scope and application; definitions of terms; requirements for regulated areas; routine operations; reactor and vessel entry; maintenance and decontamination; hygiene measures; signs; information and training; environmental monitoring and record keeping; reports; medical surveillance. Despite the fact that animal experiments have shown no liver tumours at atmospheric concentrations of 50ppm, the concept of an allowable working level is rejected, since there is probably no threshold for carcinogenesis. Any person exposed to measurable concentrations of vinyl chloride should wear an air-supplied respirator, since chemical cartridge respirators do not afford adequate protection against vinyl chloride vapours.
Office of Technical Publications, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, 1974. 8p.
Threshold limit values for the air concentrations of toxic substances
Valeurs limites de concentration des substances toxiques dans l'air. [en francés]
The threshold limit values recommended in the USA (1973) and in force in the USSR (1972) for almost 800 chemical substances are listed. Supplementary data drawn from American sources cover the TLVs for silica-containing mineral dust, industrial carcinogenic substances, percutaneous toxicity hazards, and authorised excursions in the case of short-term exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1974, No.74, Note No.884-74-74, p.99-123.
Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Roels H.A., Brouwers J., Stranescu D.
Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cadmium - Effect on lung, kidney and several biological indices.
Pulmonary and renal functions and several biological indices were investigated in 3 groups of workers exposed to cadmium dust (women with less than 20 years' exposure (E1), men with less than 20 years' exposure (E2) and men with more than 20 years' exposure (E3) and in 3 control groups. The current airborne cadmium dust concentration was below the TLV (200 µg/m3). Slight but significant impairment of pulmonary function was found in the E3 category. Kidney damage was more prevalent, manifested by proteinuria in 15% of the E2 group and in 68% of the E3 group. These findings support the proposal to reduce the TLV for cadmium dust to 50 µg/m3.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar. 1974, Vol.28, No.3, p.145-148. Illus. 22 ref.
Committee on threshold limits - 1974 Notice of intended changes.
This notice is published so that industry-connected specialists and others may have an opportunity to help shape the deliberation of the competent ACGIH Committee prior to its recommendations of tentative changes in the 1973 Threshold Limits List. The revisions and additions under consideration for 1974 are listed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.16, No.4, p.261.
Hazards of asbestos-containing dust, its measurement and evaluation
Risques associés aux poussières contenant de l'amiante, leur mesure et leur évaluation. [en francés]
French translation of: Gefahren durch asbesthaltige Stäube, ihre Messung und Beurteilung. Staub, Düsseldorf, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Oct. 1970, Vol.30, No.10, p.432-436. Illus. 15 ref. After an introduction on the evaluation of the hazards associated with exposure to asbestos dust and on threshold limit values established in various countries, the author reports on the results of asbestos dust measurements made at various work posts in the industry processing this substance and compares the different criteria adopted for the evaluation of these results. He proposes measures for the control of occupational asbestos exposure and for determining the dust concentrations in workplace air.
Translation INRS 22 B-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 18p. Illus. 15 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to sulfur dioxide.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of chronic health disorders due to sulfur dioxide (SO2). The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 h) should not exceed 2 ppm (5 mg/m3). Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of SO2 in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 112p. Illus. 96 ref. Price: US-$1.50.
Sliney D.H., Dobbin R.D., Kittlestad O.H., Mabson W., Wood E.G.
A guide for control of laser hazards.
This guide is intended to identify health hazards of lasers and to contribute to the safety and health of personnel exposed to their radiations. Sections are devoted to: scope and purpose; exposure criteria; general hazard evaluation; medical surveillance; hazard controls; recognition of associated hazards; and protective eyewear. Appendices give details on threshold limit values (1973), a detailed technical hazard analysis, and a glossary of terms.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, P.O. Box 1937, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201, USA, 1973. 62p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: US-$2.75.
Limits of allowable concentration for the assessment of pneumoconiosis hazard
I MAC per la valutazione del rischio pneumoconiogeno [en italiano]
Recalls the trends in pneumoconiosis control in many countries. The article gives the maximum permissible dust levels in force in several countries (Italy, Australia, Belgium, France, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Japan, Republic of South Africa, Sweden, USSR, USA and Yugoslavia), which are compared in several tables. Description of an experiment carried out in Italy by the National Accident Prevention Institute (ENPI) in 120 undertakings presenting a silicosis hazard, in 60 of which dust levels exceeded the TLV fixed in USA by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Results of clinical and radiological examinations on 5,164 workers in metal trades, 46 of whom showed symptoms of nodular silicosis and 459 had suspected silicosis. Most of the silicotic workers were employed in an environment where the silicosis hazard exceeded the ACGIH TLV. Although findings obtained from such a small sample could not be extrapolated, the author believes that a correlation exists between the fact that the hazard index has been exceeded and its biological evidence.
Securitas, 1973, Vol.58, No.7, p.723-730. Illus.
The IXth communications of the Committee for testing harmful industrial substances - Their importance in connection with mineral dust in mining
Die IX. Mitteilungen der Kommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe - ihre besondere Bedeutung für den Bereich mineralischer Staube im Bergbau [en alemán]
The communications for 1973 introduce, particularly with regard to dusts, a certain number of amendments which are discussed. Information is given on dust sampling techniques, dust is defined (as opposed to fumes). The concepts of total respirable dust and fine dust are analysed, but no maximum limit for total respirable dust is fixed. With regard to fine dust, the criteria laid down by the Johannesburg convention have become compulsory. Indicative values are laid down for chrysotile dust, but this was impossible in the case of crocidolite on account of its greater carcinogenic action. A TLV of 8mg/m3 of fine dust is fixed in the case of inert dusts, on account of the respiratory distress they cause at the alveolar level.
Kompass, Oct. 1973, Vol.83, No.70, p.254-259. Illus. 8 ref.
Schütz A., Woitowitz H.J.
Indicative values for the permissible workplace concentration of chrysotile asbestos dust
Technische Richtwerte für die zulässige Arbeitsplatzkonzentration von Chrysotil-Asbest [en alemán]
Properties and uses of chrysotile, the variety of asbestos most commonly used in industry; mechanism of the deposition of microscopic asbestos dust in the lungs; sampling; pathological effects of asbestos. Description of criteria and studies carried out in the USA, the UK and Germany (Fed.Rep.) which have led to the establishment of TLVs concerning the fibrogenic effect of asbestos. Observations on the establishment of indicative values to meet the conditions encountered in industry (very long-term exposure).
Staub, Dec. 1973, Vol.33, No.12, p.469-474. Illus. 36 ref.
Gabovič R.D., Miščenko V.G.
Results of a complex evaluation, from the health point of view, of basic products used in the synthesis of aliphatic cyclic epoxy resins
Opyt kompleksnogo gigieničeskogo izučenija ishodnyh produktov sinteza cikloalifatičeskih ėpoksidnyh smol [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments to determine the toxic effects (LD50, chronic effects on the nervous system, liver, cerebral and renal tissue, blood sugar rate, phagocytosis of neutrophiles and pathological morphology of the internal organs and the upper airways) of tetrahydrobenzaldehyde (THBA), cyclohexenecarboxylic acid tetrahydrobenzylic ester (CATE) and 3-cyclohexene-1,1-dimethanol (CHDM), used in the synthesis of aliphatic cyclic epoxy resins. On the basic of these results, the following maximum allowable concentrations have been established: 0.3mg/m3 for THBA, 1mg/m3 for CATE and 2mg/m3 for CHDM.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1973, No.6, p.16-22. 3 ref.
Braun D.C., Zapp J.A., Robbins M.C., Lassiter D.V., Stokinger H.E., Lipkin M., Hoover R.N., Van Duuren B.L., Weisburger J.H., Woolrich P.F., Dixon E.M., Gross P., Speicher H.W., Kuschner M., Teplow L.
Proceedings of Symposium on chemical carcinogens.
Proceedings of a symposium organised by the Industrial Health Foundation (Pittsburgh, 28-29 June 1973). The participants included experts in the scientific aspects of clinical and experimental carcinogenesis and representatives of government and industry. The full text of the papers presented is reproduced, together with a summary of the ensuing discussions. Many of the contributions refer to the emergency standard on carcinogens issued in May 1973 by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the proposed permanent standard.
Industrial Health Foundation, 5231 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232, USA, 1973. 151p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: US-$15.00.
Pjatnickaja L.V., Volodčenko V.A., Vasilenko N.M., Manfanovskij V.V., Prilipskij Ju.V.
Data for the establishment of the maximum allowable atmospheric concentration of betanaphthol in work premises
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii beta-naftola v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [en ruso]
The inhalation of betanaphthol, which is used in the cold dying of textiles and as a fungicide, leads to disorders of the urinary tract (cystitis and dysuria). Gastritis and chronic hepatitis as well as functional disorders of the nervous system were also found in numerous workers exposed to this substance. From the results of research with animals and observations made in industry, a maximum allowable atmospheric concentration of betanaphthol of 0.1mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.15-18. 4 ref.
Data for the establishment of a maximum allowable concentration for fibrous vegetable dusts
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii voloknistoj rastitel'noj pyli [en ruso]
In order to establish maximum allowable concentrations for fibrous vegetable dusts, the author suggests considering factors related to the composition of the dust (bacterial or mycotic allergens, chemical or physical action, silica content, etc.). However, from the results of studies carried out by other authors, he believes that a ceiling value of 2 mg/m3 can be recommended whatever the type of vegetable dust and its free silica content.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1973, No.11, p.54-55. 9 ref.
Iannaccone A., Cecchetti G.
Maximum allowable concentrations for solvents in industry
Massime concentrazioni ammissibili dei solventi nell'industria [en italiano]
To protect workers against airborne solvent vapours, the threshold limit value (TLV) and the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) are taken into account. The TLV is the mean concentration of the solvent in the atmosphere at which, except in hypersensitive cases, no disorders are found in subjects exposed throughout the whole duration of their work. The MAC is found by multiplying the TLV by a variable factor; it represents a limit which should never be exceeded. For some very toxic solvents, TLV=MAC. A synoptic table shows the TLVs set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) for the most common solvents; a description is given of a few methods for analysing solvent vapours in air. Definition of the biological MAC, found by analysising the blood, urine and faeces of the person exposed, and indication of its value for several solvents. The necessity of continually checking the health status of exposed workers is stressed.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1973, Vol.64, No.5-6, p.190-197. Illus. 13 ref.
Zurlo N., Patroni M.
MACs for dusts
I MAC per le polveri [en italiano]
MACs (maximum allowable concentrations) recommended by the different specialised bodies (ACGIH, Cerchar, Institut d'hygiène des mines, Hasselt, Clinica del Lavoro, Milan) differ among themselves because of the diversity of sampling and analytical methods. A comparison of numerical and gravimetric MACs was made by means of a series of 200 tests repeated in 28 undertakings. The gravimetric MAC for the respirable fraction of dust is higher for dusts poor in fine particles (foundries, ceramics). On the other hand, the numerical MAC is often higher for very fine dust (electric arc welding, steelworks fumes, etc.) that is poor in free silica. The gravimetric MAC for total dust is too high for large particles, which are toxicologically harmless, but could be too low for very fine dust. There is no reliable and reproducible method for the determination of gravimetric MACs for respirable dust. Despite the variety of methods used, there are no significant differences between the numerical MACs of the various institutes evaluating silicosis hazards, with the exception of coal dust which has a low silica content.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1973, Vol.64, No.5-6, p.181-189.
The recent development of maximum allowable limits on the international scale
Recenti sviluppi internazionali dei limiti massimi ammissibili [en italiano]
Starting from the United States, the Soviet Union and Germany, the movement which initiated national lists of maximum allowable concentrations of harmful substances at workplaces now includes about 25 countries. The legal value of these lists differs from country to country, as do the number of substances listed and the criteria governing the choice of the various values given. A comparison is made of criteria used in various countries and there is an account of the distinctions introduced in some lists between time-weighted average values and ceiling values not to be exceeded at any time. In conclusion, comments are made on recent trends and on the prospects of adopting a list of threshold limit values in Italy.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1973, Vol.64, No.5-6, p.166-171.
Proceedings of the Symposium on Maximum Allowable Concentrations of Harmful Agents in Industry (MAC)
Atti del Convegno sui limiti massimi ammissibili degli agenti nocivi nell'industria (MAC) [en italiano]
Collection of 9 papers presented at this symposium, held at Milan, Italy, on 3 Mar. 1973 and sponsored by the Lombard Association of Industrial Physicians and the Italian Association of Industrial Hygienists. Individual sections are devoted to: recent development of permissible limits on an international scale; technical problems of checking MACs for chemical substances in work environments; MACs for dusts; MACs for industrial solvents; MACs for work at high temperatures; biological MACs; the importance of MACs in occupational preventive medicine; meaning and value of MACs in national collective agreements and at the level of undertakings; MACs and preventive legislation. Discussion.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1973, Vol.64, No.5-6, p.161-240. Illus. 30 ref.
Nikitin V.S., Rjabec V.A.
Analysis of allowable air concentrations (national and foreign) of gases and toxic vapours in work premises
Analiz otečestvennyh i zarubežnyh dopustimyh koncentracij toksičeskih gazov i parov v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [en ruso]
A comparison of the underlying concepts and evolution of threshold limit values in the USSR, USA and other countries is followed by a classification of methods used to establish TLVs. The authors found that the differences in viewpoint separating different countries and even the socialist countries do not only relate to the level of these values, but also to their experimental determination. They regret the difficulty, or even impossibility, of using TLVs established, for example, in the United States for Russian standard-setting. However, they recognise that certain reconcilations have occurred during the recent years confirming, on the whole, the viewpoint of the Soviet researchers.
Naučnye raboty institutov ohrany truda VCSPS, 1973, No.84, p.22-28.
Bajkov B.K., Hačaturjan M.H., Borodina E.V., Fel'dman N.G., Tambovceva A.M.
Basis for the establishing of a maximum allowable air concentration of amyl alcohol
Materialy k gigieničeskomu normirovaniju amilovogo spirta v atmosfernom vozduhe [en ruso]
Results of human and animal studies aimed at establishing an olfactory threshold (0.2-0.4 mg/m3) and the TLV for primary amyl alcohol. The research, described in detail, has led to setting both the ceiling value (single exposure) and the threshold value (8-h exposure) at 0.01 mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.10-14. Illus. 2 ref.
Maggi G., Carrescia V.
The effects of electromagnetic fields on man
Gli effetti dei campi elettromagnetici sull'uomo [en italiano]
Review of the effects of electromagnetic fields on man. Observations on the biological effects which concern the neuro-humoral regulation system, as well as cellular reproduction and growth. A list is given of the instruments for measuring electromagnetic fields and occupational exposure to them. The TLVs for exposure to these fields, for each frequency band, in force in various countries (USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, USA, Canada, United Kingdom, German Democratic Republic) and NATO are shown in tabular form. The authors review the types of protection available: active protection (keeping fields within definite limits of intensity by screens, shielding, enclosuring, etc., as well as suitable personal protective equipment); passive protection (limitation of exposure time, layout ensuring that work posts are at a safe distance from the source of the electromagnetic field, remote control and automation of processes).
Securitas, Jan. 1973, Vol.58, No.1, p.5-21. 13 ref.
Deutsches Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin, Fachbereich Industrietoxikologie, Berlin (Ostsektor).
100 cards of occupational hygiene guidelines for the utilisation of chemical substances (putties, adhesive resins, glues, leather impregnating agents, thinning agents)
100 Blatt arbeitshygienische Richtlinien für den Umgang mit chemischen Stoffen (Kitte, Klebharze, Klebstoffe, Lederimprägniermittel, Verdünnungsmittel) [en alemán]
Characteristics of various commercial chemical products utilised in East German industry: manufacturers, uses, composition, maximum permissible concentrations, detection in air, toxic properties, skin hazards, technical safety measures, personal protection, first aid, legislation.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, 1193 , 1973. Price: M.6.50.
Maximum allowable concentrations of mercury compounds
Concentrations maximales admissibles des composés du mercure [en francés]
French translation of: Maximum allowable concentrations of mercury compounds. Archives of Environmental Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA, Dec. 1969, Vol.19, No.6, p.891-905. 99 ref. Report of an international symposium of experts (Stockholm, Sweden, 4-7 Nov. 1968), who studied separately the inorganic and organic mercury compounds. Consideration is given to biotransformation and transport of these substances in the organism, tissue distribution and retention, excretion, mode of toxic action, symptoms and signs, diagnosis of poisoning and absorption (with emphasis on published data on exposures and their effects in different types of worker). Proposed values: 10 µg Hg/100 ml whole blood for methyl and ethyl salts; 0.05 mg/m3 for mercury vapour; and 0.10 mg Hg/m3 for inorganic mercury salts and phenyl and methoxyethyl mercury salts. Analytical methods for the determination of mercury compounds in air or biological materials were not discussed.
Translation INRS 122 A-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973. 56p. 99 ref.
Defines and discusses the dimensions of the quantities used in the dose equivalent equation, which was developed and published in ICRU Report 19 (see CIS 2688-1972, Boz Qbz Qed).
Supplement to ICRU Report 19, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20014, USA, 1973. 3p. 7 ref. Price: US-$1.00.
Burkackaja N.E., Matjušina V.I., Ivanova Z.V.
Evaluation of the health hazards of N-methylcarbamic acid dicresyl ester, a new insecticide and acaricide
Gigieničeskaja ocenka novogo insekticida i akaricida - dikrezilovogo ėfira N-metilkarbaminovoj kisloty [en ruso]
N-methylcarbamic acid dicresyl ester (Dicresyl) is a promising insecticide and acaricide, particularly for the veterinary protection of livestock. Its toxicity, however, requires special precautions in storage, transportation and applications in agriculture and veterinary medicine. The inhibition of blood cholinesterase activity (around 24 to 43% after exposure of 1 to 2 days) is an early symptom of poisoning. In the light of data from animal experiments, the authors recommend a TLV of 0.5 mg/m3 for Dicresyl in the working environment.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.99-101. 4 ref.
Ferguson W.S., Wheeler D.D.
Caprolactam vapor exposures.
5 volunteers were exposed to caprolactam vapours to establish irritant response and discomfort threshold. No discomfort was noted below 14 ppm at high relative humidities, but transient nose and throat irritation occurred in some subjects above 10 ppm at low relative humidities. There was no response below 7 ppm; most subjects found prolonged exposure to 100 ppm intolerable. The authors recommend a time-weighted average concentration of 5 ppm and stress that biological response to caprolactam dust is quite different.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1973, Vol.34, No.9, p.384-389. 3 ref.
Vernot E.H., Haun C.C., MacEwen J.D., Egan G.F.
Acute inhalation toxicology and proposed emergency exposure limits of nitrogen trifluoride.
Investigations were undertaken to evaluate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) at 15, 30 and 60 min in rats and mice and the lethal concentration, for broad comparison, in dogs and monkeys. Additional experiments were conducted to determine what short-term exposure levels of NF3 would have no significant effect on the species tested. Confirmatory evidence was obtained that the immediate effects of acute exposure are caused by extensive methaemoglobin formation and resulting anoxia. The results of the experiments justify recommending an upward revision of the EEL (emergency exposure limit) from 3,000 to 30,000 ppm-min.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Sep. 1973, Vol.26, No.1, p.1-13. Illus. 14 ref.
Acceptable concentrations of chromic acid and hexavalent chromium compounds.
This standard sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association lays down acceptable atmospheric concentrations of chromic acid and hexavalent chromium compounds in occupational environments. It does not apply to concentrations of metallic chromium or divalent or trivalent chromium. The acceptable ceiling concentration is 0.3 mg CrO3/m3 air for chromic acid and soluble chromates. The acceptable time-weighted average concentration is 0.1 mg/m3 (as CrO3) assuming a 40-h week. Individual sections are devoted to: properties and uses of chromates, concentrations needed to produce toxic effects, acceptable concentrations, sampling procedures and analytical methods.
ANSI Z37.7-1973, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 9 May 1973. 8p. 21 ref. Price: US-$3.00.
An experimental study on physiological functions of the autonomic nervous system of man exposed to acetone vapour.
Physiological data were collected to determine a TLV for acetone using measurements of galvanic skin reflex, finger reflex (using a plethysmograph), heart rate, respiratory rate and cerebral activity (using an occipital EEG). Subjects were exposed to acetone vapour for various periods; their responses to visual and auditory stimuli were monitored by EEG, and the results compared with a control group. It is concluded that the TLV for acetone should be less than 250 ppm.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1973, Vol.15, No.2, p.147-164. Illus. 44 ref.
Ebbers R.W., Dunsky I.L.
Retinal damage thresholds for multiple pulse lasers.
A Q-switched neodymium laser, capable of being repetitively pulsed, was used to determine the retinal damage threshold on 100 rhesus monkey eyes. Irradiations were made with repetitive pulse frequencies, as well as with single pulses. The data obtained show no significant difference between the single pulse ED-50 (median effective dose) and the ED-50 for the maximum energy pulse in any of the train pulses . Thus, a cumulative effect could not be demonstrated under the conditions of this experiment. This study is of a preliminary nature, as the number of experimental variables was limited and only one wavelength (1060 nm) was investigated.
Aerospace Medicine, Mar. 1973, Vol.44, No.3, p.317-318. 10 ref.
Beatrice E.S., Frisch G.D.
Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter.
The eyes of rhesus monkeys were exposed to argon (514.5 nm) and ruby (694.3nm) laser irradiation using various retinal image diameters which were estimated by microphotometric techniques. Extramacular retinal exposure sites were examined by ophthalmoscopic and histopathological techniques. All data were statistically analysed to establish trends, and results compared for the wavelengths employed. Results indicate that retinal damage is primarily dependent on energy distribution as a function of image diameter and exposure duration.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1973, Vol.27, No.5, p.322-326. Illus. 10 ref.
Safety in the use of solvents - Harmfulness of solvents and "hazard indices"
La sécurité dans l'emploi des solvants - La nocivité des solvants et les "indices de risque". [en francés]
A solvent may be characterised by its ability to reach a maximum concentration in air more or less rapidly. This makes it possible to define a "hazard index" and to compare the various solvents according to the speed of reaching their respective threshold limit values. About 20 common solvents have been classified according to this criterion. The "hazard indices" confirm that high concentrations of toxic vapours in work premises are reached more rapidly by light solvents (benzene) than by heavy solvents (isophorone).
Revue de la protection, Mar. 1973, No.167, p.21-23. 4 ref.
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