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Epidemiology - 180 entradas encontradas

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  • Epidemiology

1993

CIS 94-243 Florey C.V.
Commission of the European Communities
EPILEX - A multilingual lexicon of epidemiological terms
EPILEX - Lexique multilingue des termes de l'épidémiologie [en francés]
Eight-language dictionary of ca. 1250 terms and expressions used in epidemiology and related fields. The glossary, whose English version is extended from John Last's A dictionary of epidemiology (Oxford University Press), is immediately loadable and usable on MS-DOS computers. Twenty terms in any two of the languages can appear at the same time on the screen.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1993. 3.5 inch diskette (MS-DOS). Price: ECU 7.00.

CIS 93-619 Câmara V.M.
World Health Organization (OMS)
Mercury in areas of gold mining settlement
Mercúrio em áreas de garimpos de ouro [en portugués]
Contents of this study of the mercury (Hg) contamination problem in gold mining areas of Brazil: epidemiologic monitoring of gold mining areas; work processes involved in gold mining and related health hazards (particularly due to exposure to Hg); Hg in the environment and its hazards for man (Hg in the air, in the soil and in water); information on gold miners relevant to the development of epidemiologic monitoring (distribution of the mining population, migratory movements, original occupation, educational level, work organisation, use of pollution control equipment); effects of Hg on man and diagnostic methods (symptoms of acute and chronic Hg poisoning, diagnosis, treatment, medical questionnaire given to miners exposed to Hg); methods for collecting blood, urine and hair samples for purposes of measuring Hg levels in the body; environmental monitoring for Hg (in fish, soil, sediments, water); basics of atmospheric monitoring of Hg; laboratory measurements; control of Hg contamination in gold mining areas; development of programmes for the health training of workers; the health dimension in environmental impact studies.
Centro Panamericano de Ecologia Humana e Saúde (ECO), Apartado Postal 37-473, 06696 México D.F., Mexico, 1993. xix, 164p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

1992

CIS 96-2094 Suarez-Almazor M.E., Soskolne C.L., Fung K., Jhangri G.S.
Evaluación empírica del efecto de diferentes métodos de medida de la exposición profesional acumulada sobre la estimación del riesgo en los estudios casos-control sobre los cánceres profesionales
Empirical assessment of the effect of different summary worklife exposure measures on the estimation of risk in case-referent studies of occupational cancer [en inglés]
El efecto de diferentes métodos de medida de la exposición profesional acumulada (es decir, medidas que atribuyen pesos bien a la duración o a la concentración de la exposición o a ambas) en la estimación del riesgo en estudios referidos a casos sobre el cáncer ocupacional fue analizado comparando dos estudios referidos a casos análogos (del sur de Ontario, Canada y Baton Rouge, Louisiana, EE.UU.) que asocian la exposición al ácido sulfúrico con el cáncer. Se convirtieron cinco medidas de exposición final a niveles de exposición discretos mediante sofisticados métodos estadísticos. El conjunto de datos de Ontario mostró únicamente diferencias menores a lo largo de las 5 medidas de exposición. El conjunto de datos de Louisiana, sin embargo, produjo resultados diferentes, y las medidas dependientes del tiempo resultaron en una subestimación del riesgo. Es posible, por lo tanto, obtener distintas estimaciones de riesgo desde distintas medidas de exposición. Se recomienda que, en ausencia de modelos probados para determinar la exposición, se utilice una variedad de medidas finales para la estimación de riesgos. Esta solución facilitaría la comparación de descubrimientos en los estudios.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ago. 1992, vol.18, n°4, p.233-241. 25 ref.

CIS 96-1610
International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agriculture Implement Workers of America (UAW)
Los asesinos profesionales en el medio laboral: guía del detective del cáncer
The case of the workplace killers: A manual for cancer detectives on the job [en inglés]
Guía formativa cuyo objetivo es enseñar a los trabajadores cómo establecer si las muertes por cáncer entre los trabajadores en activo y los jubilados de centros de trabajo se deben a las exposiciones profesionales. En el sumario: programa de oncología de la UAW; posibilidades de acción sindical a nivel local; estudios del cáncer en el medio laboral (definición básica de la epidemiología, índice proporcional de mortalidad (IPM), cuando hacer o no un estudio); cómo un sindicato local puede contribuir a la realización de un estudio sobre el cáncer (evaluación del problema, recopilación detallada de datos, cálculo del IPM, estudio de seguimiento); recopilación de pruebas (certificados de defunción, preparación de una lista y aplicación, norma OSHA sobre "el derecho a saber", formularios de declaración de la OSHA de los accidentes de trabajo y las enfermedades profesionales); trucos del oficio (comparaciones, diferencias en las condiciones); algunas estadísticas básicas sobre las muertes por cáncer en Estados Unidos; cómo preparar los gráficos; lista de las sustancias cancerígenas conocidas; relación de los trabajos y los puestos de trabajo de alto riesgo; elementos básicos sobre el cáncer de etiología profesional; función de la OSHA, el NIOSH, las empresas y los sindicatos en la lucha contra el cáncer profesional.
UAW Purchase and Supply Department, 8000 E. Jefferson, Detroit, MI 48214, USA, 1980, reeditado 1992. 40p. Ilus. 9 ref. Precio: USD 2,00.

CIS 94-240 Gervais M.
Interpretation of health surveys
Interprétation des enquêtes de santé [en francés]
The first part of an analysis of statistics concerning the health of workers collected by Santé Québec in 1987 is presented. It focuses on the potential consequences of two aspects of the methodology of the survey as to the interpretation of the results: the method of collecting information and the nature of the morbidity as expressed in an interview. Factors which influence the expression of morbidity, such as sex, socio-cultural and professional category differences, are discussed.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec, 505, boulevard de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3C2, Canada, 1992. 92p. 71 ref.

CIS 93-846 Smans M., Muir C.S., Boyle P.
World Health Organization
Atlas of cancer mortality in the European Economic Community
A thorough analysis of cancer mortality data obtained during the second half of the 1970s in the then member countries of the EEC (Belgium, Denmark, France, the old German Federal Republic with West Berlin, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom). Contents: aims of the Atlas; the mapping of cancer; sources of error and bias; information sources (death certificates, statistical publications); EEC cancer mortality by site (sites considered: ill-defined and secondary, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, larynx, lung, malignant melanoma of the skin, breast, ovary, uterus, prostate, testis, bladder, urinary tract, brain and nervous system, thyroid, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukaemia; for each site, range of mortality rates and age-specific mortality rates are shown graphically for every member State); potential for prevention (there is general agreement among epidemiologists that exposure to carcinogens in the workplace accounts for at most 3-4% of all cancers in men, and a much smaller proportion in women; workplace exposures to passive smoking and asbestos should be reduced nevertheless). In annex: detailed presentation of data, by cancer site, sex and administrative subdivision within each country. The maps present the same mortality rate information through the use of colour codes.
Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom, 1992. vii, 213p. + annex (44 maps). Illus. ca. 200 ref. Price: GBP 35.00.

CIS 93-829 Owen C.V., Acquavella J.A., Lynch J., Bird M.G.
An industrial hygiene methodology developed in support of a retrospective morbidity case-control study
This study investigated a potentially increased incidence of colorectal cancer among employees who manufactured polypropylene. The design of the case-control study provided an innovative industrial hygiene approach to circumvent the problems of estimating exposures, problems which are typical of retrospective epidemiological case-control studies. The industrial hygiene methodology included assessing historical exposures, developing an exposure estimating matrix, selecting candidate aetiological agents based on a joint toxicological and industrial hygiene review, administering a work activity questionnaire, calculating exposure scores, and conducting a statistical analysis. The study design also provided an additional exposure measurement independent of the toxicological and industrial hygiene review. This provided an opportunity to compare the likelihood of exposure misclassification and, as expected, showed that a more detailed exposure estimate resulted in less misclassification.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.540-547. 29 ref.

CIS 93-855 Rönnerberg A., Langmark F.
Epidemiologic evidence of cancer in aluminium reduction plant workers
This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence of cancer risks among workers in aluminium reduction plants with emphasis on associations with specific work areas and exposures. Studies of workers manufacturing carbon products outside the aluminium industry were also reviewed since the work environment is similar to that encountered in the carbon area of aluminium plants. 16 publications form 11 separate studies were obtained from references cited through compact disc literature searching during the period 1980-1990, and from the Nordic Aluminium Industry's Secretariat for Health, Environment and Safety. Work in potrooms with Södeberg electrolytic cells was associated with increased risk of bladder cancer, and the increase was correlated with duration of tar exposure. There was a suggestion of increased risk of leukaemias and pancreatic cancers in potroom workers, and of kidney and brain cancers without any clear association with specific exposures or work areas. Results showed associations between lung cancer risk and tar exposure in Södeberg plants, and between lung cancer and work in prebake or carbon plants.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.573-590. 42 ref.

CIS 93-822 Selikoff I.J.
Influence of age at death on accuracy of death certificate disease diagnosis - Findings in 475 consecutive deaths of mesothelioma among asbestos insulation workers and asbestos factory workers
The analysis of 475 consecutive deaths of mesothelioma among asbestos insulation and asbestos factory workers until age 75 or older showed that age at death had no appreciable influence on the accuracy of death certificate diagnoses.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.505-510. 15 ref.

CIS 93-821 Selikoff I.J.
Death certificates in epidemiological studies, including occupational hazards - Inaccuracies in occupational categories
Death certificates for asbestos-related diseases (mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis) were compared in two asbestos workers' cohorts. One cohort (insulation workers) had current or recent employment and a continuing union support system which gave them considerable information about the effects of asbestos exposure. The second cohort, asbestos factory workers, had no such advantage. Accuracy of medical diagnosis was comparable in the two groups, but occupational listings were not. Three-quarters of the insulators' death certificates mentioned asbestos work, while virtually none of the factory workers' certificates provided such information, even for deaths from mesothelioma and asbestosis. The data indicate that disease categories, based on medical and pathological diagnoses, at least for asbestos-associated disease, tend to be accurate. Attempts to identify groups at risk by sorting occupational categories can give good results for those with current exposures, but less reliable ones for those with long-past occupational exposures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.493-504. 27 ref.

CIS 93-820 Selikoff I.J., Seidman H.
Use of death certificates in epidemiological studies, including occupational hazards - Variations in discordance of different asbestos-associated diseases on best evidence ascertainment
There is extensive information on discordance in general between accuracy of medical diagnoses on death certificate categorisation of cause of death and available clinical and histopathological data. This is as true for occupational diseases as for other conditions. But occupational illnesses have a special problem. Discordance is not equal across the board - it may vary with each occupationally related disease, and no single formula can be applied. It was found that for one agent - asbestos - there were different rates of discordance for different asbestos-related diseases (e.g. lung cancer, mesothelioma, asbestosis, kidney cancer) among 4,951 deaths studies prospectively from 1967 to 1986. Caution is therefore required before accepting generalisations concerning (unstudied) discordance in occupational mortality studies, and in their use in risk assessment models.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.481-492. 15 ref.

CIS 93-819 Selikoff I.J.
Use of death certificates in epidemiological studies, including occupational hazards - Discordance with clinical and autopsy findings
There has long been evidence of frequent inaccuracy of death certificates, with significant discordance between such designations and clinical and autopsy data. This exists for occupational diseases as well. The use of statistical rates based on death certificates has been seriously questioned despite their utility for total mortality. Programmes to supplement death certificate data, particularly in occupational disease studies, may be helpful, and are reviewed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.469-480. 73 ref.

CIS 93-522 Nordstrom D.L., Brand L., Layde P.M.
Centers for Disease Control
Epidemiology of farm-related injuries - Bibliography with abstracts
This bibliography covers reports on the occurrence and characteristics of farm-related injuries and includes 343 journal reports and 180 monographs published from 1914 to 1991. Citations are listed by year and indexes by journal title, author and subject are included. Some of the references focus on chronic exposures and on the hazards of the agricultural industry, but all entries have some information on acute trauma; reports on acute poisoning by agricultural chemicals are included, but those on chronic poisoning only are not. The emphasis is on surveillance and epidemiology. Glossary.
Publications Dissemination, DSDTT, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, June 1992. viii, 206p. 523 ref. Indexes.

CIS 93-524 Câmara V.M., Corey G.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Epidemiology and the environment - The case of gold mining settlements in Brazil
Epidemiologia e meio ambiente - O caso dos garimpos de ouro no Brasil [en portugués]
Contents of this study of the occupational health problems of gold miners and prospectors in the Amazon region of Brazil: epidemiology in environmental health (toxicology, exposure evaluation, adverse health effects, types of population, epidemiological investigation and monitoring, operational and strategic support); initial work environment of gold miners (statistic, gold extraction, the use of mercury in the extraction process, public institutions concerned with the working environment of miners); epidemiology in gold mining areas; conclusions.
Centro Panamericano de Ecologia Humana e Saúde (ECO), Apartado Postal 37-473, 06696 México, D.F., Mexico, 1992. x, 211p. Illus. 121 ref.

CIS 93-505 Faus-Kessler T., Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Scherb H., Tritschler J., Weigelt E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Introduction to epidemiology in occupational medicine
Einführung in die arbeitsmedizinische Epidemiologie [en alemán]
This book provides an introduction to the epidemiological approach in making causal inferences in occupational medicine and discusses the requirements and potential biases of occupational epidemiologic studies. Contents include: basic concepts (risk causality); examples of epidemiological practice (cancerogenicity of wood dust and association between workload and coronary heart diseases); design options (case and case-control studies; prospective, cohort and cross-sectional studies; disease clusters); sources of bias and control of bias (selection, information bias, control of confounding by stratification and standardisation); exposure assessment; basic concepts of statistical analysis (populations and samples, error probabilities, confidence intervals and curves); statistical modelling, appropriate software for analysis; use of data provided by the authorities for epidemiological purposes; access to data (legislation in Germany); review of important English-language books on epidemiology. Summaries in French, German, English.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany. 1992. 330p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 93-135 Burdorf A.
Exposure assessment of risk factors for disorders of the back in occupational epidemiology
This review describes methods for assessing exposure to postural load of the back in occupational epidemiological studies. Among the articles selected that presented information on the prevalence of back disorders in occupational groups, only 42% exposure assessment was performed. Measures of exposure were predominantly presented in the nominal and ordinal levels. It is agreed that in most epidemiologic studies on disorders of the back in occupational groups the quality of exposure data is poor. Quantitative measurement methods need to be developed for application in occupational epidemiology.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.1-9. 134 ref

CIS 93-134 Kaldor J.
Quantitative assessment of human cancer risk
This paper presents a definition of risk and discusses the role of epidemiological observation in the quantitative assessment of cancer risk, the estimation of risk from epidemiological data, and the role of animal cancer bioassays in the quantitative assessment of cancer risk. It is emphasised that quantitative risk assessment is inevitably based on multiple assumptions. Where possible, the magnitude of errors associated with these assumptions should be stated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.90-96. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 93-133 Langård S.
Proposal for future uses in epidemiology for cohort studies on the prevention of work-related cancer
A new use of the cohort method in cancer studies is proposed, which includes the individual collection of information on past exposure to major carcinogens. It is assumed that it is possible to determine individual cancer risk and, subsequently, to estimate the individual risks of cause-specific cancers on the basis of accurate individual data on exposure to carcinogens. As increased risk of work-related cancer is generally more strongly related to past than to current exposure, risk-determined intervention should be integrated into the daily routines of both occupational health physicians and primary care physicians.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.57-63. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 93-131 Hemminki K.
Occupational cancer and carcinogenesis
This special issue considers the following aspects: exposure from occupational versus other sources, carcinogen metabolism and individual susceptibility, oncogenes and oncoproteins in occupational carcinogenesis, use of molecular biology techniques in cancer epidemiology, cancer morbidity by occupation, proposal for future uses in epidemiology for cohort studies on the prevention of work-related cancer, identification of carcinogens within the IARC monograph programme, quantitative assessment of human cancer risk, technological changes in cancer prevention, screening for occupational cancer, workplace cancer prevention.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, 117p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 93-119 Choi B.C.K., Noseworthy A.L.
Classification, direction, and prevention of bias in epidemiologic research
The article proposes an extension of an existing framework used by several investigators for classifying various types of bias. The framework consists of three categories of bias: selection, information, and confounding. The existing framework is expanded to include subclassification according to the type of study design: cross-sectional, case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort. Direction and method of prevention of biases within each category in framework are discussed. This article provides a useful checklist for epidemiologists to determine possible sources and methods of reduction of bias that are specific to a particular type of study design.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.265-271. 33 ref.

1991

CIS 94-612 Vacek P.M., McDonald J.C.
Risk assessment using exposure intensity: An application to vermiculite mining
An exposure-response model for assessing lung cancer risk was developed and applied to vermiculite miners. The approach was applied to a study of lung cancer mortality (recorded up to July 1983) in 406 male miners employed for at least 1 year before 1963 at a vermiculite mine and mill in Montana. Exposure records for airborne fibres and occupational histories were reviewed. The exposure data were grouped into five categories having average fibre concentrations of 0.0, 2.1, 7.0, 24.1, and 82.0f/mL. Twenty-one lung cancer deaths occurred in the cohort between 1963 and July 1983. Negative nonsignificant lung cancer risk coefficients were found for the 2.1f/mL exposure group. The lung cancer risk coefficients for the 82.0f/mL group were similar to those of the 7.0f/mL group. When compared with a risk model that used cumulative exposure as the exposure indices, the lung cancer risk coefficients using cumulative exposure indices underestimated the risk for the 7.0 and 24.1f/mL groups significantly and overestimated the risk for the 82.0f/mL group. The authors conclude that in order to access exposure response relationships from epidemiological data accurately, exposure intensity as well as duration must be taken into account.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.48, No.8, p.543-547. 9 ref.

CIS 94-611 Chiazze L., Watkins D.K., Amsel J.
Asphalt and risk of cancer in man
This literature survey concludes that since the 1984 IARC Monograph No.35 (see CIS 86-698) was published, there have been no new epidemiological data to show a causal relationship between exposure to asphalt (bitumen) and cancer. It is suggested that, while taking appropriate protective measures for those who work with asphalt, well-designed epidemiological studies should be undertaken to determine whether asphalt has carcinogenic properties.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.48, No.8, p.538-542. 17 ref.

CIS 94-568 Imbernon E., Goldberg M., Guenel P., Bitouze F., Brement F., Casal A., Creux S., Folliot D., Huez D., Lagorio S., Lalande B., Langlois L., Niedbala J.M., Soncarrieu A., Warret G.
MATEX: A job-exposure matrix for the epidemiological surveillance of workers in a large company (EDF-GDF)
MATEX: une matrice emplois-expositions destinée à la surveillance épidémiologique des travailleurs d'une grande entreprise (EDF-GDF) [en francés]
Large-scale epidemiological surveys cannot be carried out successfully through traditional survey methods. Despite their limitations, job-exposure matrices are among the reliable standardized tools which can best contribute to carrying out such surveys. The MATEX project, a job-exposure matrix specifically developed for the power and gas industry in France, includes assessments for about 30 possible carcinogens used in the French national power and gas company using the 1, 2A and 2B categories of IARC. For each of these substances, data are collected on tasks involving some form of exposure; these data are then used to derive indices of the probability and intensity of exposure which can be included in epidemiological surveys.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.559-566. 13 ref.

CIS 94-241 Eighth International Symposium - Epidemiology in Occupational Health
8e Symposium international d'épidémiologie de la santé au travail [en francés]
The proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health organized under the aegis of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) in Paris, France, 10-12 Sep. 1991 include: (1) The text of 6 invited lectures on the epidemiology of occupational neurobehavioural hazards: methodological experiences from organic solvent research; epidemiology of occupational reproductive hazards: methodological aspects; epidemiology of respiratory hazard; recent advances; methodological problems of time-related variables in occupational cohort studies; electromagnetic fields and cancer risks; use of biochemical and biological markers in occupational epidemiology. (2) Abstracts of some 130 papers classified under the following headings: methods; exposure assessment; occupational cancer; cardiovascular diseases; respiratory diseases; musculoskeletal diseases; neurobehavioural diseases; psychosocial factors; medical surveillance; work accidents; other related diseases; reproductive effects.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6 bis, p.II, 495-613. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1266 Maltoni C.
Carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride: The lessons learned
La cancerogenicità da cloruro di vinile - La lezione [en italiano]
This editorial surveys carcinogenicity studies concerning vinyl chloride, with a list of the principal findings of 15 major studies conducted worldwide between 1970 and 1983.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1991, Vol.82, No.5, p.383-387. 18 ref.

CIS 93-489 Stewart P.A., Herrick R.F.
Issues in performing retrospective exposure assessment
This paper describes some of the limitations of traditional measures of occupational exposures in epidemiological research. Reliance on industry or job categories as a surrogate for exposure, plus length of employment for establishing a dose-response relationship, may result in large amounts of misclassification of subjects by exposure categories. Recently, more investigators have developed semiquantitative assessments (i.e. assigning jobs to low, medium, and high exposure categories). Although better than the traditional approach, it is less than satisfactory because the quantitative relationships among the categories are not known. Quantitative assessment is ideally the best approach, although monitoring data are rarely sufficient to allow calculation of measured exposure levels. Nevertheless, the most quantitative procedure possible should be used so as to develop exposure estimates that are reflective of dose.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1991, Vol.6, No.6, p.421-427. 14 ref.

CIS 93-488 Heederick D., Boleij J.S.M., Kromhout H., Smid T.
Use and analysis of exposure monitoring data in occupational epidemiology - An example of an epidemiological study in the Dutch animal food industry
Two types of monitoring strategies are discussed. In the first, all members of the study population are monitored on various occasions. The ratio of within and between worker variance gives information about the magnitude of underestimation of the exposure-response relationship. The second strategy is based on "homogeneous" exposure categories, illustrated with a study among animal feed workers. The grouping which results from this strategy can be successfully applied for epidemiological purposes if the ratio of the within and between category variance in exposure is relatively small. In both strategies, the analysis of variance of repeated exposure measurements on the same individuals plays a crucial role. Repeated measurements on the same individual should be taken routinely. The analysis of variance should be used as a tool to analyse such data in order to optimise a measurement strategy or a characterisation of the population in exposure groups.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1991, Vol.6, No.6, p.458-464. 17 ref.

CIS 93-141 Merletti F., Vineis P., Bertazzi P.A.
Problems and prospects in occupational carcinogenesis
Problemi e prospettive nella cancerogenesi occupazionale [en italiano]
Epidemiological research has played an important role in identifying and confirming the carcinogenicity of chemicals. This was facilitated in the past by high levels of exposure and by the simple correspondence between one kind of exposure and one or few job titles. Today we are faced with a different picture: workers are exposed to complex mixtures, exposure levels have decreased while mobility of the workforce has increased. In this changing context, epidemiology needs new methodological tools to improve the validity of risk assessment. The most promising of these seem to be the new techniques of biochemical epidemiology and the development of job-exposure matrices. Among the more traditional tools, record-linkage studies may be relevant in identifying long-term occupational hazards. The methodological problems and the ethical and operative implications of these trends in research are discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.314-327. 56 ref.

CIS 93-150 Bertazzi P.A.
How can an aspecific association be identified? - An epidemiological approach to the study of health conditions of office workers
Come mettere in luce una associazione aspecifica? - Considerazioni epidemiologiche sullo studio della salute negli uffici [en italiano]
The work-relatedness of the majority of diseases occurring at the workplace is by no means obvious. The relationship to work environment and performance of work is one of several causative factors. However, the multifactorial origin of diseases is not at all a new concept since principles and methods for the study of the numerous factors playing a role in any association between exposure and disease are already available. The model of causal constellations developed by Rothman can be particularly useful for the investigation of 'non-specific' associations, such as those commonly occurring in office work. The study of the health conditions of office workers is faced with many difficulties, including the identification, measurement and classification of exposure variables and health outcomes. In designing these studies, particular attention should be devoted to aspects regarding sample size, length of observation time and referent population.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.291-298. 15 ref.

1990

CIS 92-1917
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Epidemiology in occupational medicine - 1990 Symposium
Epidemiologie in der Arbeitsmedizin - Symposium 1990 [en alemán]
Proceedings of a conference on epidemiology in occupational medicine held in Neuherberg, Germany, 9-10 October 1990. Titles include: interpretation of 'negative' results - methodological and ethical questions; confidence curves as a tool for the representation of epidemiological events; plant epidemiology at AUDI - backgroud, problems, perspectives; methodological problems in epidemiological studies on the risks of diseases related to occupational allergic respiratory diseases; epidemiological evidence of the cancerogenicity of wood dust; cancerogenicity of PCB - a meta-analysis; study of the 1953 dioxin accident at BASF; cancer mortality among workers at the Hamburg-Moorfleet plant of CH. Boehringer Ingelheim - a retrospective cohort study. Summaries of papers. List of participants.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 140p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

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