Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entradas encontradas
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Shinomiya N., Seno M., Shimizu K., Suzuki S., Ohno F., Ikeda T., Itoh A., Hamada K., Ohiwa H.
Prevention of infectious diseases during saturation dives
Hōwa-sensui ni okeru kansen-yobō [en japonés]
When divers work in a chamber for long periods of time, the environment during saturation dives (high temperature, humidity and oxygen partial pressure, and its sealed nature) is ideal for bacterial growth. In addition, in a closed space upper respiratory infections are easily transferred to other divers. To prevent these problems, good personal and chamber hygiene are necessary. This paper shows bacteriological data about chamber and ear hygiene in saturation dives. Investigation of bacteriological contamination of the diving system and diver monitoring will provide useful information and ensure safety in diving operations.
National Defense Medical Journal, June 1987, Vol.34, No.6, p.211-219. Illus. 14 ref.
Follett E.A.C., Symington I.S., Cameron M.G.
Experience with hepatitis B vaccination in nurses in a hospital for the mentally handicapped
500 nurses in a large hospital received a full course of hepatitis B vaccination. 480 of them (96%) had detectable antibodies 9 months after starting vaccinations, with high titres (over 1000 IU/L) in 60%. In only 2 of the 20 non-responders did lasting immunity develop with a 4th dose of vaccine. Antibody titre decreased rapidly in all vaccinees followed up. In vaccinees with a titre above 100 IU/L the decrease in titre could be reversed by a booster dose. Those with a titre below 100 IU/L had a variable response to a booster dose and lasting immunity developed in only a few. A recall system was started in order to maintain a protective level of antibodies in the nurses.
Lancet, 26 Sept. 1987, Vol.II, No.8561, p.728-731. 11 ref.
Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health care settings
This report is intended for all health care settings and considers all patients as potentially infective. Covered are: definition of health-care workers; health-care workers with AIDS; risk to health-care workers of acquiring HIV at work; precautions to prevent transmission (universally, during invasive procedures, dentistry, autopsies or morticians' services, dialysis, laboratories); environmental considerations (sterilisation and disinfection of equipment, survival of HIV, housekeeping, blood and other body fluid spills, laundry, infective waste); implementation of recommendations; serologic testing for HIV infection; management of infected health-care workers and of exposures.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 21 Aug. 1987, Vol.36, No.2S, 18p. 37 ref.
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus and occupational medicine
Infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et médecine du travail [en francés]
Infection by HIV: historical review, the agent itself, physiological and pathological hypotheses, serological methods, clinical picture, transmission, information and prevention. Present epidemiological situation in France and elsewhere. Problems posed by HIV in the workplace (except in health care): aptitude for work, vaccination, work overseas, risk for HIV transmission in connection with first aid in the workplace, features of certain occupations, hygiene, the counselling role of the occupational physician. Problems of health-care personnel: aptitude for work, risk of HIV infection, prevention, action to be taken in case of an accident involving a risk of HIV contamination. Conclusion.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1987, No.31, p.197-218. Illus. 97 ref.
Immunizations among hospital personnel
To minimise the likelihood of transmission of certain infectious diseases within the hospital, the 5 million US health care personnel are becoming a special target group for immunisation programmes. A review of immunisations conducted by a hospital employee health service demonstrated that 80% of hospital employees are adequately protected against tetanus/diphtheria, and 97% are immune to rubella. In contrast, only 28% of at-risk employees are immunised against hepatitis B and only 2% are immunised against influenza. Vaccination programmes for tetanus/diphtheria and rubella, which are supported by appropriate legislation, are more effective than vaccination programmes for hepatitis B and influenza, which are not supported by appropriate legislation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1987, Vol.29, No.5, p.433-436. 8 ref.
Domínguez Rojas V., De Juanes Pardo J.R., García Padros M., Rodríguez Artalejo F.
Vacunación antitetánica en población de alto riesgo/Vacunación antitetánica en población de alto riesgo
An epidemiologic study on the exposure to tetanus and the vaccination coverage of the different professional categories in a bullfighting arena in Madrid, Spain, in 1984. Only 14.9% of these professionals had a complete antitetanic vaccination, while 52.5% of them had suffered occupational injuries. 48% had received antitetanic gamma globulin (predominantly in the most exposed groups). Despite this insufficient protection against tetanus, no case of this infectious disease was recorded.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1987, Vol.34, No.136, p.50-56. 12 ref.
Canga Alonso A., Crespo Aguilera D., Martín Iglesias C., Martínez Noval A., Motto López A., Sánchez Tabar M.A., Suárez González T.V.
Riesgos profesionales de los trabajadores de centros hospitalarios/Riesgos profesionales de los trabajadores de centros hospitalarios
Literature survey of the health hazards of work in hospitals. Contents: classification of hospital workers (sanitary and non-sanitary personnel); conditions of work (working hours, premises and equipment); definition of occupational accidents and diseases; general and specific accident risks; occupational diseases in hospitals (tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis and others); preventive measures and treatment.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1987, Vol.34, No.136, p.31-39. 11 ref.
Cosman B.C., Brandt-Rauf P.W.
Infectious disease in Antarctica and its relation to aerospace medicine: A review
Literature survey of infectious diseases among research scientists and others working in Antarctic stations. Conclusions to be drawn for all isolated work environments.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.58, No.2, p.174-179. 53 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
This guidance note discusses Legionnaires' disease (LD) and precautionary measures that can be taken to minimise its occurrence. LD is caused by a bacterium and appears as a form of pneumonia. The case fatality rate is approximately 10%. Contents: medical aspects of the disease; microbiology (the bacterium is widespread in natural sources of water and can colonise certain types of water fitting, pipework and materials used in the construction of water systems); potential contamination sources (recirculating and hot water systems, cooling water systems such as those connected to air conditioning plants); water monitoring; precautionary measures; identification and monitoring; design and selection of equipment and materials; cleaning, maintenance and operation of water systems; protection of personnel, legal aspects; action in the event of an outbreak of the disease.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Jan. 1987. 8p. Illus.
Food services - Part two - Medical monitoring of kitchen personnel
Restauration collective - Deuxième partie - Contrôle médical du personnel de cuisine [France] [en francés]
Synthesis of regulations applicable in France. Topics: vaccination of personnel; special medical monitoring; prevention of infections; occupational diseases due to kitchen work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1987, No.29, p.53-57.
Health in the construction industry
This data sheet covers: hostile weather (cold, dry, humid, wet); infections (Weil's disease, hepatitis B, AIDS); repetitive strain injuries (due to vibration or noise); illnesses due to environmental contaminants (asbestos, cement).
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London ECIR ODA, United Kingdom, 1987. 7p.
Mycobacterium marinum infection in a mechanic
M. marinum is a common cause of occupational mycobacterial skin disease. However, it has previously been seen only in persons having contact with water in nature or in aquariums. The present case involved a mechanic who reconditioned water pumps. The infection was cured by antibiotics.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1987, Vol.16, No.5, p.283-284. 3 ref.
Health and safety in the school environment
Annotated bibliography of 913 items (books, journal and newspaper articles), predominently of North American origin. Its primary purpose is the education and information of members of school health and safety committees. The citations are grouped by subject: general; the acoustic environment; art materials; asbestos; communicable diseases and parasitic infestations; duplicating machines; furniture; industrial art shops; natural hazards (tornadoes, earthquakes); physical education, recreational facilities and outdoor education; science laboratories; the thermal environment and air quality; video display terminals; the visual environment (lighting, colour).
Canadian Teachers' Federation, 110 Argyle Ave., Ottawa, Ontario K2P 1B4, Canada, June 1987. 247p.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - State legislative activity
Survey of legislation in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia relating to the testing and reporting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to various social aspects of this disease, including discrimination in the workplace.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 6 Nov. 1987, Vol.258, No.17, p.2410-2414. 4 ref.
Özesmi M., Aslan H., Hillerdal G., Rylander R., Özesmi C., Baris Y.I.
Byssinosis in carpet weavers exposed to wool contaminated with endotoxin
303 full-time day workers in a carpet-weaving factory were subjected to a physical examination, chest radiography, and vitalograph test, and answered a respiratory questionnaire. Fifty-four healthy, non-exposed subjects served as controls. Concentrations of dust and of bacterial endotoxin were measured. Of the workers, 259 (85.5%) had airway symptoms and 62 (20.5%) had maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMF) values of less than 60% compared to 9.2% of the controls. Symptoms in 68 workers (22%) were compatible with byssinosis and 36 of these underwent vitalography before starting work and after 4h work on Monday when significant reductions of their FEV1 and MMF were found. Twenty-one of these 36 workers were tested on Tuesday and no differences were found between measurements made before work started and 4h later. Airborne dust concentrations in the factory were high and bacterial endotoxin was found. Findings suggest that a large number of workers in the factory suffer from a disease indistinguishable from byssinosis even thogh wool is used almost exclusively, the only cotton being the wrap. The finding of endotoxin together with the absence of cotton confirms the theory that "byssinosis" is due to a bacterial endotoxin rather than to cotton itself.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1987, Vol.44, No.7, p.479-483. Illus. 17 ref.
Occupational hazards in hospitals: risk of infection
In this review of the risk of infection to hospital staff, attention is drawn to the continuing risk presented by hepatitis B and pulmonary tuberculosis, which are more common than diseases such as typhoid fever, brucellosis, histoplasmosis, whooping cough, infectious gastroenteritis, measles, and parotiditis. Other items considered include the susceptibility of female hospital staff to rubella and the importance of their undergoing screening and vaccination; the risks currently presented by epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and by herpes viruses (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and cytomegalovirus); and the risk of contracting the new infectious diseases (Legionnaires' disease, Marburg disease, Lassa fever, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1987, Vol.44, No.7, p.435-442. 154 ref.
Zsögön É., Groszmann M., Szépvölgyi E.
Trends in occupational diseases, intoxication and excessive exposures reported in 1986
Az 1986. évben bejelentett foglalkozási megbetegedések (mérgezések) és fokozott expozíciós esetek alakulása [en húngaro]
Analysis of occupational diseases (1649) and cases of excessive exposure (3264) reported in Hungary during 1986. Whereas the incidence of occupational diseases is constantly decreasing, the number of cases of intoxication by exposure to harmful substances has increased significantly since 1981. Among occupational diseases, the most important were hearing damage due to exposure to noise (28.8%), skin diseases (27.5%) and infectious diseases (23.1%). A table presents the most common occupations (by industry) where exposure to harmful substances occurs.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1987, Vol.33, No.4-6, p.67-77. Illus.
Lahaye D., Strauss P., Baleux C., Van Ganse W.
Cost-benefit analysis of hepatitis-B vaccination
The cost of vaccinating 40,000 Belgian health-care workers against hepatitis-B has been more than recovered by a very serious reduction in the number of compensable cases of the disease. The Belgian Insurance Fund for Occupational Diseases has been paying the costs of hepatitis-B vaccinations since 1983, and this financial investment has proved to be beneficial to the Fund.
Lancet, 22 Aug. 1987, Vol.2, No.8556, p.441-442. Illus. 4 ref.
Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee update on hepatitis B prevention
This Lead from the Centres for Disease Control (Atlanta, Georgia, USA) contains recommendations on immunisation against hepatitis B among persons at risk, including health care workers. It covers: patterns of usage of plasma-derived HB vaccine in the USA; impact on disease incidence; the new recombinant DNA HB vaccine (formulation, immunogenicity, efficacy, safety, dosage and schedule, indications for use, precautions); need for vaccine booster doses.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 24-31 July 1987, Vol.258, No.4, p.437-449. 15 ref.
Curtes J.P., Cantineau A., Beaudouin L., Coton J., Jouffe E., Verger C.
Serological investigation of human brucellosis in abattoir workers in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine (France)
Enquête sérologique sur la brucellose humaine parmi le personnel d'un abattoir d'Ille-et-Vilaine [en francés]
Results of an investigation conducted between Jan. 1980 and Jan. 1981 involving 94 abattoir workers and 108 controls. Three comparative immunological tests were performed: the Wright sero-agglutination test, the complement fixation test and the buffered antigen or rose bengal test. Results are presented in a tabular format. They demonstrate that there is a significantly high incidence of brucellosis among the workers of the abattoir, in particular among those who remove bones and offal from carcasses.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.30, p.109-111. 1 ref.
Leprince A., Beaudouin L.
Brucellosis and its prevention
La brucellose et sa prévention [en francés]
Contents of this review: cause (bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella); means of transmission; epidemiology (prevalence of the disease in cattle in France is shown in a map); different clinical manifestations; diagnosis (bacteriological and serological testing, the Burnet skin test); therapy; exposed occupations (farming, veterinary surgeons, abattoir workers, meat cutters, workers in bacteriological laboratories); recommended preventive measures (vaccination, technical measures, other measures particular to certain professions); compensation. Appendix: a table describing various types of occupational brucellosis and the occupations in which they occur.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.30, p.85-93. Illus. 35 ref.
Sick building syndrome and the office environment
A survey of health problems that arise in offices and seem to have no clearly-defined aetiology. They might be related to the building itself (legionnaire's disease, humidifer fever), the physical environment (air exchange, temperature, humidity, lighting, noise), indoor air pollutants (dust, cigarette smoke, car exhaust fumes, formaldehyde, solvents, ozone from photocopiers), VDU use and psychological aspects of the work environment. Diagnosis and recommendations.
Safety Practitioner, Mar. 1987, Vol.5, No.3, p.4-8. Illus. 22 ref.
Health standards for work in the food industry, food retailing and in establishments involved in catering
These guidelines are aimed at doctors and nurses who may be asked to assess the health suitability of persons to work in food factories, retail food outlets and catering establishments in order to minimise the risk of food-borne disease. Samples of appropriate health screening questionnaires and of a health declaration form are given.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1987, Vol.37, No.1, p.4-9.
Miller C.D., Songer J.R., Sullivan J.F.
A twenty-five year review of laboratory-acquired human infections at the National Animal Disease Center
The Center's experience with personnel exposure or infection with pathogenic agents is summarised. 128 cases of laboratory-associated exposures to infectious disease agents were reported. Of these exposures, 103 resulted from known accidents. The other 25 were identified only after the development of clinical or serological manifestations of infection. Thirty-four cases of laboratory-acquired infections were reviewed. Class 3 organisms - Chalmydia sp., Brucella sp. and Mycobacterium sp. - were responsible for 76% of the infections encountered, with Brucella sp. incriminated most frequently. The most commonly reported cause of exposure was associated with hypodermic syringes. Most infections, however, could not be associated with known routes of exposure, with aerosols being assumed in some of the cases.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1987, Vol.48, No.3, p.271-275. 13 ref.
Ager B.P., Tickner J.A.
The control of microorganisms responsible for Legionnaires' disease and humidifier fever
Lutte contre les micro-organismes à l'origine de la maladie des légionnaires et de la fièvre des humidificateurs [en francés]
Translation of an article published by Science Reviews Ltd., Northern Office, 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom (see CIS 85-1627). Conditions favourable to the growth of microbial contaminants are sometimes found in air conditioning systems. These organisms can cause respiratory impairments of an allergenic type (humidifier fever) or of the infectious type (Legionnaires' disease). This paper reviews the incidence of these illnesses and describes the circumstances in which the causal organisms can develop. Information on air conditioning systems is given and possible means of airborne transmission of microorganisms are considered. Preventive measures include attention to regular and efficient maintenance procedures and, in the case of cooling towers, biocidal water treatment to minimise growth of microorganisms.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1630-127-87, p.257-268. Illus. 41 ref.
Survey of the risks (mostly of infection) present in mortuaries and post-mortem rooms. Suggested preventive measures (wearing of gloves).
Occupational Health, May 1987, Vol.39, No.5, p.161-163. Illus. 10 ref.
Immunizations, immunoprophylaxis, and chemoprophylaxis to prevent selected infections
This communication from the United States Preventive Services Task Force presents in a systematic way indications, strategy and implementation, efficacy, contraindications and commentary on vaccination programmes against certain infectious diseases, including those to which certain occupational groups are exposed: hepatitis A (vaccination indicated among travellers to under-developed tropical countries, and among staff at day-care centres and food-handling facilities where hepatitis A has recently occurred); hepatitis B (health-care workers); rabies (veterinarians, animal handlers); malaria (travellers to tropical countries).
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 May 1987, Vol.257, No.18, p.2464-2470. 55 ref.
Awad El-Karim M.A., Collins K.J., Dore C.
Energy expenditure of agricultural workers in an area of endemic schistosomiasis in the Sudan
Indices of physiological performance in the field under natural working conditions were measured in 46 Sudanese Gezira villagers and related to exercise performance under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on energy expenditure in the field was also investigated. A highly significant positive association between the maximal aerobic power output measured in the laboratory with energy expenditure in the field and with changes in body weight during work was found. The villagers' energy expenditure in field work amounted to 25-28kJ/min, which corresponded to more than 50% of their predicted maximal aerobic power output. They maintained that relative work level for more than an hour. The differences in energy expenditure between moderately infected and non-infected villagers with schistosomiasis did not attain statistical significance, but the number of non-infected subjects on which the comparison was based was small.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1987, Vol.44, No.1, p.64-67. Illus. 21 ref.
Méndez Vargas M.M., Maldonado Torres L., González Zepeda A.
Neumoconiosis y tuberculosis
Contents of this booklet written for occupational physicians: physiopathology; clinical picture; laboratory tests; radiography; diagnosis; treatment; expertise; prevention.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México, D.F., Mexico, 1987. 24p. Illus. 28 ref.
Department of Labor and Industry
Reglas de Minnesota - Capítulo 5206: Sustancias peligrosas; Derecho a la información [USA - Minnesota]
Minnesota Rules - Chapter 5206: Hazardous Substances; Employee Right-to-Know [USA - Minnesota] [en inglés]
Normas (actualización de 2003) que aplican las disposiciones de la Ley de 1983 sobre el derecho a la información por parte de los empleados. Contenido: definiciones; ámbito de aplicación (todos los empresarios y empleados de Minnesota, a excepción de ciertas "personas técnicamente cualificadas" [en las áreas de medicina o investigación], explotaciones agrícolas con (10 trabajadores, empleados de servicios municipales de residuos y personal de laboratorio. No obstante, algunas de las disposiciones pueden ser aplicables también a los trabajadores de las categorías exentas; sustancias peligrosas (lista conteniendo alrededor de 1.200 sustancias, con número CAS y códigos indicando su origen en materia de límites de exposición autorizados o riesgos); lista de agentes físicos peligrosos (calor, ruido, radiación ionizante y no ionizante); lista de agentes infecciosos (clasificados por tipo, con códigos indicando su origen en materia de riesgos); requisitos de formación; disponibilidad de información (fichas técnicas); etiquetado; homologación de programas de etiquetado; disposiciones específicas para programas de formación sobre actividades agrícolas relativas a sustancias peligrosas y agentes nocivos.
Internet document, 1986-. 59p.
http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/arule/5206/ [en inglés]
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
This information sheet summarises the preventive measures that should be used in those workplaces where exposure to the AIDS virus may occur, and addresses some issues which have worried workers in both health-care establishments and other settings.
Medical Services Branch, Northern Region Office, 9321 - 48 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6B 2R4, Canada, 1986. 7p. 2 ref.
AIDS and the workplace
Data sheet containing much useful information on AIDS, written for workers with occupations where contact with HIV may occur in the workplace: barbers, hairdressers and other personal service workers; ambulance drivers, police officers, firefighters and other emergency workers; health-care workers, first aiders and others. It also discusses how employers should deal with employees who have AIDS, and the rights of infected people to work under the Ontario Human Rights Code, which prohibits discrimination in employment based on a disabling condition. Special attention is given to the role of trade unions in the education of their members and to help them get accurate information about AIDS.
Health Information Centre, 9th floor, Hepburn Block, Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario M7A IS2, Canada, 1986. 5p.
Legionnaires' disease - A summary of the occupational health concern
This overview discusses: indoor and outdoor environments; the name; legionnaires' disease in Canada; clinical aspects of the disease; incubation period; predisposing conditions; causal factor; diagnosis and treatment; transmission of the disease (cooling towers, drinking water); preventive measures.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1986. 6p. Illus. 18 ref.
Occupational respiratory diseases
This report, part of a comprehensive study of all occupational respiratory diseases, delineates the methods used to define and study the diseases. Topics covered are: methods of study and evaluation (mineralogy, air sampling for gases, vapours, particulates and micro-organisms; epidemiology; radiology; pulmonary function testing; respiratory questionnaires; laboratory assessment of impairment); pneumoconioses (silicosis, silicate pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, coalworkers pneumoconiosis, beryllium disease, reactions to dusts); asthma and rhinitis; hypersensitivity pneumonitis; chronic airways obstruction (bronchitis and emphysema); byssinosis; acute and chronic effects of inhaled toxic agents; lung cancer and mesothelioma; infectious diseases (anthrax, histoplasmosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, psittacosis); cor pulmonale.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Information Systems Section, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1986. 801p. Illus. 1722 ref. Appendix. Index. Price: USD 47.00.
Méndez Vargas M.M., Maldonado Torres L.
Guía para el estudio y reconocimiento de las enfermedades broncopulmonares de trabajo/Guía para el estudio y reconocimiento de las enfermedades broncopulmonares de trabajo
Contents of this booklet written for occupational physicians: pneumoconiosis; asthma; hypersensitivity pneumonitis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis; byssinosis or "Monday asthma"; bronchitis; gas exposures; pneumoconiosis or tuberculosis; ornithosis; pulmonary mycosis; neoplasia.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México, D.F. Mexico, 1986. 1st ed. 18p. 8 ref.
The identification and control of health hazards for hospital workers
This report is in loose-leaf form to facilitate periodic revision. The reasons for an occupational health service are described and recommendations for its functions are made. Sections cover: health programme elements, health service personnel and location; health hazards for each hospital department; health hazards by topic (chemicals, infectious diseases, radiation, cuts, stress, visual display terminals, waste management).
Occupational Health and Safety Division, Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Feb. 1986. 123p. Illus. Bibl.
Guidelines for prevention of brucellosis in meat packing plant workers
These guidelines cover: background of the disease; mode of transmission; major symptoms; work practices; personal hygiene; first aid; worker education; medical monitoring; serological test and its interpretation; treatment.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Medical Services Branch, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, July 1986. 7p. 3 ref.
Wakamatsu C.T., Supino E., Buschinelli J.T.P., Leifert R.M.C., Soto J.M.O.G.
Health risks for hospital personnel
Riscos de insalubridade para o pessoal de hospital [en portugués]
This survey covers: biological risks (tuberculosis, hepatitis B, other infectious diseaes); chemical risks (anaesthetics, sterilising substances, allergic dermatoses, cytostatic drugs); physical risks (air conditioning); risks connected with handling and repair (buildings, electrical installations, hydraulic installations); risks connected with cleaning, waste removal and laundry services; noise, heat and lighting; legislative provisions in Brazil; risks in auxiliary services: analytical, pathological and radiological laboratories.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1986, Vol.14, No.53, p.52-60. 34 ref.
Mann J.M., Francis H., Quinn T.C., Bila K., Asila P.K., Bosenge N., Nzilambi N., Jansegers L., Piot P., Ruti K., Curran J.W.
HIV seroprevalence among hospital workers in Kinshasa, Zaire: Lack of association with occupational exposure
A study of 2492 workers at the largest hospital in Zaire found that 6.4% of the personnel were HIV seropositive. Medical, administrative and manual workers had similar seroprevalence, and seropositivity was not associated with any measure of patient, blood or needle contact. Workers most likely to be seropositive were those who were relatively young, unmarried, or those with recent episodes of blood transfusion, hospitalisation or medical injection. These findings are consistent with other hospital-based studies indicating low risks for occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 12 Dec. 1986, Vol.256, No.22, p.3099-3102. 15 ref.
Lifson A.R., Castro K.G., McCray E., Jaffe H.W.
National surveillance of AIDS in health care workers
Analysis of the occupation of all persons in the USA with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) reported to the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta), with particular attention paid to the 922 (5.5% of the total) with employment in a health-care or clinical laboratory setting, supports other studies that indicate that the risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission in the occupational setting is low.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 19 Dec. 1986, Vol.256, No.23, p.3231-3234. 36 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
A.I.D.S. - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome - and employment
This information booklet, distributed free of charge to more than 400,000 employers in the United Kingdom, outlines the ways in which AIDS infection spreads, the risks of infection in the workplace (non-existent except for some health-care and social workers), what employers should do to reduce the possibility of infection, precautions for first-aiders, employment rights and sources of information in the United Kingdom.
The Mailing House, Leeland Road, London W13 9HL, United Kingdom, 1986. 12p. Gratis.
Kobayashi F., Watanabe T.
Study of the health and living conditions of day labourers - analysis of 5 years of health examination records
Hiyatoi rōdōsha no seikatsu to kenkō ni tsuite - 5-nenkan no kenshin kiroku no bunseki [en japonés]
Every winter, especially before and after the New Year, more than 100 day-labourers are compelled to sleep outdoors around Nagoya station owing to the scarcity of jobs. Their age distribution peaks in their forties, and the percentage of men above sixty is very low. As job opportunities decrease, their living conditions become worse. Almost none of them have joined a health insurance programme. The following are considered to be their most important health problems: (1) trauma and other musculoskeletal diseases caused by heavy muscular work; (2) diseases such as tuberculosis, exaggerated by malnutrition or bad living conditions; (3) alcoholic liver disease or other alcohol-related diseases. These results suggest the necessity of more comprehensive and more effective policies.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.33, No.12, p.761-768. 10 ref.
Schimmelpfenning W., Konetzke G., Lun A.
Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease
Virushepatitis als Berufskrankheit [en alemán]
During the last 5 years there has been no further decrease of acute viral hepatitis as an occupational disease. Essential aspects of occupational medicine regarding acute viral hepatitis are discussed: recognition as an occupational disease, estimation of the damage affecting the body, fixing the date of re-examination, change of workplace, questions of fitness to work and legislation. Important prophylactic principles: strict observance of hygienic principles, regular checkups and, in future, active immunisation against hepatitis B in risk areas.
Zeitschrift für klinische Medizin, 1986, Vol.41, No.11, p.805-809. 19 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Prevention and control of anthrax [Federal Republic of Germany]
Verhütung und Bekämpfung des Milzbrandes [en alemán]
Directive concerning safety regulations for the prevention and control of anthrax.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1986. 6+4p.
Early detection of occupational diseases
This practical guide covers the symptoms, tests and actions to be taken for early detection of diseases. Section contain: principles; main diseases (pneumoconiosis; bronchopulmonary diseases caused by hard metal dust; asthma; extrinsic allergic pneumonitis; diseases caused by compounds of beryllium, cadmium, phosphorus, chromium, manganese, arsenic, mercury, lead and fluorine; by carbon disulfide, halogenated hydrocarbons, benzene and some homologues, aniline and nitrobenzene, nitroglycerin and nitric acid esters, alcohols, glycols and ketones, carbon monoxide, hydrocyanic acid, hydrogen sulfide; hearing loss; diseases caused by vibration, compressed air, ionising radiation; skin diseases, skin cancer, infectious and parasitic diseases); clinical and laboratory tests (respiratory, nervous, blood, digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, locomotor systems); exposure assessment and biological monitoring.
World Health Organization, Office of Publications, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 272p. Bibl. Annexes. Price: SF.44.00.
Leptospirosis as an occupational disease
Leptospirosis is a febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is relatively common in Great Britain (48-120 confirmed cases annually in the period 1980-1985), and it can be fatal. Its changing epidemiology is discussed - the new emerging hazard is exposure to cattle leptospirosis by dairy workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1986, Vol.43, No.11, p.721-725. Illus. 10 ref.
Maruna H., Westphal G.
Epidemiology and risk calculation of hepatitis-B as an occupational disease in the Austrian health service
The absolute number of occupation-related cases of hepatitis B increased fourfold over the last 2 decades, while at the same time the number of health service employees only doubled. In comparison with the Austrian population, the hepatitis risk is about 11 times higher for the health service employees. Laboratory personnel, medical doctors and support service personnel are especially exposed. The relative risks according to age, sex and type of occupation were also investigated, and a comparison was made with the findings of other investigations in the literature. First results are reported for the screening of health service employees for immunity against HB-antigens. The prophylaxis against hepatitis that was begun in Austria in 1983 is the first extensive vaccination programme against this liver disease.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.4, p.259-265. Illus. 13 ref.
Early detection of occupational diseases
This book is intended to serve as a guide to the early recognition, diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases. The first part deals with the principles of early detection and the second describes various occupational diseases and approaches to their early detection and control. The physiology of the body systems affected by the diseases and the clinical and laboratory tests for their early detection are discussed in the third part. The final part presents biological and environmental methods for the assessment of exposure to occupational hazards. Although this book is addressed mainly to health professionals at various levels responsible for occupational health, it should in addition prove useful to medical students, workers' representatives, and managers responsible for safety at work.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 272p. 168 ref. Price: SF.44.00.
Protection against blood contamination
Skydd mot blodsmitta [en sueco]
These regulations (effective 1 Apr. 1987) apply to work involving the risk of contamination by non-disinfected human blood; it concerns medical and paramedical personnel, laboratory staff, policemen, social service workers and sanitation workers and relates to the protection from infections such as viral hepatitis and AIDS. Contents: general rules (planning, organisation and performance of work tasks, transportation of contaminated blood); high-risk tasks (they should be performed by trained persons knowing the risks and routes of contamination and familiar with protective measures; use of work aids and protective equipment which enable cuts and punctures to be avoided and prevent any contact with the skin and mucous membranes; skin disinfection and cleansing; warning notice on containers with contaminated blood). Detailed advice and commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 6 Feb. 1987. 13p.
Weil's syndrome in a zoologist
Case study of a zoologist who developed an unusual form of leptospirosis after handling small wild mammals, some of which bit him. Infection was probably due to the entry of contaminated urine into the bite wounds. The use of gloves and the taking of prophylactic doxycycline are suggested as preventive measures, at least until a vaccine becomes available.
Medical Journal of Australia, 26 May 1986, Vol.144, No.11, p.597-601. 15 ref.
Skilbeck H.W., Miller G.T., Hodgen A.N., Stuckey M.S.
A serological survey of leptospirosis in Gippsland dairy farmers; Leptospirosis in Western Australia, 1983-1984
Article 1 reports on the results of serological testing of 1074 farmers and dairy workers without clinical symptoms of leptospirosis. High rates of positive serological reactions were noted against certain Leptospira interrogans serogroups (particularly, against serovar Hebdomadis). The milking of dairy cows was a major risk factor in the development of positive reactions. Article 2 reports on the presence of leptospiral antibodies (with or without attending clinical symptoms) among farmers and meatworkers in the State of Western Australia.
Medical Journal of Australia, 26 May 1986, Vol.144, No.11, p.565-569. 16 ref.
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