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Dubrisay J., Fagès J.
Occupational injuries in the agricultural sector - A statistical approach - II. Occupational diseases
La pathologie professionnelle dans les activités agricoles; essai d'approche statistique - II. Les maladies d'origine professionnelle. [en francés]
Sequel to a first article abstracted as CIS 79-284. A statistical analysis (covering 3,276 cases of occupational diseases compensated during the period 1974-1976) of the frequency of occupational diseases with breakdown, following the European classification, into 5 groups of cases: infectious and parasitic diseases (82%), skin disorders (8%), poisoning due to chemicals (6%), respiratory diseases (2%), postural complaints (0.6%). Brucellosis alone accounted for 74% of the total number of cases studied. The article concludes with a review of French regulations concerning compensation for, and the prevention of, occupational diseases in the agricultural sector.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1978, Vol.39, No.7-8, p.459-468.
The realtionship between tuberculosis and silicosis.
This editorial article is a literature survey of the question, reporting information from a large number of countries and considering such aspects as the "walling-in" of tuberculosis foci by silicotic fibrosis (diagnosis being difficult as sufficient bacilli are not discharged into the sputum), the deleterious effect of silica on the ability of macrophages to inhibit the growth of bacilli, adjuvant effect of silica particles on antibody responses, increased susceptibility of persons with silicosis to other mycobacterial diseases, prevention of tuberculosis among population exposed to silica dust, contraindication of BCG vaccination, unpublished U.S. Public Health Service survey of 400 persons with anthracosilicosis, possibility that antituberculosis drugs do not readily penetrate into silicotic nodules, isoniazid preventive therapy, clinical signs, importance of chest roentgenography.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Sep. 1978, Vol.118, No.3, p.455-460. 54 ref.
Old World leishmaniasis.
This case study describes how a construction engineer contracted leishmaniasis from a sand fly bite in an endemic area in the Middle East and how initial treatment caused the real nature of the disease to go unrecognised. Background information on cutaneous leishmaniasis (causative agent: Leishmania tropica) (areas in which it is endemic; vector; animal and human infective reservoirs; severity and course of the disease; relapses; lymphatic spread; lost work time due to disabling nature of the disease; possibility of permanent disfiguration and swelling); correct treatment; reference to 2 other forms of leishmaniasis (New World or muco-cutaneous; kala-azar, causing high fever and affecting the spleen, liver and other visceral organs).
Occupational Health, Aug. 1978, Vol.30, No.8, p.375-378. Illus. 7 ref.
Record of proceedings of the VIIIth National Congress of Preventive Medicine for Hospital Staff, Marseille, 12-14 October 1977
Compte rendu des travaux des VIIIes Journées nationales de médecine préventive du personnel hospitalier, Marseille, 12-14 octobre 1977. [en francés]
Papers presented are grouped under 3 main topics. 1st topic (ergonomics in the hospital): ergonomics and nursing work; global study of the workload of an orthopaedics nurse. 2nd topic (work schedules): work schedules in the hospital and their repercussions on staff health; effects of night shift working on a feminine population; suggestions for night schedules; survey in a surgery service; considerations on hospital work schedules. 3rd topic (viral hepatitis, an occupational disease of hospital staff): viruses of hepatitis and their antigens; protocol of systematic prevention of antigen B hepatitis in haemodialysis centres; statistics concerning the hazard of viral hepatitis B in hospitals in the Rhône-Alps region; informational training in the prevention of viral hepatitis; medico-legal settlements for viral hepatitis in hospital employees; prevention of hepatitis B by vaccination. Non-scheduled papers presented: working conditions of assistant-nurses in hospitals; mental stress in hospital staff; medical supervision of hospital staff, etc.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep. 1978, Vol.39, No.9, p.511-584. Illus. 35 ref.
Borras Tortonda J.L.
Enfermedades profesionales: tétanos
This is a report on immunity to tetanus in a sample of Spanish workers. An introduction deals with the epidemiology of tetanus in the world (geographic foci and conducive conditions: hot, damp climate, soil rich in organic matter, poor hygiene conditions) and in Spain (where there have been more than 33,000 deaths since the beginning of the century) and other countries. 409 workers of both sexes, aged 15-65 years, resident in Majorca (Balearic Islands) were studied by questionnaire and medical examination. Antitetanus antibodies were determined by haemagglutination. 48% of the subjects had received preventive antitetanus treatment, while 15% were inadequately immunised, and 85.9% had antibody titres lower than 0.01IU. The need for routine vaccination is stressed.
Salud y trabajo, Dec. 1978, No.16, p.23-25. Illus. 1 ref.
Viral hepatitis: statistics and detailed analysis of 60 cases reported in 1976
L'hépatite virale: résultats statistiques et analyse détaillée des 60 cas déclarés en 1976. [en francés]
Communication submitted to the Regional Joint Technical Inter-Occupational Committee for the Food Industry (Lille, France). According to statistics available, infectious hepatitis seems limited to hospital staff. Contents: detailed study of 57 cases reported in 1976 in the milieu covered by the above Committee (breakdown by sex, age, profession or activity); places where hospital employees are particularly exposed to the hazard (laboratories; general medical wards and services; open-heart surgery; haemodialysis and bood transfusion services); preventive measures (protection of medical, nursing and laboratory staff (personal and general hygiene, sterilisation, disinfection); mass immunisation).
Regional Health Insurance Fund for Northern France (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de France), 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 8 June 1978. 6p. Gratis.
Nuevo cuadro de enfermedades profesionales
Full text of the new table of statutory occupational diseases recognised in Spain, as promulgated by Royal Decree 1975/1978 of 12 May 1978, which also lists the occupations in which these diseases commonly occur: occupational diseases due to chemical agents (lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, beryllium, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorine, bromine, iodine, fluorine, nitric acid, etc.); skin diseases; occupational diseases due to the inhalation of harmful substances; infectious and parasitic diseases; diseases due to physical agents; specific diseases.
Salud y trabajo, Oct. 1978, No.15, p.30-37.
Schneider W.J., Dykan M.
The preplacement medical evaluation of hospital personnel.
A review of 3,599 examinations of prospective hospital workers showed a significant degree of potential susceptibility to contagious disease (inadequate immunisation against diphtheria, lack of rubella immunity of women) and potential for communicable disease transmission.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1978, Vol.20, No.11, p.741-744. 15 ref.
Affeldt K.H., Richter G., Thiele R., Ullrich G.
Occupational safety and health in animal husbandry - 1. Cattle
Arbeitsschutz bei der Tierproduktion - 1. Rind [en alemán]
Manual labour is increasingly being replaced by mechanised systems in industrial cattle breeding practice, with resulting changes in the requirements and implementation of occupational safety and health measures. Aspects dealt with: requirements for worker's health status; safe work with cattle; infections transmissible from animals to man; hazards of gas, dust, etc.; protective clothing and personal protective equipment; sanitary facilities; man-animal-machine relations; mechanisation and automation; special problems in cattle breeding; responsibility in occupational safety and health; list of laws, regulations and standards in force in the German Democratic Republic.
Reihe Arbeitsschutzpraxis, Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1978. 64p. Illus. Price: M.1.00.
D'Andrea F., Apostoli P., Menestrina F.
Systemic virosis in poultry-breeding workers
Virosi sistemica in lavoratori addetti all'allevamento di polli [en italiano]
Two cases are reported of workers with lymphoadenomegaly. The work history, laboratory and special tests, and historical biopsy findings from a cervical lymph node suggested virosis transmitted by poultry.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1978, Vol.69, No.4, p.537-541. Illus. 9 ref.
Brucellosis (Bang's disease) considered as an occupational disease
Die Brucellose (Morbus Bang) als Berufskrankheit [en alemán]
This article gives a roundup of the various aspects of this disease, referring to data in the literature and to 700 case studies of occupational brucellosis (mostly caused by Brucella abortus) observed by the author in 30 years of practice. All the possibilities offered by bacteriology, immunology and serology should be used, as the symptoms of brucellosis vary considerably. The results of serological tests are considered doubtful without a clinical examination. The relations between infection, clinical symptoms and diagnostic results are shown in a synoptic table showing 11 different types of course which brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus can take in man; occupational factors in pathogenesis are indicated. The author emphasises the importance of Burnet's intradermal reaction test. The article concludes with considerations on: treatment, statutory compensation, and medical prevention in the author's veterinary laboratory.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt, 16 May 1978, Vol.21, No.11, p.161-166. 11 ref.
Powell K.E., Taylor A., Phillips B.J., Blakey D.L., Campbell G.D., Kaufman L., Kaplan W.
Cutaneous sporotrichosis in forestry workers - Epidemic due to contaminated sphagnum moss.
This article reports on 17 patients with cutaneous sporotrichosis, exposed to sphagnum moss used for packing pine seedlings. The moss, which in most cases was from a single source, was contaminated with Sporothrix schenckii, but the source of the contamination is not known. One worker without cutaneous sporotrichosis may have had asymptomatic pulmonary sporotrichosis. Preventive measures employed to guard against a further epidemic are: storage of all sphagnum moss indoors, scrubbing of storage and packing buildings monthly with a disinfectant, measures to reduce skin contact with the moss, and regular cultures of fresh and stored moss for S. schenckii.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 21 July 1978, Vol.240, No.3, p.232-235. Illus. 17 ref.
Berris B., Feinman S.V., Richardson B., Wrobel D.W., Sinclair J.C.
Hepatitis in undertakers.
106 undertakers were studied. The percentage who gave a past history of hepatitis was no greater than that of controls. There was a non-significant difference in the number with blood that was positive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. While undertakers appear to be in a low-risk occupation as regards hepatitis, it is suggested that there may be an increased risk of exposure in undertakers who do not wear gloves, and this practice is therefore recommended.
Journal of the American Medical Association, July 1978, Vol.240, No.2, p.138-139. 11 ref.
Van Peenen P.F.D., Gundelfinger B.F., Koesharjono C., See R.
Seroepidemiological evidence for occupational exposure to Q fever in Indonesia.
Sera from 1,181 healthy volunteers were studied. Titres of ≥ 1:8 of phase I antibodies were found in 4 persons, and of phase II antibodies in 25% of all sera, with considerable variation according to province, sex, occupation, age and residence (migrant or native). Results from male slaughterhouse and animal husbandry workers were subjected to full analysis. Both showed high prevalences, the highest being in persons associated with animal husbandry.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1978, Vol.20, No.7, p.488-489. Illus. 6 ref.
Laffont H., Blaizot M.
Experience gained from a survey by miniature radiography screening for lung disease in construction workers in the greater Paris area
Enseignements d'une expérience de dépistage radiophotographique des affections pulmonaires chez le personnel du bâtiment et des travaux publics de la région parisienne. [en francés]
Report of a 3-year survey. The authors study the various difficulties encountered in conducting miniature radiography campaigns for screening for lung disease in construction workers (reluctance of many physicians to forego the use of fluoroscopy, problems due to the mobility of worksites, etc.). They find that miniature radiography screening is best suited to office employees in the sector (and possibly building workers on large worksites). Disuse of fluoroscopy might mean giving up the only means of coverage of workers on remote construction sites. Miniature radiography is more efficacious than fluoroscopy as regards silicosis; in the case of tuberculosis, use of miniature radiography screening yielded a rate of 0.5 per 1,000.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1978, Vol.6, No.1, p.17-21. 3 ref.
Medical care and treatment in the field of occupational medicine
La prescription et les soins en médecine du travail. [en francés]
MD thesis. In France, the role of the plant physician is considered to be a purely preventive one. However, the author considers the cases in which the plant physician is allowed by French law to treat cases and give medical care. Chapter 1: survey of the regulations concerning medical care and treatment in general (limited, in the case of the plant physician, in practice to emergency treatment and first aid); vaccinations; cases in which the plant physician must order a follow-up examination of the patient, and cases where this is optional. In subsequent chapters the author compares the text of the regulations with the lines of conduct generally observed by plant physicians actually faced with these problems. These considerations are illustrated by the results of a survey, and the opinions expressed by some plant physicians concerning serum therapy in cases where there is a possibility of tetanus. The last chapter deals with possible future trends in the law concerning medical care and treatment and preventive therapy in occupational medicine, to meet the requirements of plant physicians and of the public in general.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1978. 83p. 40 ref.
Proceedings of the 8th Asian conference on occupational health.
At this Conference which was convened by the Asian Association of Occupational Health (AAOH) in Tokyo, 27 Sep. to 3 Oct. 1976, 72 papers were read on: organisation of occupational health services; noise and hearing loss; occupational physiology and ergonomics; industrial nursing; neck, shoulder and arm syndromes; tuberculosis and infectious diseases; accident prevention; pneumoconiosis; occupational toxicology and skin diseases; environmental control; occupational health in agriculture and forestry; occupational health problems peculiar to the Asian region (carpet industry in Iran, infective and parasitic disease in Indonesia, hazard of rush (igusa) cultivation and weaving in Japan, cobra bites in Thailand, fishermen-divers in Singapore). Proceedings of the 3 AAOH General Committee meetings held during the conference are reproduced with the text of the 6 resolutions it adopted and that of the 1964 Constitution of AAOH, as amended in October 1976. An author index is appended.
Japan Industrial Safety Association, Occupational Health Center, 5-35-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, Apr. 1978. 282p. Illus. 277 ref. Price: Y.6,000.
Eosinophilia and fitness for work (3 case studies from the occupational disease centre at Bordeaux)
Eosinophilie et aptitude professionnelle (A propos de 3 cas recueillis à la consultation des maladies professionnelles de Bordeaux). [en francés]
MD thesis. General remarks on eosinophilia (physiopathology and mechanism, aetiological diagnosis). In regard to occupational eosinophilia, there are the parasitic aetiology, allergic diseases, chronic irradiation and poisoning (on which opinions are divided). Circumstances of the discovery of a case of eosinophilia outside of the work situation by an occupational physician. Problem of fitness for work in the light of 3 cases: an individual presenting persistent eosinophilia of undetermined aetiology should not be given a job requiring haematological supervision. Prevention and compensation.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unité d'Enseignement et de Recherche des Sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1978. 57p. 37 ref.
Occupational disease during pregnancy and its effects on the foetus
Les maladies professionnelles chez la femme enceinte et leur retentissement sur le f¿tus. [en francés]
MD thesis. Considerations on teratogenesis and ways in which the ovum can be harmed are followed by a review of the various pathogenic agencies to which a female worker could be occupationally exposed during pregnancy: physical (mechanically-caused trauma, whole-body vibration, ultrasound, effects of hot workplaces, ionising radiation); infectious, viral or chemical (benzene, lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, pesticides, etc.), indicating the particular hazards of each. The author then refers to French labour legislation as it applies to pregnancy during employment, emphasising the role of the plant physician, who is in the best position to assess the hazards to which an expectant mother is exposed if she continues in her employment.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1978. 112p. 63 ref.
Description of the insects (Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) and of the diseases they transmit to man (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, relapsing fever, tularaemia, tick paralysis). Use of insect repellents and vaccines, precautions (appropriate clothing for people working in tick-infested areas, daily inspections of body skin, etc.) and first aid are explained.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 669, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 1978. Chicago, USA, Apr. 1978. p.67-69. Illus.
Occupational medicine and occupational diseases
Médecine du travail et maladies professionnelles. [en francés]
This book, intended especially for medical students, presents a synthesis of the essential objectives of industrial medicine and the protection of workers' health, including the basic aspects of compensation in respect of occupational accidents and diseases. The greater part of the work is devoted to the clinical study of the occupational diseases for which compensation can be claimed under French law (occupationally induced poisoning and allergies, infectious diseases and diseases caused by parasites, diseases due to physical agents, diseases of complex pathogenesis, pneumoconioses in respect of which special statutory compensation is provided), and some other occupational diseases (dermatosis; cancer; occupational pathology of airline pilots and flight personnel; occupational poisoning due to pesticides, in the plastics industry, and due to solvents).
Editions Flammarion médecine-sciences, 20 rue de Vaugirard, 75006 Paris, France, 6th edition, 1978. 219p. Price: FF.42.00.
Baker E.L., Zack M., Miles J.W., Alderman L., Dobbin R.D., Miller S., Teeters W.R., Warren M.
Epidemic malathion poisoning in Pakistan malaria workers.
In 1976, epidemic organophosphate insecticide poisoning due to malathion occurred in an estimated 2,800 malaria control workers in Pakistan. Low red-cell cholinesterase activity was associated with clinical findings. Toxicity was greatest with formulations containing increased amounts of isomalathion, a malathion degradation product. Poor work practices resulted in excessive skin contact and percutaneous absorption of the insecticide. Airborne levels were low. The epidemic was stopped by improvement of work practices and cessation of use of the most toxic products. A training programme and surveillance system was then put into effect.
Lancet, 7 Jan. 1978, Vol.1, No.8054, p.31-34. 18 ref.
Kindernay Š., Šimko A., Svěrák J.
A rare case of toxoplasmosis with ocular manifestations
Neobvyklý případ profesionální toxoplasmózy s očními projevy [en checo]
A zoological garden worker aged 40 presented bilateral panuveitis due to toxoplasmosis with resulting pseudopigmentary degeneration of the right retina and a small area of pigmentary chorioretinitis in the left eye. Electrophysiological studies showed severe changes of the right retina and marked disturbances of electroretinographic potentials (depression of I-R curves) and the electrooculographic tracing in the left eye.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1977, Vol.29, No.9, p.344-347. Illus. 24 ref.
A propos de la listériose professionnelle. [en francés]
MD thesis. 1st part: definition, history, bacteriology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, positive diagnosis and clinical aspects of listeriosis (caused by Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive bacillus which infests several animal species) in humans (especially pregnant women); 2nd part: study of the relation between the disease and occupation (listeriosis occurs in farmers, stock breeders, veterinarians and in general in all occupations having contact with animals); 3rd part: list of precautions to take to assure better collective and individual protection as well as medical prophylaxis on exposure to the disease during work.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'Enseignement et de Recherche des Sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1977. 71p. 40 ref.
Working conditions and occupational diseases of mushroom growers
Conditions de travail et pathologie professionnelle dans les champignonnières. [en francés]
MD thesis. General considerations on mushroom growing and picking and on working conditions and methods (workplaces and workposts) are followed by a review of the occupational hazards and harmful agencies, and of the categories of personnel involved (arrangement and allocation of working hours, special requirements of the occupation and contra-indications). The author then examines the hazards of this occupation, dividing them into traumatic and physical hazards, occupational accidents, chemical hazards of gases given off by compost (NH3, H2S, CO2) and of chemicals employed at various stages of mushroom farming (pesticides, rodenticides, etc.), hazards of parasites, microbial and mycotic infection (mushroom grower's lung, mushroom grower's onychopathy). Problems of how to eliminate these hazards and role of the occupational health physician.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'Enseignement et de Recherche des Sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1977. 124p. 13 ref.
Matuszewski M., Pokora J.
Hepatic function tests and morphological examinations in chronic brucellosis
Ocena czynnościowa i morfologiczna wątroby w brucelozie przewlekłej u ludzi [en polonés]
Evaluation of the results of liver function tests in 55 agricultural workers with chronic brucellosis. The most useful results were obtained with flocculation reaction (MacLagan's thymol-turbidity test), determination of glutamopyruvic transaminase activity, prothrombin levels and the sodium bromsulphalein (BSP) test. The dynamics of functional changes were observed in 10 patients over 6 years; no significant changes were observed. Liver biopsy tests showed inflammatory changes but no granuloma.
Medycyna Wiejska, Oct.-Dec. 1977, Vol.12, No.4, p.221-228. 45 ref.
Gracianskaja L.N., Kovšilo V.E.
Occupational physician's manual
Spravočnik profpataloga [en ruso]
A collection of brief articles on all aspects of occupational diseases (harmful physical and biological factors), harmful substances and poisoning, respirable dust and pneumoconiosis, functional disorders and diseases). Each paper is subdivided into chapters dealing with the use of the substances or the source of harmful agents, the clinical picture, the diagnosis, forensic considerations on working capacity, treatment and prevention measures. Several papers are devoted to compensation and social security. Annex: official occupational diseases list in the USSR.
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", ul. Nekrasova 10, 192104 Leningrad, USSR, 1977. 463p. 47 ref. Price: Rbl.1.76.
Estienne J., Rio Y., Stœssel J.M.
Accidents in general hospital laboratories
Les accidents dans les laboratoires des hôpitaux généraux. [en francés]
Results of a study of the frequency and severity of occupational accidents and diseases in the personnel of non-university hospitals in France from 1970 to 1974. Infectious diseases head the list (9.9% of workers). The most frequent is viral hepatitis (6.5%), occurring especially in biochemical laboratories in proportion to the number of examinations performed. This is followed by tuberculosis (1.8%); overcrowding of the laboratories and the small space allotted to laboratory staff appear to play a role in transmission of the disease. Comparison with other studies. Preventive measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1977, Vol.38, No.7-8, p.659-668. 15 ref.
Malauzat C., Petit M.A., Ramaroson J., Bourzai M., Gaultier G.
Asbestosis - A case study
L'asbestose - A propos d'une observation. [en francés]
Description of a typical case of asbestosis with mesothelioma of the visceral pleura, associated with silicosis and active tuberculosis, in a firebrick layer employed for 44 years in a firm constructing industrial furnaces. Enlarging on this particular case study the article continues with a general review of asbestos-induced disease: aetiology; anatomopathology; clinical aspects: benign pleural and pulmonary manifestations, malignant disease (pleural mesothelioma, broncho-pulmonary cancer); pathogenicity (hypotheses); diagnosis; statutory compensation. The authors emphasise the delayed effects of asbestos (prolonged latency period - 5 to 40 years - always exists between first exposure and onset of the disease), and the need for systematic screening of all exposed workers.
Le poumon et le coeur, 1977, Vol.33, No.5, p.321-330. 41 ref.
Workplaces and occupational disease in a meat preserving and curing plant, with reference to Finistère fish and vegetable preserving plants
Postes de travail et pathologie professionnelle dans une conserverie de viande et salaison et extension aux conserveries de poissons et de légumes dans le Finistère. [en francés]
MD thesis. The most common occupational diseases are infectious or parasitic diseases transmitted by the great variety of animals or animal carcasses used, contact dermatitis, and (especially) skin or respiratory allergy due to the animal or vegetable materials handled. In addition, the harmful effects of noise, poisoning by harmful substances and occupational accidents are considered. Problems of prevention and compensation.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1977. 110p. 21 ref.
Thalassaemia and the occupational physician
Les thalassémies et la médecine du travail. [en francés]
MD thesis. A first part is devoted to a classification of thalassaemic syndromes and genetic, physiopathological, clinical and biological aspects of this hereditary disease. The problems for the occupational physician represented by occupational haematological hazards are discussed in the light of modern diagnostic criteria: preferential erythrocyte involvement (lead, hydrogen arsenide, methaemoglobin-producing agents, hookworm disease, brucellosis); involvement of the haematopoietic system (benzene, ionising radiation); polycythaemia. Conclusions as to job counselling and surveillance of thalassaemic subjects. While it is still not proved, whatever the harmful agent, that these subjects are particularly susceptible or that they risk greater damage than other workers, it is desirable for practical reasons to ensure that from the start of their career they are not placed in jobs presenting a known haematological hazard.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1977. 150p. 91 ref.
Brown P.M., Souter R.V.
Health and safety in hospital laboratories.
This paper is a report of a joint inspection of a group of hospital laboratories carried out by the Employment Medical Advisory Service (EMAS) and the Factory Inspectorate. Deficiencies were found which would not have been acceptable by the standards applying to factories. Aspects giving rise to concern included: ventilation, cleanliness, illumination, storage of chemical and highly flammable liquids, fire provisions, and safe operation of autoclaves, centrifuges and other appliances. The infective hepatitis hazard is discussed.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1977, Vol.27, No.4, p.148-150. 15 ref.
Meissner G., Anz W.
Sources of Mycobacterium avium complex infection resulting in human diseases.
This article presents a literature survey of this question and analyses a 20-year ongoing study in the Fed.Rep. of Germany to elucidate the ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of human disease due to organisms in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Organisms included in the investigation were cultured from man, from domestic and wild animals and fowl, and from a variety of environmental sources. In addition to the usual taxonomic studies of these bacilli, infrasubspecific typing by seroagglutination enabled identification of 3 distinct serogroups: the classical Mycobacterium avium strains, an intermediate group, and less frequently encountered organisms. Analysis of the number of strains in each of the 3 serogroups, derived from man, animals, and the environment, respectively, enabled the authors to draw some conclusions regarding reservoirs and sources of human infection with these agents (cattle, pigs, domestic fowl, plants and grasses used for animal food and bedding, insects under the bark of felled trees, sawdust for animal bedding, etc.).
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Dec. 1977, Vol.116, No.6, p.1057-1064. 30 ref.
Occupational hygiene in the leather industry
Gigiena truda v koževennoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Summary of this manual: outline of the technology of leather manufacture; working conditions in tanneries and currying workshops (harmful substances in air, microclimate, noise and vibration, physical workload at different stages in leather working); worker's health status (sickness absenteeism, occupational diseases such as dermatosis, anthrax, Q fever); health engineering (enclosure, automation of processes involving toxic or carcinogenic substances, ventilation and exhaust, noise control, etc.).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", ul. Nekrasova 10, 192104 Leningrad, USSR, 1977. 151p. Illus. 99 ref. Price: Rbl.1.22.
Occupational pathology of medical and paramedical personnel
Pathologie professionnelle des professions médicales et paramédicales. [en francés]
This article emphasises the mental and physical hazards of overwork, excessively long weekly hours of work and extreme variations in workload, which constitute the principal adverse factors to which doctors, surgeons and medical aides in hospital services are exposed. The question of occupational accidents is considered briefly, followed by a more detailed study of the occupational diseases occurring among personnel of this category: infectious diseases (virus hepatitis, tuberculosis, various contagious diseases), dermatoses, ionising radiation sickness. Other problems considered: compulsory vaccinations, risk of infection in bacteriology laboratories, animal houses and animal experiment centres. General rules for protection against ionising radiation. Occupational medicine in relation to nurses, medical aides, etc.; occupational disease compensation for members of the medical profession, nurses, medical aides, and other paramedical personnel.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Intoxications - Pathologie professionnelle, Fascicule 16545 A10, 9-1977. 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1977. 7p.
Occupational diseases - A guide to their recognition.
This book is intended as a ready reference tool for physicians, nurses and others involved in preventive occupational health programmes. Contents: routes of entry and modes of action; biological hazards; dermatoses; disease of the airways; plant and wood hazards; chemical hazards; chemical carcinogens; pesticides; physical hazards (radiation, atmospheric variations, oscillatory vibrations); sources of consultation and reference aids in the US and abroad.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-181, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1977. 608p. Illus. Approx. 1,000 ref.
Hazards of women occupationally exposed to rubella - Occupational health problems and compensation
Risques encourus par les femmes professionnellement exposées à la rubéole - Problèmes posés par la prévention et la réparation. [en francés]
MD thesis. Study of the problem of pregnant women occupationally exposed to rubella, with the concomitant hazard of foetal abnormality (employment in laboratories, hospitals, educational establishments, kindergartens, creches and nurseries, social welfare work, etc.). Contents: brief overview of rubella infection and its prevention, epidemiology, diagnostic methods, study of congenital rubella, prevention. Preventive measures consist mainly of serum prophylaxis (which has contraindications). Situation in some countries (USA, Belgium, Switzerland) as regards vaccination. In France, the question of screening high-risk populations (female employees of hospitals and educational establishments) for rubella antibodies, with vaccination of serum-negative subjects, is under consideration. Role of the occupational health physician and responsibility of the State towards exposed persons. An amendment to the statutory lists of occupational diseases giving entitlement to compensation is proposed.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1977. 51p. 83 ref.
Pinheiro F.P., Bensabath G., Rosa A.P.A.T., Lainson R., Shaw J.J., Ward R., Fraiha H., Moraes M.A.P., Gueiros Z.M., Lins Z.C., Mendes R.
Public health hazards among workers along the Trans-Amazon highway.
Communication to the Symposium on geography and occupational health (Brighton, United Kingdom, 14-19 Sep. 1975), reporting results of a permanent surveillance programme begun in Nov. 1972 in the Altamira area (Pará State). Serological studies on arbovirus infections; investigation of haemorrhagic syndrome of Altamira (163 cases were noted in the Altamira area in 3 years); prevalence of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, including problems of prevention and control; malaria; schistosomiasis; blastomycosis; histoplasmosis; leptospirosis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1977, Vol.19, No.7, p.490-497. Illus. 5 ref.
Health and working conditions in diamond mines of Sierra Leone.
Communication to the Symposium on geography and occupational health (Brighton, United Kingdom, 14-19 Sep. 1975), reporting results of visits to mining sites, plants, workshops and offices, and a study of medical and other facilities. Results: health of workers is satisfactory; working conditions are favourable and there is a high standard of safety, with a low accident rate; bilharziasis and microfilariasis are common in groups of workers constantly exposed to the agents of these diseases.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1977, Vol.19, No.7, p.476-479. Illus. 4 ref.
Geography and occupational health.
Papers read at the symposium on geography and occupational health at the 18th International Congress on Occupational Health (Brighton, United Kingdom, 14-19 Sep. 1975): geographical occupational health (Wasserman M. et al.); occupational health in the tropics* (Phoon W.O.); monitoring for occupational contamination by chemicals in rural medicine (Fournier P.E. et al.); tea garden workers in Bangladesh* (Mackay D.M.); occupational health in Iran (Kavoussi N.); diamond mines of Sierra Leone* (Seymore-Wilson, C.J.); geographical pathology of mesothelial tumours (Newhouse M.L.); chronobiology and ecological factors (Gervais P.); effects of tropical diseases on working capacity (Forattini O.P. et al.); 2 papers on the Trans-Amazon Highway* (Nogueira D.P.) (Pinheiro F.P. et al.*); effects of lead on workers in areas with endemic intestinal helminthiasis (Mendes R); leprosy in factory workers (Ghosh P.K.); lung cancer among black migrants in the USA (Mancuso T.F.); geographical pathology for detection of occupational cancer (Goldsmith J.R.).*Abstracted elsewhere in this issue.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1977, Vol.19, No.7, p.453-504; Aug. 1977, Vol.19, No.8, p.531-539. Illus. Bibl.
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owasrch.full_site_search (site) [en inglés]
Rycroft R.J.G., Calnan C.D.
Report on a localised epidemic of scabies in river pleasure craft crews, lasting nearly one year. There was a sharp contrast between the paucity of scabietic lesions, especially burrows, and an unusually high infectivity. Possible causes of the outbreak, including overcrowding on board ship and personal hygiene, are discussed.
British Medical Journal, 30 July 1977, Vol.2, No.6082, p.303-304. 9 ref.
Directives concerning measures for the protection of workers in sewage treatment plants
Anvisningar om skyddsåtgärder i samband med arbete vid avloppsanläggningar [en sueco]
Contents of these directives (entry into force: 1 Apr. 1977): health hazards (contagious diseases, chlorine, ferrous chloride, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, flocculating agents, etc.); explosion hazards, drowning, etc.; workplace design (ventilation, soundproofing, etc.); staff facilities (changing rooms, showers, etc.); electrical installations and lighting; guarding and safe operation of machinery, pressure vessels and lifting equipment; digestion tank rooms (explosive atmospheres, ventilation, etc.); settling tanks (railings); work in wells, pipes and confined spaces; laboratory work; personal protective equipment; lifesaving equipment; personal hygiene.
Anvisningar nr 117, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 10026 Stockholm 34, Sweden, Jan. 1977. 20p. Price: Swe-cr.6.40.
Hahon N., Booth J.A., Eckert H.L.
Antagonistic activity of poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide) to the inhibition of viral interferon induction by asbestos fibres.
The depressive effect of various asbestos fibres on interferon induction by influenza virus was significantly diminished or abolished by pretreating either the asbestos fibres or cell monolayers with poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide). Maximum antagonistic activity was time- and concentration-dependent. Pretreating asbestos fibres with the polymer was more rapid and effective than pretreating cell monolayers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1977, Vol.34, No.2, p.119-125. 31 ref.
Poirier R., Locher C., Kleisbauer J.P., Laval P.
Lung disease in agriculture
Le poumon agricole. [en francés]
Brief review of occupational lung disease among agricultural workers, covering: immunological hazard giving rise to various forms of precipitin-induced lung disease (clinical aspects, lung function deterioration, anatomo-pathological aspects, immunological criteria); poisoning hazard in the use of some insecticides, herbicides and fungicides (special reference to vineyard sprayer's lung, paraquat poisoning and effects of organophosphorus products); cancer hazard in the use of chlorinated hydrocarbons (insecticides), carbamates (insecticides and herbicides) and nitroquinolines (fungicides). The continuing problem of tuberculosis prevalent among agricultural workers is considered.
Le concours médical, Apr. 1977, Vol.99, No.16, p.2491-2499. 17 ref.
Dyte P.H., Gillians J.A.
Pseudomonas maltophilia infection in an abattoir worker.
Clinical and bacteriological report of this case in which the infection occurred after an accident leading to fracture of the foot.
Medical Journal of Australia, 26 Mar. 1977, Vol.1, No.13, p.444-445. 9 ref.
Massive fibrosis in gold miners - A radiological evaluation.
Serial roentgenographs of histologically confirmed massive fibrotic lesions in 14 deceased gold miners were retrospectively studied. Planimetric measurements to assess progress were made. The study revealed progression after exposure to "dust" was discontinued. The patients revealed a surprising longevity. Apart from tuberculosis as a possible etiological factor, suggestive evidence indicates that inflammation or fibrosis of lung parenchyma may play a role in the development of progressive massive fibrosis. The advent of large opacities was not primarily associated with respiratory disability in the group studied.
Environmental Research, Feb. 1977, Vol.13, No.1, p.47-55. 10 ref.
Occupational safety and health in undertakings for the collection and treatment of household refuse
Hygiène et sécurité dans les entreprises de collecte et de traitement des résidus urbains. [en francés]
MD thesis. General considerations on household refuse (definition and composition; garbage collecting, transport, treatment processes, recycling); review of recognised occupational and occupation-associated diseases (tetanus, leptospirosis, dermatosis, ear, nose, throat and lung disease, backache, low back pain, gastric disorders) contracted by garbage collectors and workers engaged in refuse composting, comminution, incineration, etc. Some of these diseases have practically disappeared with progress in hygiene, and the number of accidents has decreased due to mechanisation and automation. The most hazardous operations remaining are: refuse sorting (cuts, pricks, nips) and collecting (muscular overstrain, elongation, traffic accidents). The last part of the thesis gives the results of a statistical survey of occupational accident trends in a refuse processing plant at Lille (France) (comparison with data from other French cities and France as a whole).
Faculté de médecine de Lille, Lille, France, 1976. 123p. 48 ref.
Resolución Suprema núm. 026-76-TR, por la que se aprueba el Reglamento de Condiciones de higiene y seguridad que deben cumplir los centros de trabajo que operan en zonas endémicas de Leishmaniasis para la protección de los trabajadores
These Regulations, dated 21 Oct. 1976 (entry into force: 25 Oct. 1976), make provision for the following: employers' obligations to provide collective and personal protective equipment (protective clothing, insect repellants, screens, etc.) against the sand fly, vector of South American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in construction projects, worksites and workplaces situated in zones where the disease is endemic; workers' obligations to exercise care and use the protective equipment provided; pre-employment and periodic medical examinations for nasal or mouth ulcers, intradermal reaction tests, examination for protozoa of the genus Leishmania, diagnosis, health record-keeping, compulsory notification of the disease, etc. Provisional work camps or workers' housing must be surrounded by a clearing free from undergrowth, tree trunks etc. which might harbour insects. Penalties for non-observance.
El Peruano, Lima, Peru, 25 Oct. 1976, No.10673, p.1 and 4.
Fundamentals of occupational hygiene
Grundlagen der Arbeitshygiene [en alemán]
This short textbook is intended to provide the basic knowledge of occupational hygiene essential to the physician confronted with problems from the working world. Contents: fundamentals of health protection of workers, physical and mental strain, working hours and workbreaks, occupational medical problems of special groups of persons, effects of physical environmental factors, effects of non-toxic dusts, effects of chemical substances, occupational allergic disease of the respiratory tract and lungs, occupational infectious diseases. Appendix: list of relevant legislation in the German Democratic Republic.
VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Villengang 2, 69 Jena, German Democratic Republic, 1976. 124p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: M.9.30.
Cornillon J., Touraine J.L., Touraine R
Asthmatic manifestations probably associated with inhalation allergy to powdered Candida tropicalis - A new occupational allergy
Manifestations asthmatiques probablement liées à une allergie par inhalation de poudre de Candida tropicalis - Une nouvelle allergie professionnelle. [en francés]
Frequent and repeated asthmatic manifestations occurred in 12 of 23 members of a research team culturing yeasts of the Candida tropicalis type for protein production from petroleum derivatives. Analysis of the symptoms and the tests performed, especially immediate-reaction skin tests, showed that the manifestations resembled those to inhalational allergens (Type I). If production were to increase, preventive measures for handling and storage of the product, and exclusion of hyperallergic subjects, would be necessary.
Revue française d'allergologie et d'immunologie clinique, 1976, Vol.16, No.5, p.289-290. 2 ref.
Mycoses à Candida. [en francés]
Report of papers read at the 2nd Meeting on Microbial Immunoallergology at the Institut Pasteur Hospital (Paris, 13 Mar. 1976): biology of Candida (mycology and physiopathology); antigens - application to humoral immunity studies and immunological diagnosis; RAST test with protein and polysaccaride antigens and washed cells; phagocitosis and Candida; immunological and serological activity of the metabolic antigens of C. albicans; clinical aspects of C. albicans allergy; pulmonary infiltrates with severe eosinophilia associated with bronchial candidosis; asthmatic manifestations probably associated with inhalation allergy to powdered C. tropicalis; recent acquisitions and future perspectives in treatment of Candida-induced disease.
Revue française d'allergologie et d'immunologie clinique, 1976, Vol.16, No.5, p.233-295. Illus. 170 ref.
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