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- Bacterial and parasitic diseases
Mohammed-Brahim B., Mokhtari L., Mokhtari Z.
Intestinal parasite infection among municipal cleaners in the city of Oran (Algeria)
Les parasitoses intestinales chez les travailleurs du service communal de nettoiement de la ville d'Oran [en francés]
Comparative study involving 223 exposed workers and 230 controls. Findings: the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection is significantly higher among the exposed group than among the controls; infection is not significantly related to the nature of the work (sewer workers, loaders, sweepers) or to length of service. Infection rate for each parasite is higher among the exposed workers than among the controls.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.255-257. Illus. 7 ref.
Occupational safety and health and working environment in the food and drink industries
L'hygiène, la sécurité et le milieu de travail dans les industries des produits alimentaires et des boissons [en francés]
Chapter 1 deals with the factors to be considered from an OSH point of view (the size of the undertaking, level of skills, irregularity of work, rural workforce, training). Chapter 2 gives examples of occupational accidents in these industries in the developed world and discusses the difficulties in obtaining and interpreting these results. Chapter 3 is devoted to infectious occupational diseases (respiratory and skin) and diseases due to chemical hazards. Chapter 4 deals with adverse effects of the physical environment and the problems caused by rotating shift work. Chapter 5 is on prevention methods (machine guarding, personal protection, environmental protection, ergonomic design and workload analysis). Chapter 6 is on medical supervision and personal hygiene.
Report III, Food and Drinks Industries Committee, International Labour Office, First Session, 1984. ILO, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 61p. Price: SF.12.50.
Study of the hazards of hospital laboratories. Preventive measures and their regulatory bases
Etude des risques dans les laboratoires hospitaliers. Leur prévention et leur base réglementaire [en francés]
This medical thesis deals with the principal hazards in hospital laboratories and their prevention. Aspects covered: risk of infection; hazards in the manipulation of chemicals or radiochemicals (radioimmunochemicals are frequently encountered in these laboratoires); general fire, explosion and electrocution hazards; hazards in animal rooms and laundries. Preventive measures include both the design of facilities and their operation in accordance with good hygienic practice; relevant French regulations are presented. The occupational physician has an important part to play in the prevention of accident and disease as well as in the observation and information of personnel.
Université Paris Val-de-Marne, Faculté de médecine de Créteil, Paris, France, 168p. 136 ref.
Lapierre J., Périn M., Casano G., Abbas L., Lavernhe J.
Parasitic infections in the personnel of an airline
La pathologie parasitaire chez le personnel d'une compagnie aérienne [en francés]
Analysis of 178 cases of parasitic disease detected during a 7-year period at Air France in the course of obligatory medical examinations. Worm infections (79% of cases) were much more common than protozoan infections (18%). Ground personnel from tropical countries (44% of cases) and flight crew members (28%) were the most affected groups. Particular emphasis must be paid to cases of malaria in flight crew personnel (7 of 11 cases noted). Anguilluliasis (36 cases) and bilharziasis (34 cases) were essentially restricted to personnel of tropical origin - from the West Indies in particular. Larva migrans (22 cases) affected flight crew personnel who had spent rest periods on West Indian beaches. Hypereosinophilia, discovered during regular blood-cell counts of personnel, is a symptom suggesting worm infection and should always be followed by parasitologic tests. Practical advice is given for the diagnosis and prevention of these conditions.
Le concours médical, 1984, Vol.106, No.44, p.4335-4338, 4353. 6 ref.
Safety guide for hospital laboratory workers
Consignes aux travailleurs des laboratoires hospitaliers [en francés]
Document prepared by a group of technician-trainees under the direction of an occupational physician. The safety guide is presented in the form of cards, each bearing a column of positive advice (do's) and a column of negative advice (don'ts). The guide is intended for distribution to all new laboratory employees. Specific guidance is given for haematology, parasitology and mycology, biochemistry, anatomy and pathology, and bacteriology laboratories. Official rules are given for the handling of radioactive materials.
Médecine et travail, 2nd quarter 1984, No.120, p.18-20.
Kerr A., Poole R.
Prescription for survival - Health and safety in the health service
This manual on occupational safety and health in health services (mostly in hospitals) in the United Kingdom covers: causes of accidents (lack of proper training, supervision and information, bad machine and work system design); place of accidents (kitchens, laboratories, laundries, operating suites, radiology rooms, post-mortem rooms, offices, wards, gardens); hazards faced by ambulance staff, community nurses and staff working with cytotoxic drugs; hazards of maintenance work; dangers in the hospital environment (high and low temperatures, Legionnaires' disease, noise, fires, cleaning work, exposure to asbestos); stress and back pain; sexual harassment and assaults by patients; prevention of accidents and occupational diseases (legislation, safety representatives, sources of information, safety committees and policies, OSH services). Detailed safety checklists are provided for each major subject.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd., Scientific and Medical Division, Houndmills, Basingstoke Hants RG21 2XS, United Kingdom, 1984. 208p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £2.95 (paperback) and £10.00 (hardcover).
Palaeontology of smallpox
A discussion of whether archaeologists and anthropologists who handle incompletely decomposed bodies (possibly victims of smallpox) are at risk of being infected with smallpox. It is suggested that scientists in this kind of research be immunised against the disease, not only for their own protection, but also to prevent the reintroduction of smallpox into the general population.
Lancet, 22/29 Dec. 1984, Vol.2, No.8417/8, p.1454. 5 ref.
Marmion B.P., Ormsbee R.A., Kyrkou M., Wright J., Worswick D., Cameron S., Esterman A., Feery B., Collins W.
Vaccine prophylaxis of abattoir-associated Q fever
924 Australian abattoir workers, not immune to Q fever, were inoculated against the disease with purified, formalin-inactivated, phase-1 vaccine derived from Coxiella burneti (the Q fever organism). About 60% of the subjects seroconverted after the vaccination. None of them developed Q fever in the following 18 months, during which there were 34 cases among 1,349 unvaccinated workers. Reactions to the inoculation were transient and local in most cases; mild general reactions occurred in a few workers. Inoculation of suceptible workers is recommended as a preventive measure.
Lancet, 22/29 Dec. 1984, Vol.2, No.8417/8, p.1411-1414. Illus. 19 ref.
Decree No.84-492 of 22 June 1984 revising and completing the schedules of occupational diseases annexed to decree No.46-2959 of 31 Dec. 1946
Décret n°84-492 du 22 juin 1984 révisant et complétant les tableaux des maladies professionnelles annexés au décret n°46-2959 du 31 déc. 1946 [en francés]
Schedules of occupational diseases subject to compensation in France (a comparison with older schedules was done under CIS 85-473). Classification of the diseases: diseases caused by ionising radiations; by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons; by tuberculosis bacteria; occupational viral hepatitis; occupational mycoses of the skin; occupational diseases caused by amoeba. 4 new schedules are created: cancers caused by chromic acid, by alkaline and alkaline-earth chromates and bichromates and by zinc chromate; diseases caused by furfural and by furfuryl alcohol; infectious diseases contracted in hospitals; diseases resulting from exposure to selenium and its compounds.
Journal officiel de la République française, 25, 26 June 1984, Vol.116, No.148, p.1972-1975.
Harris J.R., Finger R.F., Kobayashi J.M., Hadler S.C., Murphy B.L., Berkelman R.L., Bussell K.E.
The low risk of hepatitis B in rural hospitals
A questionnaire survey and serum analysis of 2064 hospital employees in the rural areas of Washington state (USA). 96 employees (4.7%) had hepatitis B virus markers, significantly below the rate for hospital employees in urban areas. Significant risk factors were prior residence in a city with more than 100,000 people, regular contact with blood, increasing patient contact, length of employment and race.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 21 Dec. 1984, Vol.252, No.23, p.3270-3272. 18 ref.
Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Categorisation of pathogens according to hazard and categories of containment
A classification of pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) according to the hazards they represent. Requirements for safe operation of laboratories are listed for 4 levels of containment, as well as for the handling of vertebrate animals experimentally infected with one of these 4 categories of pathogens. In the appendix: safe use of microbiological safety cabinets; use of respiratory protective equipment; containment of latently infected animals; safe use of invertebrate animals in laboratories; handling of patients infected with pathogens, and safe use of associated laboratory specimens; handling rabies and hepatitis B virus; training of laboratory personnel.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1984. 48p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: £4.50.
Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever - Republic of South Africa
Case reports transmitted by the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, USA) involving 7 cases of severe illness in South Africa (1 death). 6 of the victims had worked with cattle, the 7th with sheep. The disease was identified by immunofluorescence assay testing as Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever, a disease spread from cattle to man directly or by ticks.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 9 Nov. 1984, Vol.252, No.18, p.2533-2537. Illus. 6 ref.
Venkitaraman A.R., John T.J.
The epidemiology of varicella in staff and students of a hospital in the tropics
A 5-year epidemiological survey of the incidence of varicella (chickenpox) among staff and students (2874 persons in all) of a hospital in India revealed an annual rate of 0.72 cases per 100. The incidence was highest among 17-24 year old student nurses (3.22 cases per 100 per year). Most cases occurred during the cooler and more humid parts of the year. Complement-fixing antibodies to varicella-zoster virus were found in only 44 of 102 serum samples taken from student nurses, showing a much lower level of immunity to varicella than in the USA. A programme of preventive immunisation among hospital workers is recommended.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1984, Vol.13, No.4, p.502-505. Illus. 13 ref.
New schedules of occupational diseases - Decree No.84-492 of 22 June 1984
Nouveaux tableaux de maladies professionnelles - Décret n°84-492 du 22 juin 1984 [en francés]
New schedules of compensable occupational diseases in France, accompanied by comments on the changes made since the publication of the previous schedule: diseases due to ionising radiation; diseases caused by derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons; cancers caused by chromic acid, by alkaline and alkaline-earth chromates and bichromates and by zinc chromate; diseases caused by tuberculosis bacilli; occupational viral hepatitis; occupational dermatomycoses; occupational amoebic diseases; occupational disease caused by furfural and furfuryl alcohol; diseases caused by selenium and its inorganic derivatives; infectious diseases contracted in hospital environments. Duplicate of CIS 85-1189.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1984, No.117, Note No.1506-117-84, p.531-552.
Work on sewers and wastewater-treatment stations
Travaux en égouts et stations d'épuration [en francés]
Review of serious or fatal accidents due to hydrogen sulfide; an explosion; description of the symptoms of leptospirosis and other infectious deseases to which workers in this area are exposed. Preventive measures: personal and collective hygiene (disinfection and pest control in work areas), pre-employment medical examination and vaccinations. Safe work: monitoring the atmosphere, ventilation, etc. In an annex: list of personal and collective protective equipment, hazards that are not specific for sewer workers, French regulations.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 1984, No.3, p.22-26. Illus.
Linnemann C.C., Jaffa R., Gartside P.S., Scarpino P.V., Clark C.S.
Risk of infection associated with a wastewater spray irrigation system used for farming
35 workers at a land application system involving low-pressure spray irrigation of cornfields with partially treated waste water were followed through a growing season to determine if they had an increased risk of infection when compared with 41 unexposed controls. Enteroviruses were recovered from the waste water used for irrigation but not from the air during spraying. There was no increase in clinical illness among the workers and no evidence of an increased risk of infection. Workers who cleaned the spray nozzles, and were at the greatest risk, had higher antibody levels to the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B5, but no acute symptomatic infections with viral excretion were found. Risk of infection among workers using partially treated waste water for agricultural purposes is limited.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1984, Vol.26, No.1, p.41-44. 7 ref.
Garcia Fernández A.
Brucelosis: profilaxis y lucha contra la enfermedad
Review of the brucellosis problem in Spain. Aspects covered: statistics and geographical distribution; description of the disease and its symptoms; routes and mechanisms of propagation; infection routes in man; prophylaxis and control of the disease (zootechnical, hygienic and health measures, vaccination); bacteriological testing; safety standards for shipping biological samples; safety standards in laboratories.
Salud y trabajo, May-June 1984, No.43, p.33-48. Illus. Bibl.
Harrington J.M., Oakes D.
Mortality study of British pathologists 1974-80
A mortality study of 2720 British pathologists (2307 men) who worked in the field between 1974 and 1980. 126 of them died, showing a standardised mortality ratio of 56 in men and 99 in women. Excess deaths were found for suicide (9 cases, 2.2 expected), a pattern also found among medical practitioners as a whole. Excess deaths were also found for brain cancer (4 cases, 1.31 expected, with 2 additional deaths from brain tumours in 1981) - the suggested aetiological hypotheses including exposure to organic solvents and tuberculosis infection. In view of formaldehyde exposure, there were no cases of nasal cancer, and the lung cancer incidence was significantly reduced (9 cases, 22.72 expected).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1984, Vol.41, No.2, p.188-191. 21 ref.
Catelle A., Christmann D., de Lavergne E.
Investigation of genetic markers for hepatitis B virus in 204 hospital workers
Recherche des marqueurs génétiques du virus de l'hépatite B chez 204 personnes travaillant en milieu hospitalier [en francés]
To determine the best strategy for vaccination against hepatitis B among hospital staff, 4 genetic markers were looked for systematically by doing serologic tests on 204 hospital workers (medical and laboratory staff). More than 30% of the subjects had at least 1 marker, showing a fairly high incidence of infection. It is suggested that hospital staff at a high infection risk should be screened by serologic tests, and only those with a negative result should be immunised. Among staff with a low infection risk, vaccination without prior serological tests is more cost-effective, however.
Semaine des hôpitaux, 1983, Vol.59, No.32, p.2225-2227. 10 ref.
VIth International Pneumoconiosis Conference 1983
VIème Conférence internationale sur les pneumoconioses [en francés]
Papers presented at this conference organised by the Mutual Accident Insurance Association in the Mining Industry (Bergbau-BG), the International Labour Office and the World Health Organization, and held on 20-23 Sep. 1983 in Bochum (Federal Republic of Germany). The papers deal with current scientific research, in particular with the epidemiological and medico-social aspects of pneumoconiosis. The papers, reproduced in their original language, are grouped by theme: Vol.1 - Scientific programme: pneumoconiosis in coalminers (epidemiology, lung cancer); silicosis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis (chest x-rays, ILO classification, lung function, aetiopathogenesis, prevention); experimentally-induced pneumoconiosis. Vol.2 - Asbestos (epidemiology, mesothelioma, lung cancer), asbestosis (chest x-rays, lung function, aetiopathogenesis); siderosis; hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Vol.3 - Obstructions of the respiratory tract, dust exposure (measurement, characteristics, control, respirators).
Bergbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Hauptverwaltung, Hunscheidtstrasse 18, 4630 Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany, Vol.1, 2 and 3. 2226p. Bibl.
Matsumura T., Iwamura N., Inoue Y.
Paddy field dermatitis in Hyogo Prefecture - 1. Epidemiological studies in Takasago
A dermatitis of unknown aetiology occurred among about 60 residents working in paddy fields in a rural district of Takasago City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, which faces the Seto Inland Sea. The dermatitis with severe itching occurred after rice-planting and weeding, and the duration of the itching was in most cases about 5-15 days. The dermatitis was found in the body parts exposed to paddy field water. Questionnaires and a seroepidemiological survey showed that it was due to the invasion of cercariae of avian schistosomes.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, Jan. 1983, Vol.31, No.5, p.730-734. Illus. 19 ref.
Schaumburg H.H., Spencer P.S., Thomas P.K.
Disorders of peripheral nerves
Chapter 12 of this textbook covers toxic neuropathy due to occupational, biological and environmental agents. Pathology and pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory investigation and differential diagnosis are described for conditions resulting from exposure to acrylamide, inorganic arsenic, carbon disulfide, cyanide, dimethylaminopropionitrile, dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, ethylene oxide, hexane, methyl butyl ketone, lead, methylbromide, organophosphorus esters, TOCP, thallium, trichloroethylene, and diphtheria infection.
European Book Service, P.O. Box 124, 1380 AC Weesp, Netherlands, 1983. 248p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$51.25.
This book is designed to assist health professionals in the recognition of environmental hazards and proper placement of workers with known susceptibilities as well as in the early recognition and improved treatment of occupational mycoses. Contents: cryptococcosis; coccidioidomycosis; histoplasmosis; paracoccidioidomycosis; sporotrichosis; blastomycosis; chromomycosis; aspergillosis in composting; dermatophytosis; yeast infections; mycotic hypersensitivity; pulmonary mycotoxicosis; laboratory infections; soil decontamination and other control measures.
Lea and Febiger, 600 Washington Square, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA, 1983. 247p. Illus. 711 ref. Index. Price: US$27.00.
Rom W.N., Renzetti A.D., Lee J.S., Archer V.E.
Environmental and occupational medicine
This textbook in 3 parts provides a clinical approach to occupational medicine. Part I covers environmental and occupational diseases by organ systems and includes discussions on the discipline of environmental and occupational disease; occupations that can be hazardous; tests used in the recognition, evaluation and treatment of occupational health problems. Part II covers various potentially hazardous environmental and occupational exposures including toxic metals, organic chemicals, radiation; aspects of the physical environment that can be harmful, e.g. noise, temperature and lighting. Part III covers legal aspects of the regulation and control of environmental and occupational diseases and exposures including information on the labour unions' perspective, workers' compensation, ethics in occupational medicine and the passage of legislation designed to maintain standards of occupational health and safety. New frontiers in occupational medicine are also discussed.
Little, Brown and Co., Medical Division, 34 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02106, USA, 1983. 1015p. Illus. Over 4,000 ref. Index. Price: US$82.50.
Cativiela J.L.A., Megías del Rosal J., Ruiz de la Fuente S., Laborda Grima R.
Toxicología de los fluídos de corte
This literature survey covers: description of various cutting fluids (mineral oils, lubricating oils; study of additives (for high-pressure applications, emulsifiers, sterilisers, antioxidants and rust inhibitors, anti-foaming agents, dyes); health hazards due to cutting fluids (skin damage, respiratory problems, bacterial infections, cancer risk due to the presence of nitroso amines in lubricants); preventive measures.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1983, No.84, p.7-14. Illus. 15 ref.
Levy B.S., Wegman D.H.
Occupational health: Recognizing and preventing work-related disease
This textbook is designed for medical students, practising physicians and students or practitioners in other health disciplines. Contents: work and health in the United States; recognition and prevention of occupational disease (epidemiology, screening, health and safety programmes in the workplace, industrial hygiene, safety and ergonomics); hazardous workplace exposures (toxins, carcinogens, physical trauma, ionising radiation, noise and hearing impairment, other physical hazards, infectious agents, psychological and social stress); occupational disorders (respiratory, skin, reproductive, neurologic and behavioural, cardiovascular, back and musculoskeletal, haematologic, hepatic, renal and urinary tract); problems and opportunities (labour perspective, women workers, minority workers, non-occupational medical problems, workers compensation, disability evaluation). Appendices cover illustrated toxins and their effects; training and career opportunities; other sources of information.
Little Brown and Company, 34 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA, 1983. 526p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$28.25.
Brown T.C., Kreider S.D., Lange W.R.
Guidelines for employee health services in hospitals, clinics and medical research institutions
Minimum recommendations adopted by the American Occupational Medical Association's Committee on Medical Center Employee Occupational Health Services pertaining to preplacement and periodical health assessment, infection control (specific recommendations are published periodically for tuberculosis, rubella, varicella, enteric pathogens, diphtheria, polio, tetanus, measles, mumps, hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia), pregnancy and reproduction, international travel, accident prevention, management of stress, confidentiality, cooperation with private physicians.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1983, Vol.25, No.10, p.771-773.
Hisashige A., Kume Y., Yamamoto M., Ogawa T., Nakao S., Ohara H.
An analysis of the mortality patterns in the area supplying tunnel workers away from home - Part 1. On the regional difference of the mortality rate by the supplying rate of tunnel workers
Many tunnel workers migrate from one place to another in the course of their work. Hazardous factors in tunnel digging include dust, vibration, and noise. Mortality rates in a district of Japan supplying many tunnel workers were compared with those of a district supplying few such workers. There was a close relationship between tunnel work and silicotuberculosis, tuberculosis and infectious and parasitic diseases as causes of death. Digestive system diseases, neoplasms, all causes, stomach cancer and pneumoconiosis were related to both tunnel work and other regional occupations such as fishing. There was no relation between tunnel work and cerebrovascular disease.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1983, Vol.25, No.4, p.245-261. Illus. 110 ref.
Suicides of workers who had experienced occupational accidents
Five cases of suicide of workers were investigated; the main cause of these suicides seems to have been the ailment subsequent to an occupational accident. Two of the cases were diagnosed as tuberculosis with pneumosilicosis, the others as spinal lesion, spondylolysis and neurinoma. The victims suffered from dyspnoea, pain and despair of rehabilitation. The chief psychic symptoms in the months before the suicides were insomnia, agony, irritation, taciturnity, loss of hope and idea of suicide. For the purpose of suicide prevention, the psychic mechanisms apparently at work in these 5 cases suggest a 4-step counselling programme.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.31, No.8, p.525-529. 16 ref.
Hay R.J., Campbell C.K., Wingfield R., Clayton Y.M.
A comparative study of dermatophytosis in coal miners and dermatological outpatients
234 coalminers and 244 dermatological patients, all with tinea pedis, were compared. Trichophyton rubrum was the commonest causation organism in both groups (71% and 77% respectively). Susceptibility factors such as atopy are less important in coalminers, in whom there is a high risk of endemic dermatophytosis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.353-355. 10 ref.
Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)
Plastics, leather and footwear - Health and safety 1976-82
A survey of OSH developments in the British industries of: plastics converting (moulding machines, expanded polystyrene machines); footwear (revolution presses, solvents, footwear machinery, cutting presses, attaching and laminating machines; exposure to dust, solvents, isocyanates, noise, high-frequency radiations); leather goods (tannery drums, multi-roller leather machines, tanning processes, leather finishing, dyestuffs, anthrax, leather dust). Accident statistics, by industry, cause and geographical region, are shown.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1983. 38p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: £4.00.
Vézina N., Beauvais A., Mergler D.
Warts: an occupational disease
Les verrues: une maladie professionnelle [en francés]
The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of warts among workers in 8 poultry slaughterhouses in Quebec and to determine the specific environmental factors that could favour the development and propagation of the viruses causing warts. The distribution by age, seniority and sex of those responding to the questionnaire (569) was similar to that of those sent the questionnaire (1194). The prevalence of warts among the workers was 28.5% (Papilloma virus), while only 5.9% had warts before their employment in slaughterhouses. In the general population, the prevalence of warts is between 7 and 10%, with a peak around the age of 14 years. In poultry slaughterhouses, the highest incidence (38.17%) occurs among workers of 25-29 years. Among workers with 4-6 years of seniority, the incidence is 40.6%. Factors significantly associated with warts are: high humidity, wearing of steel-mesh gloves that were too large, work with saws and the handling of cold objects.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.551-558. Illus. 26 ref.
Ager B.P., Tickner J.A.
The control of microbiological hazards associated with air-conditioning and ventilation systems
A review article dealing with humidifier fever and legionnaires' disease. Occurrences and possible aetiology of the diseases are described. Their control in the workplace is discussed under the headings: building services systems, including ventilation systems, humidifiers; cooling towers and evaporative condensers (including large refrigeration plants and air-conditioning systems); building aerodynamics; preventive measures (control of microbiological contamination at the design stage, preventive maintenance, chemical treatment of cooling water).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.4, p.341-358. Illus. 40 ref.
Desmyter J., Johnson K.M., Deckers C., LeDuc J.W., Brasseur F., Van Ypersele de Strihou C.
Laboratory rat associated outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome due to Hantaan-like virus in Belgium
3 or 4 people handling laboratory rats suffered acute renal failure. Hantaan-like virus was identified as the cause. Serological studies revealed infected rat strains at different sites on the university campus where the patients worked, and 50% of the exposed staff showed evidence of past infection. Monitoring of laboratory rats for Hantaan-like viruses (originating in East Asia) is recommended.
Lancet, 24-31 Dec. 1983, Vol.2, No.8365/6, p.1445-1448. 19 ref.
Saxinger W.C., Blayney D.W., Postal M., Blattner W.A.
Risk of infection of laboratory workers with the human T-cell leukaemia virus
Viral antibodies were looked for in 125 workers at virology, tissue culture, pathology, and cytogenetics laboratories and patient care areas, all of whom were studying human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV) or HTLV-infected patients. One (black female) laboratory worker had serum antibodies to HTLV, probably acquired before she began work in the USA. The use of safety procedures similar to those for hepatitis appears to have been adequate. The results demonstrate the usefulness of pre-employment serum storage for biological workers.
Lancet, 30 July 1983, Vol.2, No.8344, p.274-275. 10 ref.
Abattoir associated zoonoses
Zoonoses discussed in the light of the literature are brucellosis (contagious abortion in cattle), Q-fever, toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, Salmonella and Escherichia coli infections. There is now a greater awareness on the part of the health professions and management in the meat industry of the hazards of occupational exposure to zoonotic diseases.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1983, Vol.33, No.1, p.24-27. 26 ref.
Dworsky M.E., Welch K., Cassady G., Stagno S.
Occupational risk for primary cytomegalovirus infection among pediatric health care workers
The prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody was determined in medical students, house staff, nurses and physicians, and pregnant and non-pregnant women in the community. Exposure of health-care workers was estimated by determining the prevalence of CMV infection in 3 groups of asymptomatic infants for whom they provided care. CMV was excreted in the urine or saliva of 1.6% of 2,899 newborns, 13% of 24 premature infants hospitalised for over a month, and 5% of 44 older infants seen as outpatients. Annual attack rates in the hospital students and staff were not higher than in the women in the community, and the risk of occupational contact is no larger than that faced by young women in the community at large.
New England Journal of Medicine, 20 oct. 1983, Vol.309, No.16, p.950-953. 15 ref.
Swart K.S., Wilks C.R., Jackson K.B., Hayman J.A.
Human leptospirosis in Victoria
Over a 2-year period leptospirosis was diagnosed in specimens from 208 of 2516 patients with suggestive symptoms. The most common serological reactions were with serovars hardjo, pomona and tarassovi. There was a clear association between infection and occupation in 101 farmers, 44 meat workers and 11 meat inspectors. Leptospirosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with pyrexia who have occupational contact with animals, and the appropriate serological and culture examinations carried out.
Medical Journal of Australia, 14 May 1983, Vol.1, No.10, p.460-463. Illus. 14 ref.
Mehta S.K., Sandhu R.S.
Immunological significance of Aspergillus fumigatus in cane-sugar mills
548 workers at 2 sugar mills in India and a control group were studied. 328 of them complained of chronic respiratory disorders. A preponderance of Aspergillus fumigatus was found at the bagasse-containing sites in the mills. A. fumigatus was frequently isolated from the sputum of sugar workers, and a significant number showed a positive reaction to intracutaneous challenge with aspergillin. Immediate type I and late Arthus type skin hypersensitivity occurred in 10.6 and 4.4%, respectively, of the exposed workers. Diagnoses of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and of allergic pulmonary candidiasis were made in 17 (7.1%) and 4 (1.7%), respectively, of the 238 workers complaining of chronic respiratory disorders. The epidemiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, but not that of allergic bronchopulmonary candidiasis, may be of occupational origin.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1983, Vol.38, No.1, p.41-46. 14 ref.
Doby J.M., Guiguen C., Duval J.M., Deunff J.
Intestinal parasitosis in sewer workers
Les parasitoses intestinales chez les égoutiers [en francés]
The faeces of 80 municipal workers (sewer cleaners, street cleaners, sewage treatment personnel, etc.) and of 300 controls were examined. The risk of faecal contamination was much higher in the municipal workers than in the control population. Simple preventive measures proved to be effective in reducing the frequency of parasitic infection. Unlike a previous survey, this one gives no clear answer to the question whether dysentry should be included in a list of professional diseases.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.21-25. 8 ref.
Palmgren M.S., Lee L.S., Delucca A.J., Ciegler A.
Preliminary study of mycoflora and mycotoxins in grain dust from New Orleans area grain elevators
Known mycoflora of commercial grain includes species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium - fungi that may produce ochratoxins, aflatoxins and zearalenone. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyse methylene chloride and water extracts of dust samples collected from several locations and dust control systems. Analytical detection limits were 50ng zearalenone/g of dust, 10ng/g for ochratoxin and 5ng/g for aflatoxins. None of the 15 samples analysed contained any detectable amount of aflatoxins or ochratoxin A, but 10 of the 15 samples contained zearalenone at levels from 25 to 100ng/g.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.485-488. 18 ref.
Young A.B., Reid D., Grist N.R.
Is cytomegalovirus a serious hazard to female hospital staff?
The findings of a working party set up to study this question in Scotland are reported. The main impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs during pregnancy. Epidemiological data from Scotland, the rest of the United Kingdom and other countries are reviewed: the risk of congenital infection among the general population is similar (3-6 per 1000 births). There is a possibility of a slight occupational risk to hospital personnel. In children's hospitals, hygiene practices may affect the risk. Routine screening of staff for CMV antibody is not recommended. Recommendations for the prevention of cross-infection are given.
Lancet, 30 Apr. 1983, Vol.I, No.8331, p.975-976. 11 ref.
Laboratory biosafety manual
Laboratory biosafety manual [en inglés]
Manuel de sécurité biologique en laboratoire [en francés]
This manual represents a synthesis of the advice formulated by a group of experts and has been written in order to be entirely suitable for international application. It is intended for laboratory safety officers. The guidelines in Part 1 may be used as a source document from which laboratory manuals applicable to local circumstances can be derived. These guidelines concern laboratory operation, design and equipment: code of practice, laboratory design, facilities and equipment, health and medical surveillance, training, handling of specimens, waste disposal, emergency procedures, animal facilities; chemical, electrical, fire and radiation safety. Part 2 deals with the procedures for safe laboratory practice and part 3 with the selection and use of essential biosafety equipment.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1983. 123p. Illus. 70 ref. Price: SF.14.00.
Occupational risks of dentists and their prevention
Riscos ocupacionais de dentistas e sua prevenção [en portugués]
A review article describing the occupational health risks run by dentists, and the corresponding preventive measures. Problems include: stress of mental work; standing posture; use of sharp metallic tools; the high-frequency noise of dental drills; X-rays; mercury vapours and anaesthetic substances; infectious diseases (chiefly hepatitis B); head lice.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 1983, Vol.11, No.41, p.16-24. 59 ref.
Landais S., Carre R., Fourn P., Picard H., Ille H., Didier A.
Malaria chemoprevention in aircraft flight crews
La chimioprophylaxie du paludisme dans le personnel navigant de l'aéronautique [en francés]
Report of a questionnaire survey on the chemoprophylaxis of malaria in 134 flight crew members at risk to malaria, combined with the determination of urinary chloroquine. Factors limiting long-term acceptance of the need for and desirability of chemoprophylaxis include: fear of side-effects (in particular vision disorders) and the disparate and even contradictory information about the risk of contracting malaria. Doses and vision side effects are considered. Proposal of a classical protocol more acceptable to flight crew members (weekly doses of chloroquine).
Médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 1983, Vol.22, No.85, p.14-18. 35 ref.
Personnel in genetic engineering laboratories: an attempt to evaluate occupational hazards due to antibiotic resistance in E. coli K12
Personnel des laboratoires de génie génétique: essai d'évaluation des risques professionnels à partir de l'antibiorésistance liée à E. coli K12 [en francés]
This medical school thesis assesses the occupational hazards to which the personnel of genetic engineering laboratories are exposed. A description of genetic processes in bacteria and their application in genetic engineering is followed by a description of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), especially E. coli K12, and its pathogenic potential. Safety standards applicable to genetic engineering laboratories in the USA and France are reviewed. The skins, throats and stools of personnel at 3 workstations in a genetic engineering laboratory were examined for the presence of multiply antibiotic-resistant E. coli K12. Technicians performing conjugation and centrifugation showed some cutaneous contamination, but no contamination of the gastrointestinal tract was found. Nonetheless, special medical surveillance of the personnel of genetic engineering laboratories, to guard against presently unidentified hazards, is necessary.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Cochin Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1983. 103p. 66 ref.
Neukirch F., Perdrizet S., Bouvier-Colle M.H., Pariente R.
Respiratory deaths in agricultural and non-agricultural workers in France from 1970 to 1974
Mortalité par maladies respiratoires chez les travailleurs en milieu agricole et non agricole en France de 1970 à 1974 [en francés]
Analysis of respiratory mortality data in France collected by a European Community working group and comparison of findings in urban and rural communities. There was excess acute respiratory mortality among male and female agricultural workers; this confirmed the existence of this specific risk among agricultural workers. Further studies will be needed to precisely identify the environmental factors specific to farmwork to which these agricultural workers are exposed.
Revue française des maladies respiratoires, 1983, Vol.11, No.1, p.47-55. 17 ref.
Hepatocarcinogenesis in laboratory rodents: relevance for man
2 broad mechanisms are considered: in the genotoxic model, chemicals are thought to act by altering the structure of the genetic material of the cell, thus converting it to a cancerous cell; in the non-genotoxic model, the cancer develops from a non-cancerous lesion - involving necrosis, at the subcellular level, or involving hyperplasia. A recommended sequence of steps is given for establishing the hepatocarcinogenic potential of a chemical to laboratory animals and man.
European Chemical Industry, Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Boîte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 1982. 77p. Illus. 253 ref.
Seitz B., Saux M., Legrand F., Briotet A.
Le travail dans les égouts [en francés]
A study by occupational physicians of working conditions in sewers: description of tasks, hazards (falls, drowning, bites, poisoning by air and water pollution, microbial and parasitic infection, neuropsychic effects of underground work in confined spaces). Medical prevention involves adherence to the rules of good hygiene and the practice of vaccination. Safety rules must also be observed. Relevant French regulations and recommendations (including air and water sampling) are reviewed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.8, p.649-652.
(Ministerium für Gesundheit)
Aptitude testing and monitoring in occupational medicine
Arbeitsmedizinische Tauglichkeits- und Überwachungsuntersuchungen [en alemán]
The legal texts and methodological guidelines collected in this book define the basic criteria for the evaluation of working conditions and the ability of workers to function safely under those conditions, and for programmes of periodic medical examination. Contents: rules of application concerning the prevention, reporting and diagnosis of occupational diseases - Aptitude Testing and Monitoring in Occupational Medicine (German Democratic Republic, 25 Aug. 1981); multifactorial analysis of industrial hygiene; list of harmful factors, agents and substances; directives on aptitude testing and monitoring.
Staatsverlag der DDR, Otto-Grotewohl-Strasse 17, DDR-108 Berlin, 1982. 296p. Illus.
Hermanowicz A., Nawarska Z., Borys D., Maślankiewicz A.
The neutrophil function and infectious diseases in workers occupationally exposed to organochloride insecticides
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function was studied in 33 workers exposed to DDT. There was a severe impairment of chemotaxis, adhesive properties, phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, and an increase in random and stimulated migration. Mechanisms are discussed. At the time of the survey there was a prevalence of infectious diseases - especially tonsillitis, pharyngitis and bronchitis - among the workers (significance compared with a control group of 1000 people: p<0.001); the incidence was significantly higher in workers exposed for 12-30 years than in those exposed for 3-5 years.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1982, Vol.50, No.4, p.329-340. 18 ref.
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