Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entradas encontradas
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Davis M.E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Garshick E., Blicharz A., Smith T.J.
Predicting changes in PM exposure over time at U.S. trucking terminals using structural equation modeling techniques
This study analyzes the temporal variability of occupational and environmental exposures to fine particulate matter in the U.S. trucking sector, and tests the predictive ability of a novel multilayer statistical approach to occupational exposure evaluation using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques. For these purposes, elemental carbon mass in PM<1µm at six U.S. trucking terminals were measured observing concentrations in various locations of the facility. Findings are discussed. Once accounting for systematic prediction errors in background concentrations, the SEM approach provided a strong fit with measured work-related exposures in this occupational setting.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2009, Vol.6, No.7, p.396-403. Illus. 23 ref.
López L., Blanco L., Aragón A., Partanen T.
Insecticide residues on hands: Assessment and modeling with video observations of determinants of exposure - A study among subsistence farmers in Nicaragua
This investigation quantitatively assessed hand residues of chlorpyrifos and methamidophos among 28 farmers in Nicaragua. Hand residues were estimated by standardized wipe sampling for both hands, analyzed with solvent extraction and gas chromatography. Determinants of exposure related to work practices were assessed for each subject from videotapes. Logistic regression analyses estimated the associations between hand residues, application volume, pesticide type and work practices. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.157-164. Illus. 27 ref.
Patrick G., Daniell W., Treser C.
Residual methamphetamine in decontaminated clandestine drug laboratories
This cross-sectional study examined three previously decontaminated residential clandestine drug laboratories in Washington State to determine the distribution and magnitude of residual methamphetamine concentrations relative to the state decontamination standard. A total of 159 methamphetamine wipe samples were collected from the three laboratories, focusing on the bedroom, bathroom, living room and kitchen. Overall, 59% of random samples and 75% of contact point samples contained methamphetamine in excess of the state decontamination standard. Other findings are discussed. Further research on the efficacy of clandestine drug laboratory decontamination procedures and subsequent verification of methods is needed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.151-156. Illus. 12 ref.
Marchant G., Bullock C., Carter C., Connelly R., Crane A., Fayerweather W., Johnson K., Reynolds J.
Applications and findings of an occupational exposure database for synthetic vitreous fibers
Occupational exposure databases are being used increasingly to characterize worker exposures in industries involving a wide variety of workplace scenarios. The glass fibre and rock wool industries in the United States have developed a large exposure database that can be used to estimate worker exposures by industry sector, fibre type, product type, and job function. This article describes the development of this database as part of a collaborative programme between industry and OSHA and summarizes the findings and potential applications of the database.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.143-150. 15 ref.
Dutil S., Mériaux A., de Latremoille M.C., Lazure L., Barbeau J., Duchaine C.
Measurement of airborne bacteria and endotoxin generated during dental cleaning
This study was conducted to characterize bioaerosol generation during dental treatments performed in standardized conditions. Dental cleaning procedures were performed in an isolated treatment room with a controlled ventilation rate. Aerosols concentrations before, during and 2hr after dental treatments were determined using samplers in the breathing zones of dental hygienists. Fluorescence microscopy in combination with culture showed that dental staff and patients were exposed to up to 1.86 E+05 bacteria/m3 generated during treatments. Fortunately, bioaerosols returned to baseline within 2h after the dental procedures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2009, Vol.6, No.2, p.121-130. Illus. 62 ref.
VanDyke M., Erb N., Arbuckle S., Martyny J.
A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories
The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the direct exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting has not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with the production of methamphetamine based on the reduction of ephedrine by red phosphorous cooking in a home, under conditions simulating clandestine production. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that there are still significant inhalation exposure risks 24h after the cooking.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2009, Vol.6, No.2, p.82-89. Illus. 17 ref.
Hobson A.J., Sterling D.A., Emo B., Evanoff B.A., Sterling C.S., Good L., Seixas N., Checkoway H., Racette B.A.
Validity and reliability of an occupational exposure questionnaire for parkinsonism in welders
This study assessed the validity and test-retest reliability of a medical and occupational history questionnaire for workers performing welding in the shipyard industry. This self-report questionnaire was developed for an epidemiologic study of the risk of Parkinsonism in welders. Participants were recruited from three similar shipyards and asked to complete the questionnaire at two different times approximately four weeks apart. Responses on the questionnaire were compared with information extracted from personnel records. Findings suggest that participants' self-reports were valid compared with employer records, generating reproducible answers and therefore allowing the use of the questionnaire for occupational exposure assessment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2009, Vol.6, No.6, p.324-331. 23 ref.
Bracker A.L., Morse T.F., Simcox N.J.
Training health and safety committees to use control banding: Lessons learned and opportunities for the United States
Control banding (CB) strategies are designed to control workplace chemical exposures after the completion of a qualitative risk assessment. Joint labor/management teams and individuals from 34 workplaces attended a control banding workshop and learned how to use a specific CB model, that of HSE's COSHH Essentials Toolkit (see CIS 00-675). Follow-up workshops, questionnaires, site visits and case studies were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this CB approach. It was found that that the model is easily learned, although several areas for improvement were identified.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2009, Vol.6, No.5, p.307-314. 37 ref.
Osman E., Pala K.
Occupational exposure to wood dust and health effects on the respiratory system in a minor industrial estate in Bursa/Turkey
The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure to wood dust in the furniture industry in an industrial estate in Bursa, Turkey. The study involved 328 woodworkers and 328 unexposed controls. Data on respiratory health were collected by means of questionnaires and medical examinations, including spirometry. Exposure to wood dust was evaluated from workplace sampling. The average dust concentration at the workplace was 2.04mg/m3. 53.7% of the workers reported a blocked nose while working, 43.0% had eye irritation, 41.2% had itching eyes and 23.8% had a runny nose. No symptoms were observed in the control group while they were working at the workplace. The mean FEV1 and FVC values of woodworkers, among both smokers and non smokers, were significantly lower than those of controls. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2009, Vol.22, No.1, p.43-50. 36 ref.
Hansson Mild K., Alanko T., Decat G., Falsaperla R., Gryz K., Hietanen M., Karpowicz J., Rossi P., Sandström M.
Exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. A review of open questions on exposure assessment techniques
European Directive 2004/40/EC on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), was to be implemented in the Member States of the European Union by 2008. Because of some unexpected problems the deadline was postponed until 2012. This paper reviews some of the problems identified and presents some suggestions for possible solutions for assessing occupational exposure to EMF. Among the topics discussed are movement in static magnetic fields, ways to time average extreme low frequency signals, the difference between emission and exposure standards, and ways of dealing with those issues.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.3-33. Illus. 56 ref.
Wong E.Y., Ray R.M., Gao D.L., Wernli K.J., Li W., Fitzgibbons E.D., Camp J.E., Astrakianakis G., Heagerty P.J., De Roos A.J., Holt V.L., Thomas D.B., Checkoway H.
Dust and chemical exposures, and miscarriage risk among women textile workers in Shanghai, China
A retrospective cohort study of miscarriages among 1752 women in the Shanghai textile industry was conducted. Reproductive history was self-reported by women and occupational work histories were collected from factory personnel records. Occupational exposures were evaluated by linking work history to an industry-specific job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment for age at pregnancy, educational level, smoking status of the woman and her spouse, use of alcohol, and woman's year of birth. An elevation in risk of a spontaneously aborted first pregnancy was associated with exposure to synthetic fibres (OR 1.89) and mixed synthetic and natural fibres (OR 3.31). No increased risks were observed for women working with solvents, nor were significant associations observed with quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.161-168. 38 ref.
Quinlan P.J, Earnest G., Eisner M.D., Yelin E.H., Katz P.P., Balmes J.R., Blanc P.D.
Performance of self-reported occupational exposure compared to a job-exposure matrix approach in asthma and chronic rhinitis
Self-reported exposure to vapours, gas, dust or fumes (VGDF) has been widely used as an occupational exposure metric in epidemiological studies of chronic lung diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of VGDF for repeatability, systematic misclassification, and sensitivity and specificity against exposure likelihood by a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Data from two interviews two years apart of adults with asthma and chronic rhinitis were used. VGDF and JEM were also analysed among a subset of 199 subjects who reported the same job at both interviews using logistic regression analysis. The VGDF was found to be a useful assessment method for epidemiological studies of occupational exposure risk.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.154-160. Illus. 29 ref.
Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants
Since 1992, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) programme supports the optimisation of worker radiological protection in nuclear power plants through a worldwide communication and experience exchange network for radiation protection professionals at nuclear power plants and national regulatory authorities, and through the publication of relevant technical resources. This 17th annual report of the ISOE programme presents the status of the programme for the year 2007.
OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine Saint-Germain, 12 boulevard des Iles. 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 2009. 120p. Illus.
http://www.nea.fr/html/rp/reports/2009/nea6386-ISOE.pdf [en inglés]
Bernier Herrera F., Hernández Esguevillas V., Posadillo Marín P.
Exposición a vibraciones en trabajos agrícolas
The objective of this study was to determine the level of vibration to which agricultural workers are exposed when carrying out their assigned tasks. Measurements were carried out in 13 Spanish olive and fruit farms, in which 25 workplaces using various portable tools and agricultural vehicles were examined. It was found that the permissible whole-body vibration limits were never exceeded. However, more than half the values measured exceeded the permissible hand-arm vibration limits. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2009, No.51, p.18-25. Illus. 10 ref.
Factors affecting occupational radon exposure
This report studied the main factors affecting indoor radon concentrations, namely construction of the building's foundation, the type of ventilation used and pressure differences between indoor and outdoor air. Construction on hillsides, the use of mechanical exhaust ventilation and location in radon-prone areas of Finland increase the indoor radon concentration. The pressure differences and ventilation rates did not affect the indoor radon concentration statistically significantly. In most of the buildings investigated, radon emitted from construction materials proved to be only a minor source of radon. The study demonstrated that the need for radon surveillance and mitigation is of utmost importance especially in workplaces in the radon-prone areas of Finland. Mitigation is even more important if the workers live in a similar or higher risk area in which their workplaces are located.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2009. 95p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 22.95.
Zalk D.M., Nelson D.I.
History and evolution of control banding: A review
This literature survey on control banding (CB) explains how CB strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents often encountered in the workplace. The CB approach utilizes models for the dissemination of qualitative and semi-quantitative risk assessment tools being developed to complement the traditional industrial hygiene model of air sampling and analysis. Existing research of the components of the most available CB model, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Essentials (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023), has shown that exposure bands do not always provide adequate margins of safety, that there is a high rate of under-control errors, that it works better with dusts than with vapors, that there is an inherent inaccuracy in estimating variability, and that when taken together the outcomes of this model may lead to potentially inappropriate workplace confidence in chemical exposure reduction in some operations. Implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations are proposed for further research aimed at improving the accuracy of toxicological ratings and hazard band classifications.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2008, p.330-346. 79 ref.
History_and_evolution_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Smith G., Fairburn J.
Updating and improving the National Population Database to National Population Database 2
In 2004, Staffordshire University delivered the National Population Database (NPD) for use in estimating populations at risk under the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (COMAH, see CIS 06-515). In 2006 an assessment was presented to HSE concerning the updating and potential improvements to the NPD. In 2008, the implementation of the feasibility report led to the creation of National Population Database 2 which both updated and expanded the datasets contained in the original NPD. This report describes the work undertaken for updating the population database.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 62p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
RR_678.pdf [en inglés]
Crook B., Easterbrook A., Stagg S.
Health and Safety Executive
Exposure to dust and bioaerosols in poultry farming: Summary of observations and data
The poultry industry in the United Kingdom involves a range of activities including laying litter, populating with young birds, depopulating (reducing bird density during growth or removing at the end of the cycle), litter/manure removal, cleaning houses after depopulation, and routine maintenance and housework. The objective of this study was to measure workers' exposure to airborne dust and bioaerosols associated with these tasks in a representative cross-section of commercial poultry production. In total, eleven sampling visits to eight different farms were undertaken. The results showed that, at maximal exposure, poultry workers were exposed to total inhalable dust levels exceeding 10 mg/m3 during most activities. Exposure to airborne bacteria potentially exceeded one million cfu/m3 of air in each of the activities monitored. Maximal endotoxin levels ranged according to task from 30 to more than 38,000 EU/m3. Maximal airborne fungal concentrations ranged from 2,000 to 600,000 cfu/m3. Implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 62p. Illus. 20 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_655.pdf [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment uncertainties relating to electromagnetic fields (EMF) measurement and computation
Guidelines for limiting occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been produced by international organizations, and have been recommended for use in the United Kingdom by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). There is also an EU Directive (the EMF Directive) which sets restrictions on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and which is expected to be implemented in United Kingdom legislation by April 2012. Technical standardization bodies have produced assessment methods that can be used with these guidelines and with the EMF Directive. Neither the exposure restrictions nor the technical assessment standards specify how measurement and computation uncertainty should be considered as part of an over-all EMF assessment in the workplace. This report describes possible uncertainty management regimes, and discusses the likely implications of these regimes for United Kingdom industry. Although it does not describe in detail how to make an assessment of uncertainty, its appendices contain examples of uncertainty assessment from three CENELEC EMF assessment standards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 33p. Illus. 6 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_649.pdf [en inglés]
Spies A., Rees D., Fourie A.M., Wilson K.S., Harris-Roberts J., Robinson E.
Inhalable dust and protein exposure in soybean processing plants
Little is known about inhalable dust concentrations in soybean processing plants in Southern Africa. This project measured inhalable dust in soybean plants in the region and correlated dust measurements with total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor. Sixty-four personal inhalable dust measurements were taken in three processing plants. Correlations between inhalable dust, total protein and trypsin inhibitor were determined. In production areas, inhalable dust levels were 0.24-35.02 mg/m3 (median 2.58 mg/m3). Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor levels were 29.41-448.82 μg/m3 (median 90.09 μg/m3) and 0.05-2.58 μg/m3 (median 0.07 μg/m3), respectively. No statistically significant correlations between presence of inhalable dust and soy trypsin inhibitor were found. Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor were better correlated. This study indicates that total protein might be a good proxy for soybean specific protein concentrations in soybean processing plants.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.225-230. 16 ref.
Bégin D., Debia M., Gérin M.
Inventory of tools for comparing solvents
Recension des outils de comparaison des solvants [en francés]
The substitution of undesirable solvents with less dangerous products or processes is often the most suitable method from the standpoints of occupational safety and health and environmental protection. This study surveyed the available methods and software used to compare solvents by taking into account health, safety, environmental and technical aspects of a substitution project. Thirteen tools are described and discussed, together with several auxiliary tools used for estimating missing physico-chemical, environmental or toxicological data.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vi, 96p. 166 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-567.pdf [en francés]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Marble industry - Reference Manual - Recommendations for occupational safety and health
Marmorarias - Manual de referência - Recomendações de segurança e saúde no trabalho [en portugués]
This booklet presents technical recommendations for the prevention and control of hazards in the marble industry. Main topics covered: control of exposure to dust; control of exposure to noise; control of exposure to other risk factors; exposure monitoring; medical surveillance; workers' training.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brésil, 2008. 38p. Illus. 23 réf.
Marmorarias.pdf [en portugués]
International Labour Office
My life, my work, my safe work - Managing risk in the work environment
A minha vida, o meu trabalho, o meu trabalho em segurança: gestaõ dos riscos no ambiente de trabalho [en portugués]
Portuguese version of the booklet entitled "My life, my work, my safe work - Managing risk in the work environment". Contents: occupational hazards; four steps to reduce risks; management of workplace risks. English original, please see CIS 08-807.
Escritorio da OIT, Rua do Viriato n°7, 7° e 8° andar, 1050-233 Lisbon, Portugal, 2008. 11p. Illus.
A_minha_vida.pdf [en portugués]
Documenting occupational exposures
Retracer les expositions professionnelles [en francés]
This report presents proposals pertaining to the prevention of occupational hazards arising from carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic to reproductive health (CMRs), particularly from the standpoint of improved understanding workers' exposures by means of the traceability of occupational exposure data, the requirements with respect to the conservation of the data, the conditions governing access to this information and its relationship with general medical practice.
La Documentation française, 29, quai Voltaire 75007 Paris, France, Oct. 2008. 180p. Illus.
http://lesrapports.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/cgi-bin/brp/telestats.cgi?brp_ref=084000684&brp_file=0000.pdf [en francés]
Fritschi L., Shirangi A., Robertson I.D., Day L.M.
Trends in exposure of veterinarians to physical and chemical hazards and use of protection practices
The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to physical and chemical occupational hazards and use of protective practices has changed in recent veterinary graduates, and to describe trends in exposure to occupational hazards and use of protective practices over time. It involved a cohort of veterinarians who graduated from four Australian veterinary schools between 1960 and 2000 and were currently in clinical practice. A self-completed postal questionnaire was used to collect personal details, professional history since graduation, and details of occupational hazards and protective practices used. The prevalence of occupational hazards and use of protective practices was examined by decade of graduation adjusting for gender, type of practice and number of hours worked. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.371-378. 12 ref.
Gold L.S., De Roos A.J., Waters M., Stewart P.
Systematic literature review of uses and levels of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene
This literature survey on occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene identified 179 documents containing useful descriptive information. Mean exposures are given for several sectors including dry cleaning and machining. Several other sources of tetrachloroethylene exposure are identified, including cleaning mining equipment, testing coal, cleaning animal coats in taxidermy and cleaning film. These results will be useful in population-based, case-control studies for quantifying tetrachloroethylene exposure levels for various jobs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.807-839. 180 ref.
Martyny J.W., Van Dyke M.V., Arbuckle S., Towle M., Rose C.S.
Diacetyl exposures in the flavor manufacturing industry
Diacetyl is used in the food industry as a flavour. Exposure to diacetyl has been linked to bronchiolitis obliterans. In this study, exposures were monitored at 16 small-to medium-sized flavour facilities, during which 181 personal and area samples were collected in various processing areas. Diacetyl concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 60ppm. Half of the samples were below the limit of detection, and the mean diacetyl concentration for all processes was 1.80ppm. Mean diacetyl levels during powder operations were generally higher (4.24ppm) than during operations involving liquids (2.02ppm). Peak exposures may be considerably higher and warrant further research.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2008, Vol.5, No.11, p.679-688. Illus. 16 ref.
Perkins R.A., Hargesheimer J., Vaara L.
Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project
During a road repair project in a remote region of Alaska, it was discovered that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 fibre/cc by phase contrast microscopy. Further analysis of 36 samples by transmission electron microscopy indicated that about 40% of the fibres were asbestos. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.609-616. 20 ref.
Williams P.R.D., Panko J.M., Unice K., Brown J.L., Paustenbach D.J.
Occupational exposures associated with petroleum-derived products containing trace levels of benzene
Benzene may be present as a trace impurity in many petroleum-derived products. In this article, the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products is reviewed and the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States are characterized, based on indoor exposure modeling and industrial hygiene air monitoring data collected since the late 1970s. Overall findings indicate that the vast majority of products manufactured in the United States after 1978 contained less than 0.1% benzene by volume, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not have been expected to exceed 0.5ppm under most product use scenarios.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.565-574. Illus. 97 ref.
Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., Levy D., David S., Degioanni S., Theorell T.
Study of the validity of a job-exposure matrix for psychosocial work factors: Results from the French SUMER survey
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for psychosocial work factors defined by Karasek's model using national representative data of the French working population. The sample consisted of 24,486 men and women who filled in the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Job title was defined by both occupation and economic activity coded according to detailed national classifications. The JEM was built using the individual scores of demands, latitude and support for each job title. When compared to individual measures, analyses showed a lower validity of JEM measures for psychological demands and social support, and a relatively higher validity for decision latitude. It is concluded that JEM measures for decision latitude may be used as a complementary method of exposure assessment.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.87-97. 46 ref.
Lee S.G., Pisaniello D., Tkaczuk M., Jankewicz G.
The development of an Australian database of wood dust exposures: Issues and future directions
This article discusses the feasibility of using existing data from various sources in order to assess exposure to wood dust in Australian industry. Information on the exposed workforce and wood usage was gathered from a combination of Australian Bureau of Statistics data and a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of woodworking enterprises in South Australia. However, it was found that many small businesses have not conducted exposure evaluations. In view of this limitation, it was concluded that targeted survey work, as has been conducted in the United Kingdom, which includes using national data, surveys and field measurements, is a more reliable strategy for exposure profile development and trend assessment.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2008, Vol.24, No.5, p.417-424. Illus. 22 ref.
Arheart K.L., Lee D.J., Fleming L.E., LeBlanc W.G., Dietz N.A., McCollister K.E., Wilkinson J.D., Lewis J.E., Clark J.D., Davila E.P., Bandiera F.C., Erard M.J.
Accuracy of self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in the US workforce: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Occupational health studies often rely on self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. This study examines the accuracy of self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure. Data on serum cotinine, self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure for 17,011 workers were extracted from three United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Serum cotinine levels were used to classify workers into SHS exposure categories. The percent agreement between self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure with the cotinine categories was calculated. Workers generally reported their smoking status and SHS exposures accurately. However, substantial numbers of workers reporting no exposures had detectable levels of serum cotinine, indicating exposure to SHS. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1414-1420. 36 ref.
Harley K.G,, Marks A.R., Bradman A., Barr D.B., Eskenazi B.
DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California
This study examined whether exposure to pesticides, including DDT, was associated with longer time to pregnancy (TTP). A total of 402 pregnant women living in a migrant farm worker community were asked how many months they took to conceive. Women reported their and their partners' occupational and home pesticide exposure preceding conception. In a subset of 289 participants, levels of DDT and its decomposition product DDE were measured in maternal serum. No associations were seen with DDT exposure. However, longer TTP was seen among women reporting exposure to agricultural and home pesticides, but not among men. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1335-1342. Illus. 44 ref.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Uncertainty and data quality in exposure assessment - Part 1: Guidance document on characterizing and communicating uncertainty in exposure assessment. Part 2: Hallmarks of data quality in chemical exposure assessment
Assessment of human exposure to chemicals is a critical input to risk assessment and ultimately to decisions about control of chemicals. This two-part publication aims to improve the quality of information available to decision-makers and its communication. Part one sets out ten principles for characterizing and communicating uncertainty in exposure assessment. Part two addresses the quality of data used in exposure assessment, and sets out four basic hallmarks of data quality - appropriateness, accuracy, integrity and transparency.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2008. xiii, 158p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 40.00 (CHF 28.00 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/methods/harmonization/exposure_assessment.pdf [en inglés]
Scarselli A., Binazzi A., Marinaccio A.
Occupational exposure to crystalline silica: Estimating the number of workers potentially at high risk in Italy
Occupational exposure to free silica is widespread in many economic sectors and is known to cause silicosis. This study was designed to establish a database of enterprises and workers in industrial sectors involving silica exposure in Italy and to estimate the number of workers potentially at high risk of exposure. The enterprises and the number of workers potentially exposed to silica were selected from the Italian database of workplaces. The number of workers potentially at high risk of silica exposure was estimated to be over 28,000. The main sectors involved were construction, mining and quarrying, metalworking and manufacturing of non-metallic products.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.51, No.12, p.941-949. Illus. 49 ref.
de Vocht F., Sobala W., Peplonska B., Wilczynska U., Gromiec J., Szeszenia-Dabrowska N., Kromhout H.
Elaboration of a quantitative job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to airborne exposures in the Polish rubber industry
A job-exposure matrix for inhalable aerosols, aromatic amines, and cyclohexane soluble matter was elaborated based on measurements collected routinely between 1981 and 1996 in a large Polish rubber factory. It provides an overview of historical exposure levels and will enable the estimation of lifetime exposure for individual workers in a Polish cohort of rubber workers and further investigation of the associations between specific exposures and cancer risk. Overall, exposures to most substances have deceased in recent years.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.852-860. Illus. 30 ref.
Codron R., Alcouffe J., Rosenberg N., Andrieu F., Cretté A., Hess C., Le Boedec C., Montéléon P.Y.
Exploratory survey on "atmospheric pollutants" in a water treatment and supply enterprise
Enquête exploratoire "polluants atmosphériques" dans une entreprise de traitement et de distribution de l'eau [en francés]
The aim of this study was to compare clinical respiratory criteria among workers of a water treatment plant potentially exposed to hydrogen sulfide, gaseous chlorine, ozone or sulfur dioxide from bisulfites with those of workers considered to be occupationally unexposed. Data were collected by means of anonymous questionnaires and respiratory function tests. Among the 199 subjects, 29 reported having been accidentally exposed to hydrogen sulfide, 41 to gaseous chlorine, 15 to ozone and three to bisulfites; 34 declared one or two accidental exposures and 34 to more than two. No associations were found between potential exposures to the four atmospheric pollutants studied and clinical criteria and respiratory function, except for the sensation of burning nose. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2008, Vol.48, No.3, p.249-258. 10 ref.
Monica L., Nataletti P., Vignali G.
Risk assessment of exposure to mechanical vibrations: Comparison between field measurements and use of databases
Valutazione del rischio da esposizione a vibrazioni meccaniche: confronto tra misurazioni sul campo e uso di banche dati [en italiano]
Many studies have shown that the widespread use of various sources of vibration in the industrial, agricultural and forestry fields, such as vehicles, machinery and tools, constitutes a source of vibration disorders or the worsening of pre-existing symptoms. The objective of this study was to present a comparison between the two types of risk assessment methods currently admissible under Italian legislation, namely direct field measurements and the use of published data. The advantages and operational limitations involved in the use of databases were evaluated through the results of direct field measurements assessing the risk from vibrations in the plant of a mineral water and beverages company. Findings are discussed with reference to Italian legislation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.55-80. Illus. 13 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_3_en.pdf [en inglés]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_3_it.pdf [en italiano]
Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Preissler G., Jauch K.W., Pitz M., Nowak D., Peters A., Wichmann H.E.
Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles
Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a "surgical smoke" containing ultrafine (<100nm) and accumulation mode particles (<1µm). The objective of this study was to measure the amount of particulates in surgical smoke generated during various surgical procedures and to determine the particle concentrations to which operation room personnel are exposed using a condensation particle counter. Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation caused a very high number concentration (>100000/cm3) of particles in the diameter range of 10nm to 12µm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surroundings. In the presence of an efficient air circulating system, ultrafine particles were evacuated within seconds. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Dec. 2008, Vol.3, No.31, 6p. Illus. 29 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-31.pdf [en inglés]
Al-Malki A.L., Rezq A.M., Al-Saedy M.H.
Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia
Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene and sulfur dioxide. Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study, together with a group of male volunteers unexposed to smoke. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes. There were statistically significant differences in liver function, kidney function, serum lipid profile, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and iron and its biologically active derivatives between firefighters and controls. These findings point to the need for improved protective measures to avoid health effects that might endanger firefighters working under extreme conditions.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Dec. 2008, Vol.3, No.33, 8p. 30 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-33.pdf [en inglés]
Moreau B., Grzebyk M.
Use of fibre-based material in France
Utilisation des matériaux fibreux en France [en francés]
Fibre-based materials, some of which are very old, are used in a growing number and range of activities. Some fibres cause major risks to human health and, especially to persons working with them. The aim of this industrial study is to not only identify the fibres used, activity sectors concerned and processes involved, but also to estimate fibre quantities, together with the number of user facilities and potentially exposed employees. It has been conducted through a questionnaire-based survey of more than 10,000 enterprises likely to use fibres. A large amount of data has been compiled. The combined results will be made available in a publicly-accessible database on the INRS website.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2008, No.213, p.27-43. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202299/$File/ND2299.pdf [en francés]
Workplace exposure to vibration in Europe: An expert review
One in three European workers is exposed to vibrations at work and for some sectors, such as construction, this proportion reaches at 63%. Although vibration is a long-standing and well-known risk, its importance has increased since the application of the vibration directive (2002/44/EC, see CIS 02-24), which came into force on 6th July 2005. Vibration measurement is complicated and risk assessment and reduction are not simple. This report brings together specialists from eight leading European institutes to produce an overview of the challenges facing the occupational safety and health community as regards management of occupational vibration risks. The situation in six EU Member States, namely Belgium, Germany, Spain, Finland, France and Poland is examined, and research projects underway in all Member States are summarized.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2008. 126p. Illus. Approx. 100 ref. Price (excluding VAT): EUR 15.00
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/8108322_vibration_exposure [en inglés]
Ostiguy C., Roberge B., Ménard L., Endo C.A.
Good practices guide to synthetic nanoparticle risk management
Guide de bonnes pratiques favorisant la gestion des risques reliés aux nanoparticules de synthèse [en francés]
This document is the first Québec guide on the management of risks related to synthetic nanoparticles. It proposes a prevention strategy applicable to workers and researchers who use or produce nanoparticles. Aimed at enterprises, researchers and safety and health specialists involved with nanotechnologies, this guide describes the current state of knowledge and proposes recommendations for promoting risk factor management and control for the purpose of occupational injury prevention. The guide identifies health, safety and environmental hazards, proposes a procedure for risk evaluation and control, documents current practices worldwide and specifies the content of a company prevention program.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008.vi, 63p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-586.pdf [en francés]
Park E.K., Hannaford-Turner K.M., Hyland R.A., Johnson A.R., Yates D.H.
Asbestos-related occupational lung diseases in NSW, Australia and potential exposure of the general population
Asbestos is a fibrous silicate which is recognized as causing a variety of lung disorders including malignant mesothelioma of the pleura, lung cancer and asbestosis. Asbestos use has been banned in most developed countries but exposure risk still exists under strict regulation in occupational settings and also occasionally in domestic settings. Although the hazards of asbestos are well known in developed countries, awareness of its adverse health effects is less in other parts of the world, particularly when exposure occurs in non-occupational settings. Experience of asbestos use and its adverse health effects in developed countries such as Australia have resulted in development of expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of asbestos-related diseases as well as in screening and this can be used to help developing countries facing the issue of asbestos exposure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.535-540. 43 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_535.pdf [en inglés]
Sikkeland L.I.B., Skogstad M., Øvstebø R., Brusletto B., Haug K.B.F., Kongerud J., Eduard W., Kierulf P.
Circulating lipopolysaccharides in the blood from "bioprotein" production workers
Workers producing bacterial single-cell protein (bioprotein) are exposed to organic dust containing high levels of endoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS). Workers in this industry have complained of episodes of fever, fatigue, chest tightness, skin dryness and rubor. The aim of this study was to quantify LPS and inflammatory mediators in plasma in eight non-smoking production and eight non-smoking, non-exposed controls. Airborne and plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured, as well as plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein and different cytokines, chemokines and metalloproteinases. The workers who did not use personal respiratory protection were exposed to varying airborne levels of endotoxin (75-15,000 EU/m3). The level of plasma LPS was significantly elevated among the workers compared to the non-exposed controls. The workers also had increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.211-214. Illus. 13 ref.
Boggia B., Farinaro E., Grieco L., Lucariello A., Carbone U.
Burden of smoking and occupational exposure on etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in workers of Southern Italy
This study evaluates the burden of smoking and occupational exposure on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diagnostic protocol was applied to a sample of 2019 workers of Southern Italy at baseline and after five and ten years. Exposures were evaluated by means of questionnaires and regulatory documents supplied by employers. Taking into account individual and occupational exposure levels, the sample was divided in four groups. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Higher COPD prevalence and incidence were observed in the most exposed group. Smoking habits and occupational exposure were confirmed as risk factors for COPD and an interaction between smoking and certain occupational exposures was observed. Smoking cessation programs could play an important role reducing the risk of COPD, in view of the synergism with occupational exposures observed in certain activities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.366-370. Illus. 30 ref.
Occupational exposure assessment for crystalline silica dust: Approach in Poland and worldwide
It is estimated that over two million workers in the European Union are exposed to crystalline silica. In Poland, over 50 thousand people work under conditions of silica dust exposure exceeding the occupational exposure limit. The assessment of occupational exposure to crystalline silica is a multi-phase process, primarily dependent on workplace measurements, quantitative analyses of samples and comparison of the results with relevant standards. This article summarizes the approaches used for assessment of exposure to crystalline silica in various European countries and worldwide. It also compares the occupational limit values in force in almost 40 countries. Finally, it points out the consequences resulting from the fact that IARC has classified the two most common forms of crystalline silica, namely quartz and cristobalite, as human carcinogens (group 1).
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1st Quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-23. 116 ref.
Takada S., Okamoto S., Yamada C., Ukai H., Samoto H., Ohashi F., Ikeda M.
Chemical exposures in research laboratories in a university
Research laboratories in a Japanese university were investigated for airborne levels of organic solvents and specified chemical substances. Repeated surveys revealed that the solvent concentrations were in excess of permissible levels only in a few laboratories and none with regard to specified chemicals. Such conditions were achieved primarily by extensive installation and use of local exhaust systems. The survey further revealed that types of chemicals used in research laboratories were extremely varied but used only in small amounts. Therefore, it appears more appropriate to make personal exposure assessments rather than evaluation of levels in the air of research laboratories.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.166-173. Illus. 28 ref.
Kim K.Y., Ko H.J., Kim H.T., Kim C.N., Kim Y.S., Roh Y.M.
Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in confinement nursery pig houses. A control pig house was used for comparison, where no feed was supplied during the experimental period. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, airborne fungi and ammonia were found to be significantly higher in the pig house with feeding than in the control pig house. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increases the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to operations involving no feeding.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.138-143. Illus. 25 ref.
Godderis L., Deschuyffeleer T., Roelandt H., Veulemans H., Moens G.
Exposure to metalworking fluids and respiratory and dermatological complaints in a secondary aluminium plant
In this study, the exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) was evaluated in 31 workers of three departments (extrusion, hot and cold rolling mill) in a secondary aluminium plant in Belgium. Evaluations also included urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and self-assessments of respiratory and dermatological complaints by means of questionnaires. Atmospheric levels of MWFs and biodegradation products were low in all work environments. 1-Hydroxypyrene levels were all around the detection limit of 0.2µg/L. The scores for skin and respiratory symptoms were higher in the hot and cold rolling mill departments than in the extrusion department. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.845-853. Illus. 35 ref.
Westberg H., Egelrud L., Ohlson C.G., Hygerth M., Lundholm C.
Exposure to nitrous oxide in delivery suites at six Swedish hospitals
Occupational exposures to nitrous oxide in delivery suites in six Swedish hospitals were evaluated, together with various scavenging techniques. 8h time-weighted averages (TWAs) and short-term (15 min) peak exposures were determined for 36 midwives and assistant midwives. Diffusive samplers were used for monitoring, and analysed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effect on exposure of different types of scavenging systems was studied by mixed model analysis. Findings are discussed. A large number of TWAs exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. Masks connected to scavenging systems significantly reduced exposures. Furthermore, using a forced general air ventilation system in addition to improved working methods substantially improved the air quality in the delivery suites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.829-836. 19 ref.
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