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Disposal of medical waste
This leading article in a medical journal discusses the problem of medical waste disposal in connection with potential dangers of exposure to HIV and Hepatitis B virus. In the United States (and in most parts of Australia), it is not usually considered practical or necessary to treat all waste contaminated with body fluids as infectious, even though it is possible for AIDS and Hepatitis B to be transmitted by contact of infected blood with mucous membranes or inflamed uncovered skin. It is recommended that waste contaminated heavily with blood, such as used blood packs, disposable blood-suction sets, placentas and sanitary napkins, be labelled appropriately in order to warn staff members involved in waste disposal procedures.
Medical Journal of Australia, 17 Oct. 1988, Vol.149, No.8, p.400-402. 13 ref.
Further evidence of nonasbestos-related mesothelioma
Asbestos is not the only cause of malignant mesothelioma. An updated review of the literature is presented with reports on mesothelioma with unknown causes (spontaneous cases) in animals and humans and on mesothelioma in man in association with exposure to erionite-zeolite, exposure to ionising radiation, and chronic inflammation and in animals in association with biological (viral), chemical physicochemical and physical agents.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1988, Vol.14, No.3, p.141-144. 39 ref.
Reid J.A., White D.G., Caul E.O., Palmer S.R.
Role of infected foold handler in hotel outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis: Implications for control
Investigation of an outbreak of viral (Norwalk-like) gastroenteritis amongst staff (40 cases), resident guests (over 70 cases), and persons attending functions (54 cases) at one hotel over 8 days suggested that the main vehicle of infection was cold foods prepared by a food handler during and after a mild gastrointestinal illness. He was excreting Norwalk-like virus particles 48 hours after the illness. In addition, ill kitchen staff vomited in the kitchen area and may have contaminated surfaces and stored foods. It is recommended that food handlers should be regarded as potentially infectious until at least 48 hours after clinical recovery from viral gastroenteritis. Stored foods that may have been contaminated should be immediately discarded and areas of the work place which may have been affected should be identified and decontaminated.
Lancet, 6 Aug. 1988, Vol.2, No.8606, p.321-323. 17 ref.
Meylan P.R., Francioli P., Decrey H., Chave J.P., Glauser M.P.
Post-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection in health care workers
This letter to the editor describes the case of a 24-year old laboratory technician who pricked a finger with a broken haematocrit tube filled with blood from a patient with seropositive AIDS and several AIDS symptoms. The risk of transmission of HIV associated with a single occupational exposure is estimated at 0.13% (95% confidence interval 0.01-0.74%). An attempt of prophylaxis by zidovudine was made to prevent HIV in the technician. Treatment began 2 hours after the exposure. She was given a 4-day course of zidovudine at 500mg doses four times daily. 3 months after exposure she remained free of any serological markers of HIV infection (anti-HIV ELISA, confirmatory anti-env and anti-core ELISAs, HIV antigen p24, and western blot). Despite this, zidovudine prophylaxis cannot yet be recommended to health-care workers with parenteral HIV exposure because its long-term side-effects are unknown. However, establishing the efficacy of a post-exposure chemoprophylactic measure is desirable, and prophylactic zidovudine or similar drugs could be tested in non-human primates experimentally infected with HIV.
Lancet, 27 Feb. 1988, Vol.I, No.8583, p.481. 5 ref.
AFSCME Fact Sheet - AIDS
Data sheet on AIDS covering a wide range of information on AIDS, including the cause of this fatal disease, the nature of the AIDS virus, modes of transmission, pecularities of the "AIDS test", protective measures against HIV infection, non-discrimination against workers with AIDS and others.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 1625 L Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, USA, 1988. 7p.
The AIDS book
Information handbook usable as training material for workers, issued by a labour union concerning AIDS in the workplace. Contents: 20 questions and answers on various aspects of AIDS; the Union's role - addressing AIDS in the workplace, reducing risk at work, workplace policies to protect the rights of workers with AIDS, AIDS education for all workers, respondong to the AIDS epidemic (the example of SEIU); guidelines for protection of health care workers and other occupations. Recommendations for the prevention of HIV transmission in health care settings by the US Centers for Disease Control and the Joint advisory note on protection against occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by the US Department of Labor and the Department of Health and Human Services are presented in the appendices.
Service Employees International Union, AFL-CIO, CLC, 1313 L Street, NW Washington D.C. 20005, USA, 1988. 85p. 37 ref. 3 appendices.
Centers for Disease Control
Update: Universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings
This report clarifies and supplements the US Centres for Disease Control publication entitled "Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-care Settings" (1987). Contents: body fluids to which universal precautions apply and do not apply; precautions for other body fluids in special settings (human breast milk and saliva); use of protective barriers; glove use for phlebotomy; selection of gloves; waste management.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22/29 July 1988, Vol.260, No.4, p.462-464. 20 ref.
Legal limits of AIDS confidentiality
This article discusses in detail some approaches to conscientious disclosure of results of HIV-testing in order to reduce individual risks of exposure to HIV infection. The relevant legal situation in the US is outlined.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 17 June 1988, Vol.259, No.23, p.3449-3451. 20 ref.
AIDS: What workers need to know
Safety and health special report on AIDS covering a wide range of problems raised in connection with this major disease. Contents: what is AIDS?; how does the AIDS virus get into the body?; how contagious is AIDS?; AIDS in the workplace; how is AIDS identified?; who is at risk?; what the union can do about AIDS?; facts about AIDS. It also contains guidelines by the Centres for Disease Control for various groups of workers such as food service workers, barbers and cosmetologists, laboratory workers, laundry workers, service and maintenance workers and health care personnel.
United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, AFL-CIO/CLC, 1775 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA, 1988. 4p.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in health care institutions
This fact sheet is intended for the use of health care workers exposed to patients who may have AIDS. It contains AFSCME recommendations for health care workers, including those in emergency and home-care services, in order to prevent HIV infection in the workplace.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, (AFSCME), 1625 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1988. 6p.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in correctional institutions
Fact sheet on AIDS for the information of ocrrectional officers, in order to prevent them from being infected by HIV.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 1625 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1988. 6p.
Hazards in the health service - An A to Z guide for GMB safety representatives
Carefully prepared document aimed at workers in hospitals and other health care settings. Many safety and health hazards are covered, including such specific health care hazards as disposal of clinical waste, exposure to drugs and infection, laboratory work, lasers, laundries and kitchens, lifting and back pain, shiftwork, sterilising, stress and violence to staff. Extensive check lists accompany each topic. Appendices contain: sample report and health hazard enquiry forms; a safety policy checklist; important addresses and publications.
General, Municipal, Boilermakers' and Allied Trades Union, Thorne House, Ruxley Ridge, Claygate Esher, Surrey, KT10 OTL, United Kingdom, 1988. 120p. Illus. Bibl. Index.
Rabies - A summary of the occupational health concern
This data sheet covers: what is and what causes rabies; latent period; source; how common in Canada; how do infections occur; occupations at risk; signs of the disease; laboratory tests; treatment; protection of workers; precautions for control; immunisation for workers; workplace hygiene recommendations.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Mar. 1988. 9p.
Personal protective equipment: AIDS
A US Joint Advisory Notice states that no case of AIDS has been occupationally related. The transmission routes, exposure categories, risks of hepatitis B or AIDS viruses, and recommendations for worker information and protection are discussed.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Feb. 1988, Vol.3, No.2, p.F20, 22.
AIDS in the workplace
This data sheet covers: statistics; description of AIDS; methods of infection; people with AIDS; how to avoid AIDS; occupational risk; AIDS and the law; pre-employment; during employment; termination of employment; reaction of other employees; the advantages of a policy; position of the Confederation of British Industry; sources of information.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R ODA, United Kingdom, Feb. 1988. p.G:18-1 - G:18-7.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Fact sheet on AIDS issued by a labour union, covering such important information on this major public health problem as what AIDS is; how AIDS can and cannot be transmitted, whether there is a workplace risk, safe systems of work, whether infected persons should be dismissed and precautions for first-aiders.
Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers, 188 Wilmslow Road, Manchester MI4 6LJ, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p.
Armstrong B.K., De Klerk N.H., Musk A.W., Hobbs M.S.T.
Mortality in miners and millers of crocidolite in Western Australia
6,505 men and 411 women were employed in the mining and milling of crocidolite in a mine in Western Australia between 1943-1966. Employment was usually brief (median duration: 4 months) and exposure intense (median cumulative exposure: 6 fibres/cc yrs). The Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for all causes in men was 1.53. Statistically significant excess death rates were observed in men for neoplasms, particularly malignant mesothelioma (32 deaths), neoplasms of the trachea, bronchus, and lung (SMR 2.64) and of the stomach (SMR 1.90); respiratory diseases, particularly pneumoconiosis (SMR 25.5); infections, particularly tuberculosis (SMR 4.09); mental disorders, particularly alcoholism (SMR 4.87); digestive diseases, particularly peptic ulceration (SMR 2.46) and cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 3.94); and injuries and poisonings, particularly non-transport accidents (SMR 2.36). The excess mortality from pneumoconiosis, malignant mesothelioma, and respiratory cancers, but not stomach neoplasms, was dependent on time since first exposure and on cumulative exposure. There was no significant increase in mortality from laryngeal cancer (SMR 1.09) or neoplasms other than those listed. In women, the SMR for all causes was 1.47 (95% confidence interval 0.98-2.21) and for neoplasms 1.99.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.45, No.1, p.5-13. Illus. 28 ref.
Brief R.S., Bernath T.
Indoor pollution: Guidelines for prevention and control of microbiological respiratory hazards associated with air conditioning and ventilation systems
The incidence and survival circumstances of the causative agents of these microbial allergies and infections are reviewed. Recommendations for equipment design and maintenance, protocols for inspection, chemical treatment, and personal protective equipment to prevent and control the diseases are discussed.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.5-10. 39 ref.
Histoplasmosis - A summary of the occupational health concern
Covered are: cause of the disease; symptoms of the infection; the disease in Canada; diagnosis and treatment; occupations at risk; prevention.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Apr. 1988. 4p.
Working environment and pregnancy
Arbeidsmiljø og graviditet [en noruego]
This training booklet provides information on conditions and substances at the workplace that are hazardous to pregnant women, fertility, the development of the foetus or breast-fed babies. It also explains the provisions of the Working Environment Act on the subject, responsibility issues concerning health hazards to which pregnant women might be exposed, and the social rights of pregnant women.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, May 1987. 15p.
Occupational medicine - Health problems of health care workers
Review of problems and hazards specific to the health care industry (biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards).
Hanley and Belfus, Inc., P.O. Box 1377, Philadelphia, PA 19105, USA, July-Sep. 1987. 225p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 29.00 (outside the US: USD 34.00; airmail: USD 44.00).
Raffle P.A.B., Lee W.R., McCallum R.I., Murray R.
Hunter's diseases of occupations
This book written for clinicians who need information on the investigation and diagnosis of possible occupational diseases and to advise their patients on their future work is the prime source of clinical information about the effects of materials and processes in modern industry. Contents: history (man and his work, the industrial revolution, health of the worker in the twentieth centry), occupational history taking, diseases associated with chemical agents (metals, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, gases), diseases associated with physical agents (sound, infrasound and ultrasound; vibration; cold and heat; increased barometric pressure; reduced barometric pressure; ionising radiation; non-ionising radiation; extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields; inorganic dusts; organic dusts), diseases associated with microbiological agents, occupational cancer, occupational asthma, occupational diseases of the skin, reproduction and work.
Edward Arnold Publishers, 41 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DQ, United Kingdom, 1987. 1024p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 95.00.
Maroni M., Colombi A., Alcini D., Foà V.
Health risks in the biotechnology industry
Rischi per la salute nell'industria delle biotecnologie [en italiano]
Study of the specific risks of the biotechnology industry. They are: immunological diseases (bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, oculo-rhinitis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis) - in some sectors (bioenzymes, pharmaceuticals, animal husbandry), such diseases may affect up to 30% of workers; immune deficits due to exposure to antiblastic drugs, immunodepressive substances or radiations; toxic effects due to exposure to antibotics and hormones; pathological effects of microorganisms (mycoses of the skin, exposure to antiviral vaccines, possible effects of exposure to microorganisms with recombinant DNA). Preventive methods are recommended.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1987, Vol.78, No.4, p.272-282. 20 ref.
XIV National Agricultural Medicine Symposium: Parasitic diseases in French agriculture today
XIVe Symposium national de médecine agricole "L'actualité sur les maladies d'origine parasitaire en milieu agricole en France" [en francés]
Conference held at Tours, France, 3 Apr. 1987. The parasitic diseases which agricultural workers are subject to, and the evolution of the risk of parasitic disease over time are discussed under the headings: parasitic zoonoses; occupational mycoses; the principal helminthic zoonoses in France today; human babesiasis; hypersensitivity to insects in the rural environment; Lyme disease; immunology in parasitology; trends in diagnosis and prevention.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1987, No.32, p.309-316.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labour
Occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus; Advance notice of proposed rulemaking
This notice announces the initiation of the rulemaking process and requests information relevant to reducing occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or AIDS virus) under section 6 (B) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29, U.S.C. 655. It briefly summarises the ongoing activities in this area and describes the information available to OSHA concerning HBV and HIV infections, existing guidelines for worker protection and risk estimates. The notice also invites interested parties to submit data, comments and other pertinent information regarding OSHA's development of a proposed standard for occupational exposure to HBV and HIV.
Federal Register, 27 Nov. 1987, Vol. 52, No.228, p.45438-45441.
AMI Occupational Health Ltd.
CBI Guideline - AIDS and first aid
Although the risk of being infected by AIDS from giving first aid is very slight, first aiders need reassurance. This guideline written for managers responsible for first aid is aimed at helping them to check whether they have made appropriate arrangements for the staff concerned and to inform such staff of the latest expert advice. Contents: reassurance for first aiders; definition of AIDS; cause of AIDS; how HIV infection occurs; precautions first aiders should take; special equipment and facilities.
Confederation of British Industry (CBI), Centre Point, 103 New Oxford Street, London WC1A 1DU, United Kingdom, 1987. 3p. 7 ref.
US Department of Health and Human Sciences
Joint Advisory Notice on protection against occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
This notice issued by the US Government specifically addresses AIDS in the workplce and concerns all health care workers potentially exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Contents: texts of letter and notice sent to health care employers throughout the United States; background of the problem; modes of HBV and HIV transmission; epidemiologic data; general and administrative recommendations; exposure categories according to tasks implemented; training and education; engineering controls; work practices; personal protective equipment; record keeping.
Federal Register, 30 Oct. 1987, Vol.52, No.210, p.41818-41824. 38 ref.
AIDS: Corporate America responds
Collection of reports developed by task forces created at the Allstate Forum on Public Issues. These reports broadly outline the issues and ideas relating to AIDS in the workplace. Brief contents: human resources (how corporations deal with AIDS in the workplace); medical/corporate health services (an examination of the medical aspects in the context of a corporation's overall responsibility); government/legislative affairs; review of the legal issues of AIDS applied to corporate policies and procedures, an analysis of key legal questions relating to AIDS in the workplace; guidelines to assist companies in the planning and implementing of accurate, timely and appropriate communications based on corporations' needs, concerns and actions; recommendations dealing with ways in which corporate-contribution programmes can make a difference in the AIDS crisis.
Allstate Plaza, Nothbrook, IL 60062, USA, 1987. 99p. Illus. Bibl. Appendix.
International Business Machines Corporation
IBM's practice regarding people with AIDS
Information kit on AIDS issued by IBM and reflecting IBM's policy towards its employees with AIDS. It contains: general statement of policy (no testing, confidentiality, information, keeping employees with AIDS on the work force as long as possible, health insurance coverage, research support); internal communications on AIDS; discussion.
International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York 10504, USA, 1987. Information kit. 9p.
Fehrs L.J., Flanagan K., Kline S., Facklam R.R., Quackenbush K., Foster L.R.
Group A β-hemolytic streptococcal skin infections in a US meat-packing plant
In 1985, the second reported outbreak of this type of skin infections among US meat packers was recognised at an Oregon meat packing plant. All 69 plant workers were interviewed and examined for the presence of pustular, draining, or inflamed lesions. During a three-month period, 44 episodes of skin infection occurred in 32 workers, all but four of whom worked in boning or killing areas. Acquiring infection was associated with job category and having at least two hand lacerations. Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus (18), Staphylococcus aureus (12), or both (20) were isolated from 70 lesions cultured. Meat is suspected as a vehicle of transmission because cultures of two meat specimens contained the same strain as did 24 isolates from patients. Increasing reports of skin infections in meat packers suggest that this occupational risk may be more common than is realised.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 4 Dec. 1987, Vol.258, No.21, p.3131-3134. 26 ref.
Hairdressers and hepatitis B - A risk of inapparent parenternal infection
According to Scottish statistics for 1981-84, 14 cases of hepatitis B out of 1774 recorded were in hairdressers. This represents an annual incidence rate for the profession of 41 per 100,000, a major increase from the annual incidence rate of 7.79 per 100,000 for the period 1973-80. The possible role of parenteral infection through skin affected by dermatitis is discussed.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Winter 1987, Vol.37, No.4, p.124-125. 8 ref.
Handsfield H.H., Cummings M.J., Swenson P.D.
Prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus and samples submitted to a hospital laboratory: Implications for handling specimens
The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was determined in serum or plasma specimens of 506 patients submitted to the clinical chemistry laboratory of an urban teaching hospital, and the results were correlated with "biohazard" warning labels on the specimens. Hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV antibody, or either or both of these were present in 32 (6.3%), 15 (3.0%), and 44 specimens (8.7%), respectively. Ten (67%) pf 15 specimens with HIV antibody and nine (28%) of 32 with HBsAg bore biohazard labels. Among 473 unlabelled specimens, HIV antibody was present in five (1.1%), HBsAg was present in 23 (4.9%) and 27 (5.7%) contained either or both of these markers. All clinical and laboratory personnel should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and should handle all blood specimens as if they were infected, regardless of biohazard labelling. By fostering complacency in handling unlabelled specimens, the use of biohazard labels may paradoxically increase the risk that health care workers will be exposed to HIV and hepatitis B virus.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 18 Dec. 1987, Vol.258, No.23, p.3395-3397. Illus. 14 ref.
Castellani Pastoris M., Greco D., Cacciottolo J.M., Vassallo A., Grech A., Bartlett C.L.R.
Legionnaires' disease on an oil drilling platform in the Mediterranean: a case report
Legionella pneumophila, the aetiological agent of legionnaires' disease, appears to be ubiquitous in moist natural environments and has been found in non-disease associated, natural waters, often in concentrations of 106 organisms/L, at temperatures ranging from 5° to 65°C. Investigation of outbreaks has shown that hot water systems in large buildings are the most important source of epidemic legionella infections but cooling water systems serving air conditioning equipment and whirlpool spas have also been implicated. Athough the route of transmission has not always been determined, evidence for the role of inhalation of aerosolised contaminated water has often been obtained. An oil drilling sea platform constitutes a fully isolated environment where healthy workers can come into contact with few potential sources of legionella; investigation of a case in such an environment is reported.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.44, No.9, p.645-646. 5 ref.
Gubéran E., Usel M.
Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva
A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than 1yr between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During this period, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR=120), all cancers (SMR=127), lung cancer (SMR=186), and violent death (SMR=179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employment (less than 2 months) and it decreased significantly with longer duration. Such mortality excesses had not been recorded among the 1,168 workers of the same industry employed 1yr or more, previously studied in similar fashion. These findings show that short-term workers share atypical features related to high mortality from various causes and that mortality in this subgroup should be analysed separately in occupational studies.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.44, No.9, p.595-601. 29 ref.
Finkelstein M., Liss G.M., Krammer F., Kusiak R.A.
Mortality among workers receiving compensation awards for silicosis in Ontario 1940-85
The mortality experience of 1,190 miners and 289 surface industry workers receiving workers' compensation awards for silicosis in Ontario since 1940 was studied up to mid-1985. Both groups were found to have a significantly increased mortality from lung cancer (miners' SMR: 230; surface workers' SMR: 302) and stomach cancer (miners' SMR: 188; surface workers' SMR: 366). Adjustment for smoking and country of origin did not explain the excesses observed. The lung cancer findings are consistent with observations from silicosis registries in Europe. Possible explanatory factors are discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.44, No.9, p.588-594. 25 ref.
AIDS and employers
This article discusses a wide range of problems raised in society by the AIDS epidemic. Among them: attitudes towards AIDS victims; status of HIV carriers in the workplace; the problem of discrimination and unfair dismissal of workers with HIV; rights and responsibilities of employers in connection with the spread of AIDS; unnecessary routine pre-employment screening for the AIDS virus; need to educate workers about AIDS. The main conclusion is that neither the AIDS sufferer nor the HIV carrier poses any threat to his working colleagues and there is a continuing need for education to dispel the myths about AIDS.
Occupational Health, Aug. 1987, Vol.39, No.8, p.258-259.
This article consisting of 2 parts discusses in detail many of the problems raised by AIDS in the workplace in the United Kingdom, including: the epidemic of AIDS; discrimination against employees with AIDS; employment rights, pre-entry screening and recruiting in connection with AIDS; disclosure of the results of medical tests for HIV; first aid at work. Special attention is given to health-care personnel, a group of workers having a high risk of HIV infection. The article concludes that open discussion and circulating information about AIDS would help to dispel myths and to improe the level of understanding among the work-force.
Occupational Safety and Health, Part I: Nov. 1987, Vol.17, No.11, p.24-25; Part II: Dec. 1987, Vol.17, No.12, p.22-23. Illus.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyh sojuzov
Approval of a list of positions in the state farms and other agricultural enterprises, veterinary and plant protection (from pests, diseases and weeds) where workers are directly exposed to hazardous working conditions for which their pay may be increased .. [USSR]
Ob utverždenii perečnja dolžnostej rabotnikov sovhozov i drugih gosudarstvennyh sel'skohozjajstvennyh predprijatij, veterinarnoj služby i služby zaščity rastenij, zanjatyh neposredstvenno na rabotah s vrednymi uslovijami truda, kotorym mogut ustanavlivat'sja povyšennye oklady, ... [en ruso]
This decision of 3 Nov. 1986 established posts in the veterinary (chiefs of laboratories, veterinary surgeons and surgeon's assistants, engineers, laboratory assistants) and plant protection (chiefs of stations, agronomists, engineers, technicians) services for which pay increases of 10% can be made due to risk of exposure to infectious diseases and harmful substances. It also determines a list of jobs for which supplemental payments to workers can be made on account of working conditions in state farms and other agricultural enterprises, including maintenancce of equipment used for pesticide production and use, production, dilution and use of biological protective substances, disposal of animal carcasses etc.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No5, p.4-8.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyh sojuzov
Approval of a list of positions in the veterinary services of the State Committee on Agriculture and Industry where workers are directly exposed to very hazardous working conditions for which their pay may be increased [USSR]
Ob utverždenii perečnja dolžnostej rabotnikov veterirarnoj služby Gosagroproma SSSR, zanjatyh neposredstvenno na rabotah s osobo vrednymi uslovijami truda, kotorym mogut ustanavlivat'sja povyšennye oklady [en ruso]
This decision of 10 Dec. 1986 establishes posts in the veterinary service (veterinary surgeons, engineers, laboratory assistants) for which pay increases of 15% can be made due to increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No.5, p.3-4.
AIDS in the workplace: A guide for employees
Policy guide on AIDS in the workplace written for employees. It contains general information on AIDS, practical advice on how to prevent infection by HIV in the working environment and how to deal with co-workers who have the disease.
San Francisco AIDS Foundation, 333 Valencia Street, 4th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA, 1987. 6p.
AIDS - a trade union issue?
Le SIDA - une cause syndicale? [en francés]
Fact sheet on AIDS containing practical advice on how to prevent infection by HIV in the working environment and in private life, as well as information on the position of labour unions regarding AIDS, the problems of mass screening of workers and AIDS in Africa. CIS has only the English-language version.
International Union of Food and Allied Workers, Rampe du Pont-Route 8, 1213 Petit-Lancy, Genève, Switzerland, July 1987. 9p. 6 ref.
Q Fever - A summary of the occupational health concern
Synthèse sur une maladie susceptible d'affecter les travailleurs - La fièvre Q [en francés]
This review covers: the disease and its causes; length of time for development; how common in Canada; sources in the workplace (animals, dust); how do infections occur; which workers are at risk; symptoms (sub-clinical, acute, chronic forms); tests available; treatment; prevention of spread; vaccination; personal precautions; workplace hygiene.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton L8N 1H6, Ontario, Canada, Dec. 1987. 9p. Bibl.
Risks in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry
Les risques agro-sylvo-pastoraux [en francés]
Analysis of the hazards to which rural workers in West Africa are exposed in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry. The main risks are: commuting accidents, fatigue, poor working postures (backache), respiratory diseases, infections and parasitic diseases, chemical hazards. The chief preventive strategies are: safety education and training, the development of safety consciousness, the installation of hygienic facilities and the elaboration of specialised legislation.
Korosi - Revue Burkinabè de prévention des risques professionnels, 1987, No.1, p.25-27.
Farmer's lung - A summary of the occupational health concern
La maladie du poumon du fermier - Un résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [en francés]
This review covers: what is farmer's lung; how common is it; who is at risk; symptoms (acute, sub-acute, chronic forms); tests available; treatment; prevention; coping with the disease.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Dec. 1987. 8p. Bibl.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control
Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings
Practical recommendations for health care workers who have contact with persons potentially infected with HIV. Contents: definitions of health care workers; risk of acquiring HIV in health care settings; health care workers with AIDS; precautions to prevent transmission of HIV in dentistry, precautions for morticians and for persons performing autopsies, dialysis and laboratory work with biological samples; environmental considerations for HIV transmission, sterilisation and disinfection, survival of HIV in the environment, housekeeping, cleaning and decontaminating spills of blood and other body fluids, laundry, infective waste; implementation of recommended precautions; serological testing for HIV infection, testing of patients, testing of health care workers; management of infected health care workers. The recommendations are intended for health care settings and they emphasise the need to treat blood and other body fluids from all patients as potentially infective.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 21 Aug. 1987, Vol.36, No.25, 18p. 37 ref.
Choudat D., Le Goff C., Delemotte B., Paul G., Mady V., Fages J., Conso F.
Occupational exposure to animals and antibodies against Pasteurella multocida
The relation between occupational exposure to cattle and prevalence of antibodies against the coccobacillus Pasteurella multocida was evaluated in 680 workers. Three groups of exposed workers in slaughterhouses (S), industrial breeding (I), and traditional breeding (T) were compared with control workers not exposed to cattle or chickens (C). The prevalence of antibodies against capsular antigen A was significantly higher in the exposed groups (S:26.2%; I:29.0%; T:32.1%) than in the control group (C:14.0%). The prevalence of antibodies against one or more somatic antigens 1,2,3,7,8, or 9 was higher in the exposed groups. There was also a significant relation between antibodies against capsular antigen A and contacts with pets. This high prevalence of antibodies suggests that infection is frequently subclinical, and that it is not only associated with pets but also with occupational exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.44, No.12, p.829-833. Illus. 13 ref.
Zox A.A., Platz K.J.
Caring about AIDS
Information booklet on AIDS written for employees, managers, families and their friends. It contains practical advice on how to prevent infection with HIV in the working environment and in private life. Contents: facts on AIDS, stopping the fear of AIDS, working with people with AIDS, AIDS and legal rights at work.
Workplace Health Communications Corporation, 4 Madison Place, Albany, NY 12202, USA, 1987. 32p.
What everyone should know about AIDS
Information booklet on AIDS usuable as training material. It contains practical advice on how to prevent infection with the HIV in the working environment and in private life.
Channing L. Bete Co., South Deerfield, MA 01373, USA, 1987. 15p. Illus.
Zuger A., Miles S.H.
Physicians, AIDS, and occupational risk : Historic traditions and ethical obligations
This special communication in a major medical journal discusses the problem of physicians' obligations with respect to patents with AIDS. The medical needs of HIV-infected persons are beginning to strain health care systems and most physicians will encounter these patients in the course of a day's work. In the face of these realities professional ethical standards, at present rather inadequate and incomplete, should be changed. A parallel is drawn with past behaviour by physicians during great epidemics (bubonic plague, yellow fever).
Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 1987, Vol.258, No.14, p.1924-1928. 51 ref.
Role of microscopic fungi and mycotoxins in occupational pathology
Rolja na mikroskopičnite găbi i mikotoksinite v profesionalnata patologija [en búlgaro]
Dermatotoxicoses and respiratory mycotoxicoses are mainly of occupational origin. The role of moulds in the aetiology of chronic pulmonary diseases is described, the initial allergic reaction being of great importance, followed by a lasting allergic state with added chronic toxic action by the fungi. Data on occupational morbidity in an environment containing mycotoxins are presented.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.3, p.89-94. 53 ref.
Shinomiya N., Seno M., Shimizu K., Suzuki S., Ohno F., Ikeda T., Itoh A., Hamada K., Ohiwa H.
Prevention of infectious diseases during saturation dives
Hōwa-sensui ni okeru kansen-yobō [en japonés]
When divers work in a chamber for long periods of time, the environment during saturation dives (high temperature, humidity and oxygen partial pressure, and its sealed nature) is ideal for bacterial growth. In addition, in a closed space upper respiratory infections are easily transferred to other divers. To prevent these problems, good personal and chamber hygiene are necessary. This paper shows bacteriological data about chamber and ear hygiene in saturation dives. Investigation of bacteriological contamination of the diving system and diver monitoring will provide useful information and ensure safety in diving operations.
National Defense Medical Journal, June 1987, Vol.34, No.6, p.211-219. Illus. 14 ref.
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