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  • Occupational exposure limits

1975

CIS 76-724 Bruckman L., Rubino R.A.
Asbestos: rationale behind a proposed air quality standard.
This paper was given at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association at Denver, Colorado, in June 1974. The occupational and non-occupational hazards of asbestos are discussed, including a history of asbestos exposure and the consequences. Calculations, based on probability of mesothelioma occurrence, leading to standards for general public exposure are shown. The ACGIH occupational standard is used as a basis for the calculations. The recommended ambient air quality standard is 30ng/m3, based on a 30-day average. Emission standards and an analytical method are also proposed. In the critique, Dr. L.A. Plumlee disagrees (1) with the authors' use of mesothelioma as a criterion without considering lung cancer, (2) with fibre counts used in the calculations. The authors maintain that the high frequency of lung cancer makes it difficult to relate to asbestos exposure, and point out that one should not confuse asbestos fibrils (or ultimate asbestos fibres) with asbestos fibres, normally used in the calculations.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Dec. 1975, Vol.25, No.12, p.1207-1215, Illus. 69 ref.

CIS 76-475 Wink A., Zielhuis R.L.
Establishing working environment health standards is a risky business
Het stellen van normen voor de arbeidsomgeving als vorm van riskant gedrag [en holandés]
An introduction considering various aspects of how to be healthy and stay healthy is followed by observations on the hazards imposed on workers by specialists fixing TLVs. The article then draws attention to the present uncertainty regarding biological effects and the criteria (usually not disclosed) used in establishing TLVs. The authors are of the opinion that the workers themselves - being obviously the most directly concerned parties - should be consulted and should have joint participation in decisions fixing TLVs. The article reproduces proposals, put forward by the chemical industry workers' trade unions, for the establishment in the Netherlands of a Joint National Committee for the Establishment of Threshold Limit Values. A critical examination of the authors' point of view, followed by the authors' rejoinder, appeared in the same periodical, No.4, 18 Feb. 1976, p.137-138.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 3 Dec. 1975, Vol.23, No.24, p.802-807. 21 ref.

CIS 76-367 Schütz A.
Evaluation of health risks due to mineral dust at the workplace - Threshold limit values for quartz and asbestos, measurement methods
Beurteilung der Gesundheitsgefahren durch mineralische Stäube am Arbeitsplatz - Grenzwerte für Quarz und Asbest, Messmethoden [en alemán]
Silicosis and asbestosis still hold an important place among occupational diseases, as graphs showing the development of these 2 conditions in the Fed. Rep. of Germany between 1962 and 1974 testify. In Germany, protection against fibrogenic dust is ensured by safety regulation VBG 119 (Mutual Accident Insurance Associations) and by the threshold limit value for quartz-containing respirable dust. This value was established on the evidence of a large number of observations in humans, while determination of a threshold limit value for asbestos involves problems associated with the incidence of bronchial cancer and mesothelioma. Commentary on the indicative concentration limits for asbestos proposed for asbestosis prevention. A graph shows the maximum admissible respirable dust concentration as a function of the quartz and asbestos content. Brief review of measurement methods for evaluation of the hazard, and description of a sampling apparatus for respirable dust, designed and developed by the institute to which the author belongs, and of methods of analysis.
Staub, July 1975, Vol.35, No.7, p.263-266. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 76-460 Brief R.S., Scala R.A.
Occupational exposure limits for novel work schedules.
Novel work schedules such as 4x10h/week or 3x12h for 3 weeks and 4x12h for 3 weeks are now being introduced in the United States. Modified occupational threshold limit values can be calculated from the formulae suggested in this report. The system must however be applied cautiously, with good medical surveillance.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1975, Vol.36, No.6, p.467-469. 3 ref.

CIS 76-128 Nahas G.G., Boccalon H., Berryer P., Wagner B.
Effects in rodents of a 1-month exposure to magnetic fields (200-1,200 gauss).
An experimental study on rats of continuous exposure to magnetic fields of 200-1,200 gauss revealed no toxic or histopathological effets. The in-vivo study showed no alteration of the vascular tissues and no intravascular thrombosis. There was a significant increase in body and organ weight, however, among the young rats exposed. No harmful effects should be expected when human subjects are exposed to magnetic fields of 200-2,000 gauss for several hours.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1975, Vol.46, No.9, p.1161-1163. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 76-185 TLVs - Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment with intended changes for 1975.
The preface to the first part (chemical contaminants) of this booklet defines and/or discusses the use of: threshold limit values (TLV), ceiling and time-weighted-average (TWA) limits, nuisance particulates or nuisance dusts (terms preferred to "inert dusts"), simple asphyxiants, short-term limits, physical factors, and biological limit values. TLVs are given for approximately 500 substances. Limits, or references for limits, are also given for radioactivity, mineral dusts, and nuisance particulates. There are about 70 substances on the intended changes list. The appendices contain TLVs of recognised occupational carcinogens and list of suspected occupational carcinogens, TLVs for mixtures, permissible excursions for TWA limits, and lists of nuisance particulates and simple asphyxiants. The second part (physical agents) of the booklet contains TLVs for heat stress, ionising radiation, lasers, microwaves, noise, as well as intended changes for these agents.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, P.O. Box 1937, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201, USA, 1975. 97p. Illus.

CIS 76-169 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to xylene.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of xylene on the health of workers. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (10-h working day) should not exceed 100ppm (434mg/m3) over a 40-h week. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, and monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based and discussed at some length are: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of a standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of xylene in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH) 75-168, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1975. 101p. Ilus. 130 ref.

CIS 76-65 Lardeux M.P.
Asbestos dust - Limits of workplace air concentration
Poussières d'amiante - Limites de concentration dans l'air des atmosphères de travail. [en francés]
This note supplements a previous note (CIS 75-1863) which described a method of asbestos fibre sampling and counting. It summarises the conclusions of the British Asbestos Research Council, which maintain that the risk of bronchial cancer and fibrosis becomes negligible so long as exposure to asbestos (measured by the membrane filter method) does not exceed 2.2 fibres/cm3 over 50 years. Sampling results should be interpreted a follows: less than 2 fibres/cm3: no special safety precautions necessary; 2 to 12 fibres/cm3: steps should be taken to reduce the concentration to 2 fibres/cm3; above 12 fibres/cm3: personnel should be immediately evacuated from the hazardous area and action taken to eliminate the hazard.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1975, No.80, Note No.969-80-75, p.339-341.

CIS 75-1975 Threshold limit values for 1974.
This note reproduces, as a guide, the list of threshold limit values (TLVs, expressed in ppm or mg/m3) adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists in 1974 for over 500 hazardous substances which may be absorbed in the form of dust or fume in workroom air. A preface discusses briefly chemical contaminants, advantages and disadvantages of ceiling as against time-weighted average limits, nuisance particulates as opposed to fibrogenic dusts, short-term limits, biologic limit values, asphyxiants, etc. TLVs for mineral dusts, notice of intended changes in the list (especially carcinogens), polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products, petroleum distillates, welding fumes, mixtures, some nuisance particulates, some inert gases and vapours (simple asphyxiants), etc. are appended. Lower TLVs for some of these substances are recommended for the U.K. (in particular for asbestos and vinyl chloride).
Technical Data Note 2/74, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London, S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1975. 19p. 26 ref. Gratis.

CIS 75-1973 Christensen H.E., Luginbyhl T.T., Carroll B.S.
Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances - 1975 Edition.
Familiar until now as the Toxic Substances List, this new edition contains 64,000 listings (16,500 different chemicals, 47,800 synonyms and cross-references) with detailed toxicity data - toxic dose, route, species exposed, description of exposure reported (lethal, toxic, etc.), dose causing the toxic response (usually mg/kg or ppm), body system affected - with reference to bibliographical sources of the toxicity data. 22,000 new substances have been included since the 1974 list. Occupational safety and health standards in force in the USA (air contaminants, asbestos, carcinogens, vinyl chloride, pesticides, NIOSH criteria documents, requests for health hazard evaluation, aquatic toxicity) are appended. The Wiswesser Line Notation, with explanation of the system, is included.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA, June 1975. 1296p. Price: US-$10.00.

CIS 75-1972 Christensen H.E., Luginbyhl T.T., Carroll B.S.
Suspected carcinogens - A subfile of the NIOSH toxic substances list.
A compilation of some 1,500 chemical substances reported as causing benign or malignant tumours, with synonyms and cross-references, detailed toxicity data - toxic dose, route, species exposed, description of exposure (lethal, toxic, etc.), dose causing the toxic response (usually mg/kg or ppm), body system affected - with reference to bibliographical sources of the toxicity data. Occupational safety and health standards in force in the USA (air contaminants, asbestos, carcinogens, vinyl chloride, pesticides, NIOSH criteria documents, requests for health hazard evaluation) are appended. The Wiswesser Line Notation, with explanation of the system, is included.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-188, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA, June 1975. 342p.

CIS 75-1969 Maximum allowable workplace concentrations, 1975
Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen 1975 [en alemán]
Definition of threshold limit value (TLV) and preliminary remarks on the scope and application of TLVs, values in excess of TLV, sensitisation, allergic symptoms and cutaneous absorption. The notion of a technical indicative concentration has been developed for carcinogenic and teratogenic substances for which no definite TLV can be fixed. It is based on technical data available and the possibilities of technical and medical prevention. Some new values are added to the 1974 list and others are modified. Particular attention is given to carcinogenic substances, dust, organic peroxides, petrol and turpentine spirit.
Mitteilung XI, Committee for Testing Harmful Industrial Substances, German Research Association (Kommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), Kennedyallee 40, 53 Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 27 June 1975. 43p. Price: DM.6.00.

CIS 75-1912 Morgan K.Z.
Suggested reduction of permissible exposure to plutonium and other transuranium elements.
After an introduction in which he traces the historical development of efforts to establish a maximum permissible body burden of Pu-239, and details of changes under consideration for the ICRP Internal Dose Handbook, the author presents evidence that the linear hypothesis may not be sufficiently conservative at low dose rates and presents his own suggestions for changes in the permissible exposure level for Pu-239. There is evidence that the present maximum body burden based on bone is more than 200 times too high.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1975, Vol.36, No.8, p.567-575. 23 ref.

CIS 75-1922
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 19 Mar. 1975.
Suggested technical concentration for vinyl chloride
Technische Richtkonzentration (TRK) für Vinylchlorid [en alemán]
The Committee for Dangerous Substances (Ausschuss für gefährliche Arbeitsstoffe) has determined a suggested technical concentration value of 5ppm for vinyl chloride, with effect as of 1 July 1975. Scope, exemptions, explanatory memorandum of objectives and grounds for this measure. Factors taken into consideration in fixing the suggested value: technological achievements and feasibility, chemical analysis facilities; medical and toxicological data.
Arbeitsschutz, Apr. 1975, No.4, p.127.

CIS 75-1683 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic - New criteria 1975
Revised recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases caused by exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds. No worker should be exposed to a concentration in excess of 0.002mg/m3 (for a 40-h week) as determined by 15-min breathing zone samples. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, informing employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed under the headings: biological effects of exposure, environmental data and biological evaluation, development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of arsenic in air and determination in urine are detailed and additional useful information is given in appendices. The basis for the previous recommended standard are given (CIS 74-488).
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-149, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, Apr. 1975. 140p. Illus. 111 ref.

CIS 75-1651 De Rosa E., Mazzotta M., Forin F., Corradini M.A.
Urinary hippuric acid excretion in subjects exposed to toluene - Determination of a group biological standard (MAC)
Eliminazione urinaria di acido ippurico in esposti a toluolo - Determinazione di un MAC biologico di gruppo [en italiano]
Results of determination of urinary hippuric acid in 109 workers exposed to toluene in a rotogravure printing works, a shoe factory and a plastic-goods painting shop. Determination was made by colorimetry, at the end of the work shift. In the light of the results obtained, the authors believe that the biological standard (MAC) for a homogeneous working group could be fixed at 1,100mg/l.
Lavoro umano, Jan. 1975, Vol.27, No.1, p.18-25. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 75-1336 Threshold limit values for the air concentrations of toxic substances
Valeurs limites de concentration des substances toxiques dans l'air. [en francés]
The threshold limit values recommended in the USA and in force in the USSR in 1974 for almost 900 chemical substances are listed. Supplementary data drawn from American sources cover the TLVs for silica-containing mineral dust, carcinogenic industrial substances, hazardous substances without a TLV, percutaneous toxicity hazards, and authorised excursions in the case of short-term exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1975, No.78, Note No.946-78-75, p.89-115.

CIS 75-1051 Gravot E.
Maximum allowable concentration of trichloroethylene in workplace atmosphere
La concentration maximale admissible de trichloréthylène dans l'atmosphère des locaux de travail. [en francés]
MD thesis. Contents: general observations on trichloroethylene (uses, properties, TLVs); metabolism; correlation between concentration in air and urinary level of trichloroacetic acid; correlation between concentration in workplace atmosphere and in air expired by exposed workers; acute and chronic effects of poisoning. The author warns that health damage may be caused by atmospheric concentrations lower than the present TLV (100ppm or 520mg/m3) and recommends the adoption of a TLV of 60ppm. A chapter is devoted to potentiating factors (alcoholism, pregnancy, various technical situations). Prevention is briefly discussed. The relevant French regulations are indicated.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine de Cochin - Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1975. 64p. 36 ref.

CIS 75-1033 Maillard J.
Maximum allowable concentration of benzene in workplace air
A propos de la concentration maximale admissible de benzène dans l'air des locaux de travail. [en francés]
The purpose of this MD thesis is to ascertain if the permissible limit laid down by International Labour Convention No.136 (Geneva, 1971) for benzene concentration in the workplace air (25ppm or 80mg/m3) is a safe medical criterion. Part 1 gives biochemical data on benzene poisoning (relation between benzene concentration in air and benzene blood level; relation between benzene concentration in air and benzene metabolites in urine). Part 2 gives the toxicological data gathered from experimental and human poisoning, which tend to confirm the assumption that leukaemia can be produced in man by benzene. The author concludes that the permissible limit should be lowered to a level such that benzene should no longer be detectable in the blood, or that benzene should no longer be used in industry, being replaced by a less toxic solvent.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1975. 27p. 100 ref.

CIS 75-766 Verberk M.M., Joosting P.E., Bink B.
Effects of controlled exposure to chlorine in man - An experimental assessment of implications for emergency situations
Effecten van chloor bij proefpersonen - Een experiment geëvalueerd voor rampsituaties [en holandés]
Results of experiments carried out on volunteers exposed for 2h to 0.5, 1, 2 and 4ppm chlorine concentrations. Changes in heart rate and FEV1 were insignificant. Subjective phenomena of irritation, which were recorded systematically, varied according to concentration, exposure time and individual sensitivity. Recommended values as exceptional emergency exposure limits for the population: 1.5ppm for 30min; 1ppm for 1-2h.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 19 Feb. 1975, Vol.53, No.4, p.106-112, 120. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-663 Curtis R.A., Bierbaum P.J.
Technological feasibility of the 2 fibers/cc asbestos standard in asbestos textile facilities.
Since the promulgation in the USA of the OSHA standard of 2 fibres/cm3, effective from 1 July 1976, the technical feasibility of developing dust control practices in the asbestos industry to meet this standard has been questioned. This paper presents the resuts of industrial hygiene surveys in 2 asbestos textile production plants that have achieved the 2 fibres/cm3 standard: selection of plants, survey methods, description of conventional processing operations, description of modified processess in the plants under study, results of personal dust samples. Both plants use non-conventional wet processing methods, which effectively eliminate dust-control problem areas. The usefulness of the yarns produced is discussed in relation to the processing methods.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1975, Vol.36, No.2, p.115-125. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 75-729 Guillemin M.
Permissible levels
Les normes admissibles. [en francés]
Practical and theoretical considerations on threshold limit values (TLV) for concentrations of harmful substances in air. After a brief review of the 2 major present-day trends in this field (USSR, USA), some examples are given illustrating the often insufficiently-known difficulties encountered in applying TLVs. The article emphasises the need for training specialists in studying the work environment.
Therapeutische Umschau - Revue thérapeutique, Mar. 1975, Vol.32, No.3, p.189-192. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-473 Vinyl chloride - Code of practice for health precautions
This document was prepared by a working party with representatives of labour and management, the Factory Inspectorate and the Employment Medical Advisory Service. It sets out an interim hygiene standard for vinyl chloride: a ceiling value of 50ppm and a time-weighted average of 25ppm, allowing that wherever practicable exposure should be brought as near as possible to zero concentrations. The Code deals with: hazards (liver damage, acroosteolysis, Raynaud's phenomenon, scleroderma), control of vinyl chloride levels in the atmosphere, entry into confined spaces, housekeeping, preventive maintenance of plant and equipment, monitoring, respiratory protective equipment, medical examinations, clothing accommodation, washing and bathing facilities, registers and records, joint consultation, education and training, emergency plan. In addition to stating the standard itself, appendices list the physical properties of vinyl chloride and give details of the requirements relating to the aspects listed above and some relevant legal requirements. It is stressed that this first edition of the Code is temporary, and suggestions for improving it are invited.
Health and Safety Executive, Baynards House, 1 Chepstow Place, London W2 4TY, United Kingdom, Feb. 1975. 41p.

CIS 75-462 Stokinger H.E.
Usefulness of biologic and air standards for lead.
Monitoring the individual worker by biological means offers in most industrial situations a superior method of controlling worker exposure than do air standards. Biological monitoring for controlling exposure to lead is discussed in detail. The industry has settled on blood lead for measuring exposure to inorganic lead and urinary lead for exposure to organic lead. Although the value of biological indicators is emphasised, total reliance should not be placed on biological monitoring alone; environmental monitoring is an essential element in the process of control.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1975, Vol.17, No.2, p.108-112. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 75-460 Lynam D.R.
Lead Industries Association position.
A review of the Lead Industries Association (LIA) position paper which represents LIA's recommended occupational health practices for industries producing or using lead and its inorganic compounds. The LIA strongly recommends the use of a biological standard (particularly a blood lead standard) for protecting the workers and determining compliance with the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. The position paper states that the best means of controlling and reducing exposure is by engineering controls and work practices; the best means of determining whether these controls and work practices are adequately protecting the worker is by assessing lead absorption through measurement of the blood lead. Attention is drawn to the inadequacies inherent in evaluating exposure by air sampling.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1975, Vol.17, No.2, p.84-90. 3 ref.

1974

CIS 76-1605 Safety level of electromagnetic radiation with respect to personnel.
This standard, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Navy and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, applies to whole-body and partial-body irradiation resulting from exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 10MHz-100GHz. The standard contains definitions, explanations and the following recommendations based on currently available literature: for normal environmental conditions and for incident electromagnetic energy of frequencies from 10MHz-100GHz, the continuous wave radiation level not to be exceeded is 10mW/cm2 and the equivalent free-space electric and magnetic field strengths are approximately 200V/m and 0.5A/m, respectively. For modulated fields, the power density and the squares of the field strengths are averaged over 1h, i.e. none of the following (averaged over any 1h period) should be exceeded: mean squared electric field strength: 40,000V2/m2; mean squared magnetic field strength: 0.25A2/m2; power density: 10mW/cm2; energy density: 1mWh/cm2.
ANSI C95.1-1974, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved on 15 Nov. 1974. 8p. Price: US-$3.00.

CIS 76-778 Henschler D.
Substances hazardous to health - Toxicological and occupational medical criteria for MAC values
Gesundheitsschädliche Arbeitsstoffe - Toxikologisch-arbeitsmedizinische Begründung von MAK-Werten [en alemán]
With the 3rd supplement, this collection of material underlying the German MAC values (CIS 322-1973, Gzt Qem (610.1)) now covers 77 industrial substances. Among those added are benzene, chloropicrin, 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, decaborane, pentaborane and methyl bromide. Each monograph gives toxicological data, human experience, experimental findings in animals, and the arguments for the establishment of the MAC value.
Verlag Chemie GmbH, Postfach 1260/1280, 6940 Weinheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 3rd supplement 1974. 141p. 600 ref. Price: DM.42.00.

CIS 76-427 Rudi F.A.
Experimental data to determine a TLV for glycol vinyl ethers
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k gigieničeskomu normirovaniju vinilovyh ėfirov glikolej [en ruso]
Disuse of the method using mercury as a catalyst in synthesising acetaldehyde may result in the formation of glycol vinyl ethers. The author investigated the toxic, dermatological and allergenic effects of the latter substances on animals. On the basis of the results (LD50, LC50, cutaneous absorption, changes in blood picture after repeated inhalations, irritation and inflammation of mucosae, etc.) he obtained with ethylene glycol monovinyl ether and 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, the author recommends the adoption of a TLV of 30mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.94-97. 12 ref.

CIS 76-171 Threshold limit values at workplaces for airborne toxic substances - Physical effects
Valeurs limites aux emplacements de travail pour les substances toxiques dans l'air (valeurs MAC) - Effets physiques [en alemán]
Valeurs limites aux emplacements de travail pour les substances toxiques dans l'air (valeurs MAC) - Effets physiques. [en francés]
This loose-leaf compendium, which cancels and replaces the list for 1971, gives the values in force in Switzerland in 1974 for the allowable concentrations and levels of some 540 toxic substances and physical agents such as ionising radiations, lasers, microwaves, radar and sound waves. This list is the result of meticulous scientific studies taking into account research carried out and lists established in other countries.
Form. 1903f, Swiss National Accident Insurance Institute (Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents), Luzern, Switzerland, 1974. 64p.

CIS 76-260 Occupational hygiene standards and MAC values
Arbeitshygienische Normen und MAK-Werte [en alemán]
Review of the occupational hygiene requirements applicable in the German Democratic Republic (generally issued as standards) with explanations and details of measurement techniques and apparatus in the following fields: workplace microclimate; non-toxic dusts; gases; vapours and toxic dusts; noise; mechanical vibration; microwaves; laser radiation; lighting; design of work premises, workplaces and equipment (including recommendations for workplace dimensions and layout and design of control elements). Appendices contain guidelines for establishing threshold limit values for chemical substances in the workplace air, standards for determination of airborne noxious substances in the workplace, schedules of threshold values; exceptions to standards.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30 , 1974. 544p. Illus. 148 ref. Price: M.8.50.

CIS 76-144 Miščenko V.G.
Experimental data to establish the maximum allowable concentration of tetrahydrobenzaldehyde in workplace air
Ėksperimental'nye dannye k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii tetragidrobenzal'degida v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments showing that tetrahydrobenzaldehyde (THBA) is poorly absorbed by the skin, that its fumes are non-irritant for the conjunctiva and mucosae of the upper airways (respiratory tract), and that THBA and THBA-based synthetic resins do not cause allergy. A TLV of 0.5mg/m3 is proposed by the author on the basis of these results; at higher concentrations the odour becomes intolerable.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.41-42. 3 ref.

CIS 76-143 Peresedov V.P.
Fixing of the maximum allowable concentration of benzaldehyde in workplace air
K obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii benzal'degida v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments showing that benzaldehyde is moderately harmful. Massive concentrations (around 500mg/m3) cause irritation of the upper airways and conjunctiva. Haematological changes were observed after repeated inhalations of 26mg/m3. A TLV of 5mg/m3 is proposed on the basis of these results; the health status of workers exposed for one year to concentrations not exceeding this level confirm its validity.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.40-41. 6 ref.

CIS 76-55 Aronova G.V., Kazanceva T.I., Belobragina G.V., Veličkovskij B.T., Starkov P.S., Fokina G.P., Potanina V.I.
Characteristics of the biological action of silicon monoxide
Harakteristika biologičeskogo dejstvija monookisi kremnija [en ruso]
Silicon monoxide (SiO) is formed by thermal reduction of silica (production of ferrosilicon, electrometallurgy, etc.). To assess its fibrogenic and toxic properties experiments were carried out in white rats; the results showed that SiO is non-irritant and is practically non-toxic. It causes tissue changes of a moderately proliferating and sclerotic nature, and may be listed among the moderately fibrogenic dusts. In view of these results a TLV of 6mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.13-16. 7 ref.

CIS 75-2006 Maximum environmental quality values for air pollutants
Maximale Immissions-Werte [en alemán]
These guidelines give detailed definitions followed by a list of maximum allowable concentrations of 20 harmful substances in the surrounding atmosphere, called "maximum environmental quality values" (Maximale Immissions-Konzentrationen - MIK). These values (mean values expressed in mg/m3 for 30min, 24h and 1 year) are based on the scientific and empirical knowledge of the effects produced, discounting technical prevention possibilities. The directives of the Association of German Engineers for dosimetry of these substances are tabulated.
Association of German Engineers (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure), Düsseldorf, Sep. 1974. Beuth-Vertrieb GmbH, 1 Berlin 30 (Westsektoren), Burggrafenstr. 4-7. 4p. Price: DM.7.80.

CIS 75-1684 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to exposure to sulfuric acid. The time-weighted average exposure (8h) should not exceed 1ppm over a 40-h week. The proposed standard applies to the processing, manufacture, and use of sulfuric acid, or its release as an intermediate by-product or impurity. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of sulfuric acid in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices. These criteria were not designed for the population-at-large and any extrapolation beyond general occupational exposures is not warranted.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland. PB-233 098/3WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, 1974. 100p. Illus. 56 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$8.00/Microfiche US-$1.45.

CIS 75-1662 Reduction of exposure to vinyl chloride
Nedbringande av expositionen för vinylklorid [en sueco]
With affect from 1 Jan. 1975, the Swedish threshold limit value for vinyl chloride has been lowered from 20 to 1ppm, and the ceiling value from 50 to 5ppm (average exposure up to 15 min.). Employers should as soon as possible take the necessary measures to reduce vinyl chloride concentrations below the new levels. Where concentrations cannot be reduced below 20ppm, respiratory protection should be provided.
Meddelanden 1974:30, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Postfack, Stockholm 34, Sweden, 14 Oct. 1974. 2p. Gratis.

CIS 75-1284 Jahr J.
Dose-response basis for settling a quartz threshold limit value - A new, simple formula for calculating the "lifetime dose" of quartz.
It is demonstrated that a commonly used formula for calculating a lifetime exposure to quartz may easily give results which are inconsistent with the response (silicosis) and thus unsuitable as a basis for setting a threshold limit value (TLV). A new simple formula for evaluating the lifetime dose is suggested that takes into consideration the accumulated effect of quartz and allows the calculation of a TLV either in mg-yr/m3 or in an equivalent constant exposure in mg/m3.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1974, Vol.29, No.6, p.338-340. 6 ref.

CIS 75-1396 Waldron H.A.
The blood lead threshold.
Until recently there was wide agreement that a threshold blood lead value existed below which clinical signs and symptoms of intoxication did not appear. The limit defined was one of 80µg/100g of blood for adults and 60 or 40µg/100g for children. There is evidence to show that these levels are too high; new maximum permissible limits are proposed for adults and for children. The main value of blood lead concentrations is to monitor abnormal exposure in a population rather than to serve as a major diagnostic tool.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1974, Vol.29, No.5, p.271-273. 50 ref.

CIS 75-1353 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to chloroform.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to exposure to chloroform. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (10-h working day) should not exceed 10ppm (48.9mg/m3) over a 40-h week. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of a standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of chloroform in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-114, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 120p. 124 ref. Gratis.

CIS 75-1352 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to ammonia.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of exposure to ammonia, defined as gaseous or liquefied anhydrous ammonia and aqueous solutions thereof. The ceiling concentration is fixed at 50ppm (5-min sampling period). Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information on employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of a standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of ammonia in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)74-136, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 107p. Illus. 124 ref. Gratis.

CIS 75-1351 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to benzene.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of benzene on the health and safety of workers. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (10-h working day) should not exceed 10ppm (32mg/m3) over a 40-h week. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of a standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of benzene in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)74-137, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 137p. Illus. 142 ref. Gratis.

CIS 75-1264 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to cotton dust.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases caused by exposure to cotton dust. A number of problems - the most important being that identity of the agent responsible for byssinosis is unknown - complicate choice of a standard, and NIOSH is unable to recommend a safe environmental limit. Occupational exposure to lint-free cotton dust (<15µm aerodynamic diameter) should be controlled to the lowest feasible limit, which current data suggests is no higher than 0.5mg/m3 in dustiest conditions, and perhaps even as low as 0.1mg/m3 in some operations. Research should be vigorously pursued. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, posting of warning notices, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of a standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of cotton dust in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-118, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 159p. Illus. 162 ref. Gratis.

CIS 75-1350 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of sulfuric acid on the health and safety of workers. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (10-h working day) should not exceed 1mg/m3 over a 40-h week. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of a standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of sulfuric acid in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)74-128, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 90p. Illus. 56 ref. Gratis.

CIS 75-1075 Zielhuis R.L.
Permissible limits for occupational exposure to toxic agents - A discussion on differences in approach between US and USSR.
Discussion of the principles used in the USA and the USSR for setting permissible limits for occupational respiratory exposure to chemical agents. The differences are summarised in a table. The author stresses the importance of promoting basic data exchange; the international discussion on such data is still in a very preliminary phase.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 12 Mar. 1974, Vol.33, No.1, p.1-13. 25 ref.

CIS 75-1064 Notification No.26/1974 concerning the threshold limit value for vinyl chloride
Meddelelse nr.26/1974 om hygiejnisk grænseværdi for vinylchlorid [en danés]
The threshold limit value for vinyl chloride has been reduced from 100ppm to 20ppm with effect from 1 Jan. 1975, and to 1ppm with effect from 1 Apr. 1975.
M 26/1974, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 26 Nov. 1974. 1p. Gratis.

CIS 75-1061 Büttner G.
Benzene in the work environment.
Survey of the literature on the systemic action of benzene in acute and chronic poisoning, the experiences in man (damage to the haemopoietic system, chromosome aberrations, relationship between exposure and the amount of benzene in breath and urine), findings in animal experiments (acute and chronic toxicity, carcinogenic action, chromosome aberrations). Considerations of the question of safe concentrations of benzene in the work environment in view of the establishment of a threshold limit value (TLV). From the results of the animal studies, benzene cannot be classified as a carcinogen, but a carcinogenic potential should not be excluded. On account of the leukaemogenic effect of benzene and the lack of quantitative measuring data in the low concentration ranges, a guaranteed innocuous TLV cannot be established.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Kennedyallee 40, 53 Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974. 63p. 178 ref.

CIS 75-952 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to crystalline silica.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of crystalline silica on workers' health. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure should not exceed 50µg/m3 over a 10-h workday, 40-h week. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, warning notices of free silica areas, personal protection, information and training of employees, work practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of the standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of crystalline silica in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW No.(NIOSH) 75-120. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 121p. Illus. 150 ref.

CIS 75-1046 Amoudru C.
The concept of the threshold limit concentration
La notion de valeur limite de concentration. [en francés]
Situating the problem of long-term industrial hazards in the more general context of the environment, the author defines the concept of "acceptable limit". He briefly reviews the epidemiological methods of investigation and measurement leading to the calculation of a tentative maximum permissible concentration. He specifies the true sense of this term, and examines its value and its drawbacks for industrial medicine.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.928-77-74, p.547-551.

CIS 75-1028 Litvinov N.N., Kurylev V.N., Grušin E.R.
Data for establishing a threshold limit value for concentrations of the carcinogenic substance dimethyldinitrosoethylenediamine
Materialy k gigieničeskomu normirovaniju kancerogena - dinitrozodimetilėtilendiamina [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments, showing a definite dose-response relationship between oral doses of 5 and 0.5mg/kg N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dinitrosoethylenediamine and its carcinogenic effects. Since 0.0005mg/kg failed to have such an effect, the authors recommend a threshold limit value of 0.0001mg/l.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.80-84. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 75-1026 Matohnjuk L.A., Karpenko V.N., Olefir A.I., Anina I.A.
Experimental data for the establishment of the maximum permissible concentration for the fungicide polymarcine in the workplace air
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii polimarcina v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Results of research in animals designed to determine the biological effects of the fungicide polymarcine (a complex of zinc ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamate), manganese ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamate) and ethylene thiuram disulfide) administered by the oral or percutaneous route or by inhalation. Acute and toxic poisoning is characterised by changes in the blood picture, enzyme disturbances (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldolase and alkaline phosphatase), and a reduction in immunobiological activity. A threshold limit value of 0.5mg/m3 is recommended for work with this fungicide.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.17-20. 8 ref.

CIS 75-1024 Lutov V.A.
Data for the establishment of the threshold limit value for aerosols of mineral oils without additives used as cutting fluids
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii aėrozolja neftjanyh masel bez prisadok, primenjaemyh v kačestve smazočno-ohlaždajuščih židkostej [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments. Cutting oil aerosols (concentrations of 60, 30 and 13mg/m3) have toxic effects on the function of various organs and systems and reduce immunological reactivity in animals. Since a concentration of 13mg/m3 produces supraliminal effects, the author recommends the adoption of a threshold limit value of 5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.49-52. 6 ref.

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