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Low molecular weight chemicals, hypersensitivity, and direct toxicity: the acid anhydrides
The acid anhydrides are a group of reactive chemicals used widely in alkyd and epoxy resins. The major hazards to health are mucosal and skin irritation and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. Most cases of occupational asthma caused by acid anhydrides appear to be immunologically mediated. Immunological mechanisms are proposed to explain an influenza-like syndrome and pulmonary haemorrhage, but direct toxicity may also be important in the aetiology of these conditions.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1989, Vol.46, No.4, p.222-232. Illus. 112 ref.
Advice for the health protection of workers. AIDS, a danger in the workplace?
Hinweise zum Gesundheitsschutz für Arbeitnehmer. AIDS, Gefahr am Arbeitsplatz? [en alemán]
Aspects covered: definition of AIDS, modes of transmission, high-risk groups, protection against AIDS contamination in the workplace, question of acknowledgement of AIDS as an occupational disease, problems connected with the presence of sero-positives in the workplace, occupations at risk in the food and related industries, professional activities abroad, telephone number to contact in Bavaria.
Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Winzererst. 9, 8000 München 40, Federal Republic of Germany, 1989. 10p.
AIDS: inform yourself
SIDA, d'abord s'informer [en francés]
This brochure lists titles of documents, films, telephone numbers, names of databases and other information facilities related to AIDS in France. The 2nd part of the brochure comprises data on information, consultation, detection and treatment centres dealing with AIDS as well as on associations with the same orientation existing in France.
Service d'Information et de Diffusion du Premier Ministre (SID), 19 rue de Constantine, 75700 Paris, 1989. 32p.
AIDS and employment: Medical and legal aspects
SIDA et emploi: aspects médicaux et juridiques [en francés]
This brochure divided into 2 parts covers medical and legal aspects of AIDS in the workplace and advises on how to deal with them. Special attention is given to legal problems that employees and employers can encounter in connection with AIDS at the workplace. Also available in German and Italian.
Le Groupe de travail interdépartemental pour les problèmes liés au SIDA (sous la direction de l'Office fédéral de santé publique), AIDS Info-Docu Schweiz, Schauplatzgasse 26, Boîte postale, 3001 Berne, Switzerland, 1989. 20p.
Guía médica internacional para barcos - incluyendo la farmacia a bordo
International medical guide for ships - including the ship's medicine chest [en inglés]
Guide médical international de bord - comprenant la pharmacie de bord [en francés]
Esta guía médica producida bajo la supervisión editorial de un comité mixto OMS/OIT tiene tres objetivos principales: permitir a sus usuarios plantear un diagnóstico y aplicar un tratamiento a las gentes del mar heridas o enfermas; servir de manual a aquellos que se preparan para obtener un certificado de formación médica; ayudar a formar a los equipos de primeros auxilios y de prevención de enfermedades. En el sumario: primeros auxilios; toxicidad de los productos químicos e intoxicaciones; reconocimiento del paciente; cuidados a los heridos y los enfermos; enfermedades de transmisión; enfermedades transmisibles por vía sexual; otras enfermedades y problemas médicos; enfermedades de los pescadores; embarazo y problemas ginecológicos; atención médica a los náufragos y personas rescatadas; muertes en el mar; asistencia médica; protección del medio ambiente a bordo; prevención de enfermedades; uso de los medicamentos; lista de los medicamentos; material, suministros e instrumentos quirúrgicos. En anexo: anatomía y fisiología; pesos y medidas; informe médico (impreso) sobre los marineros; métodos de desinfección.
Organización Mundial de la Salud, Servicio de Distribución y Ventas, 1211 Genève 22, Suiza, 2a ed., 1988 (ed. inglesa y portuguesa), 1989 (ed. francesa y española). viii, 377p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice. Precio: CHF 60,00.
Occupational pathology of medical and paramedical occupations
Pathologie professionnelle des professions médicales et paramédicales [en francés]
The hazards encountered by workers in the health professions are reviewed. These include: infectious hazards including viral infections (viral hepatitis and AIDS) and bacterial infections (principally tuberculosis); physical hazards (ionising radiation); toxic hazards (gaseous and volatile anaesthetics, antiseptics and disinfectants, sterilising agents, medicinal substances and cytostatic drugs); hazards inherent in particular occupational activities (occupational accidents, back disorders, disorders due to stressful postures and hand movements, hours of work, mental stress). For each of these hazards, preventive measures are put forward.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications - Pathologie du travail, 1988. 12p. 48 ref.
Kaplan K.M., Marder D.C., Cochi S.L., Preblud S.R.
Mumps in the workplace: Further evidence of the changing epidemiology of a childhood vaccine-preventable disease
The changing epidemiology of mumps and the economic aspects of an outbreak of the disease are discussed. The first documented mumps outbreak took place in 1987 when 119 cases of mumps occurred among employees at three Chicago futures exchanges and their household contacts; only three patients had written documentation of mumps immunisation. The outbreak is consistent with an increase in reported cases in the young adult populations. Since mumps vaccine has only been in universal use since 1977, many young people entering the workforce are under-immunised. Vaccination of susceptible employees could prevent the substantial health impact of mumps.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 9 Sep. 1988, Vol.260, No.10, p.1434-1438. Illus. 28 ref.
Minisci S., Garasto G., Corradini L., Laffi F., Canestri-Trotti G., Briolini G.
Infestation by Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in agricultural workers in Ferrara province
Infestazione da Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in lavoratori agricoli della provincia di Ferrara [en italiano]
The study aimed at verifying a previously reported aetiological hypothesis concerning the periodic late summer outbreaks of acute dermatitis among agricultural workers in the province of Ferrara (Italy). Assuming, on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data, that the most likely cause of the complaint was a chigger-mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw 1790), several procedures of investigation were applied in order to isolate the acarus in the environment and in skin lesions. The efficacy and the limits of the various methods are discussed. Skin samples taken as soon as possible after the appearance of the complaint were particularly useful since larvae of N. autumnalis were found in papules of 3 workers.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1988, Vol.79, No.2, p.120-126. Illus. 7 ref.
WHMIS right to know: Class D3: Poisonous and infectious material: Biohazardous infectious material. Module D-3, Participant's guide
Basic information on how to work safely with biohazardous infectious materials is presented. Included is resource information which can be used during and after a training programme. Subjects covered: definition of biohazardous infectious materials, conditions of exposure, health effects, safe working methods and emergency response measures.
Occupational Health and Safety Education Authority of the Workers' Compensation Board of Ontario, 2 Bloor Street East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C3, Canada, Sep. 1988. 25p. Illus. 21 ref.
Center for Work Performance Problems of the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA)
Employees' reactions to AIDS in the workplace
This report prepared in the Center for Work Performance Problems, Georgia Institute of Technology (USA), reviews at length the major problems raised by AIDS in the workplace. Main topics covered: the nature of the problem; legal aspects of socioeconomic aspects; information of workers; discriminatory practices; AIDS education in the workplace; confidentiality and counselling; corporate policy to treat AIDS as any other disease; corporate approaches to the problem.
Center for Work Performance Problems, College of Management, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA, 1988. 11p.
Guidelines for the development of a national AIDS prevention and control programme
This booklet provides guidelines for the development of national programmes for preventing the spread of AIDS. Addressed to national authorities, it describes the principles of assessment, planning and action necessary to launch an agressive attack on every mode of virus transmission. The need to cope with complex cultural, social, economic, and political problems is also considered.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. iv, 27p. Price: CHF 8.00; USD 6.40.
AIDS in the workplace
Topics examined are: AIDS, the disease; how infections are detected; how HIV is transmitted; requirements for health care facilities; the infected person as the coworker; what Michigan is doing about AIDS in the workplace.
Michigan's Occupational Health, Autumn 1988, Vol.24, No.4, p.1-3.
Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Inactivation of viral haemorrhagic fever specimens with B-propiolactone
These guidelines describe how heparimised or EDTA treated blood specimens suspected of containing certain haemorrhagic fever viruses may be made safe for examination by inactivation with B propiolactone (BPL). Details are given of the characteristics of BPL and precautions to be taken during its use, and of the effect of BPL inactivation of blood on test results. Kits for blood specimen collection are described and a model information and instruction sheet provided for physicians submitting specimens for inactivation. Details are given of the inactivation procedure and the materials required, and accident procedures are outlined for cases of inoculation accident or spillage.
Health Services Division 1B, Room A414, Alexander Fleming House, Elephant and Castle, London SE1 6BY, United Kingdom, 1988. 14p. Illus. Bibl.
García Alvarez J., Martínez Albares J.L., Moyano Barbero E., Moya Valdés M., Valle Muñoz J.
Utilidad de la vacuna antihepatitis B en una población de riesgo
Hepatitis-B immunological status was studied by radio-immuno-testing in a group of 340 hospital workers considered to be a high risk group for contagion from the disease. The group was compared with a control group of blood donors. Immunity to hepatitis B was more frequent in hospital workers than in the general population. After hepatitis B vaccination of 51 persons, surface antibodies were determined. A decrease in levels of specific immunoglobulins was observed and no new cases of the disease were detected.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.30, p.15-19. Illus.
Leprince A., Monod G.
Colloquium "AIDS, rights and freedoms"
Colloque SIDA, droit et libertés [en francés]
Summary of the discussions of the major themes: HIV and national borders; HIV and social security; HIV and employment; law, medical ethics and testing; HIV and prisons; HIV and drug addiction; HIV, human rights and familial relations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.34, p.159-165.
Wyatt A., Oxenburgh M.
Workplace health and safety manual in 1 volume
A very thorough reference guide to all aspects of occupational health and safety, easily updatable because of its ring-binder format. As specific national legislation is not emphasised, this manual can be used in all parts of the English-speaking world. It is divided into the following sections ("tab divisions"): scope and use of the manual; workplace consultation (employee participation, ILO support, OSH representatives and OSH committees); the body at work (details on various body parts and systems, and on how they can be affected by the working environment); hazards, diseases and controls; training; occupational rehabilitation; specific policies and programmes (AIDS, alcoholism, chemical safety, drug addiction, electricity, equipment, fires, hot working conditions, hearing conservation, Legionnaires' disease, machine guarding, maintenance, manual handling, the multicultural workplace, noise, occupational overuse injuries, smoking, women); emergency planning; contractors and third parties; ventilation; ergonomics and work design; records and documentation; outside assistance (including an address list for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the US and the UK); recent developments; glossary.
CCH International, Cnr Talavera and Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, N.S.W., 2113 Australia, Sep. 1988. 1 vol. (loose-leaf binder). Illus. Bibl.ref. Indices.
Rogers R., Salvage J.
Nurses at risk: a guide to health and safety at work
This practical guide covers occupational hazards of nursing at different levels of the service, raises nurses' consciousness of these hazards and suggests ways of tackling them - using practical, legal and political means. Special features of the book include: easy reference guide to hazards at work; action checklists of how to fight specific problems; emphasis on mental and social hazards as well as chemical and physical ones; summaries of the latest research in the field: a chapter for the healthy nurse.
Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 23 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3HT, United Kingdom, 1988. 186p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 15.00.
Richardson J.H., Barkley W.E.
National Institute of Health
Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories
This publication describes combinations of standard and special microbiological practices, safety equipment and facilities which are recommended for working with a variety of infectious agents in various laboratory settings. Topics covered include: principle of biosafety; laboratory biosafety level criteria; vertebrate animal biosafety level criteria; recommended biosafety levels for infectious agents and infected animals. Agent summary staements are given for a range of agents and for arboviruses. An appendix describes 3 types of biological safety cabinets. A final appendix provides the text of the 1988 agent summary statement for human immunodeficiency virus, and a report on laboratory-acquired infection with human immunodeficiency virus.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 2nd ed., May 1988. 139p. 130 ref. Index.
Halkier-Sørensen L., Thestrup-Pedersen K.
Skin temperature and skin symptoms among workers in the fish processing industry
196 workers employed in the fish processing industry participated in a survey of skin disorders. 156 (80%) had experienced skin problems during their work with fish on some occasions. The symptoms were itching, redness and stinging. Although the fingers are in direct contact with fish meat and juice, skin symptoms only seldom occur here, appearing instead, almost exclusively, on the forearms (70%) and the backs of the hands (26%). The skin temperature of the fingers and palms of the hands ranged from 17-20°C, while the temperature on the backs of the hands and forearms ranged from 25-30°C. Skin temperatures of less than 20°C abolish itching and reduce vasodilation by half. It is suggested that the low temperature of the fingers affords protection against the development of some irritant skin reactions and that differences in skin temperature may be an important reason for the location of skin symptoms.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.206-209. 5 ref.
Curti R., Gilioli R., Grieco A.
Job fitness and HIV infection
Idoneità lavorativa e infezione da HIV [en italiano]
The increase of HIV infection among workers has become a cause of concern in view of potential risks of the disease spreading at the workplace. According to current knowledge, the risk of infection via normal social contacts can be reasonably ruled out. A low risk of infection exists only for a limited number of specific jobs among health personnel. In the case of a limited number of jobs, especially those involving exposure to immune-suppressive drugs, it is recommended to check the job fitness of HIV infected subjects, in order to avoid an aggravation of their condition. In addition, recent studies have revealed a high frequency of neurologic and psychiatric disorders in the various stages of HIV infection, which may limit job fitness for particular tasks with relevant demand on the higher nervous functions. These problems are discussed along with the preventive and protective measures on which occupational health physicians should advise in specific working conditions.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1988, Vol.79, No.5, p.343-350. 23 ref.
Skin problems in workers using visual display terminals
201 patients with skin problems caused in their own opinion by working with visual display terminals (VDTs) were examined. In 25 patients, the skin problems occurred mainly on the cheek turned towards the VDT. Half the patients had rosacea and subjective skin symptoms such as severe pain, itching and burning. The rest of the patients mainly had common facial dermatoses such as seborrhoeic eczema, acne vulgaris and atopic dermatitis. 18% had non-specific skin problems, e.g. itching and redness. An attempt to correlate skin problems with VDTs' electrostatic field strength was unsuccessful because of difficulties in eliminating it. The prevalence of migraine-like headache was 40%, which is much higher than in a control population. After an average of 8 months, 2/3 of the patients had fewer skin complaints. The question of whether the prevalence of skin problems in general is higher amongst individuals using VDTs than in a control population is addressed in a current study.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1988, Vol.19, No.5, p.335-341. 17 ref.
Stroczyńska-Sikorska M., Stojek N.
Brucellosis in humans in the light of studies carried out by sanitary and epidemiologic stations in the years 1985-1986
Bruceloza u ludzi w latach 1985-1986 w świetle badań przeprowadzonych przez stacje sanitarno-epidemiologiczne [en polonés]
Evaluation of the epidemiologic status of brucellosis in Poland in the years 1985-1986. The evaluation was based on studies carried out by sanitary and epidemiologic stations all over the country. 97,455 persons were examined in 1985 and 59,333 in 1986. Brucellosis was found in 108 and 117 cases, respectively. 23 of 49 administrative regions were free of brucellosis. The highest percentages of cases were noted in the age groups 50-59 (43.3%) and 40-49 (28.2%).
Medycyna Wiejska, 1988, Vol.23, No.4, p.233-238. 7 ref.
Global Programme on AIDS: Statement from the consultation on AIDS and the workplace
Programme mondial de lutte contre le SIDA - Consultation sur le SIDA et le lieu de travail: déclaration [en francés]
This statement is a final document adopted by a Consultation on AIDS and the Workplace held in Geneva by the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) in association with WHO's Office on Occupational Health and the ILO, 27-29 June 1988. The main themes treated by the Consultation: risk factors associated with HIV infection in the workplace, responses by employers and employees to HIV/AIDS, and use of the workplace for health education activities. Contents: general statement, introduction, policy principles, policy development and implementation, policy components. The document provides guidance for those considering issues raised by HIV/AIDS in the workplace which do not involve direct risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV between workers, from worker to client, or from client to worker. Special attention is given to protection of the human rights and dignity of HIV-infected persons, including persons with AIDS.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. 4p.
Guidelines for protecting the safety and health of health care workers
These guidelines provide information needed to protect the health and safety of health care workers in hospitals and other health care facilities. The document includes an overview of hospital hazards; methods for developing hospital safety and health programs; discussions of safety hazards, infectious diseases, and non infectious health hazards; methods for disposing of hazardous wastes; and a list of occupational safety and health agencies and resource organizations. Because no single set of health and safety regulations applies to all aspects of hospital work or health care delivery, the guidelines presented here were compiled from many sources. Adherence to these guidelines should reduce the risk of injury and disease among health care workers.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Information Systems Section, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sept. 1988. 275p. Price: USD 24.00.
Muraca P.W., Stout J.E., Yu V.L., Yee Y.C.
Legionnaires' disease in the work environment: implications for environmental health
Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease have occurred in hotels, hospitals, and homes but had not been reported yet in the work environment. The authors report the occurrence of Legionnaires' disease in three employees of two industrial plants. The potable water in the two plants contained high numbers of Legionella pneumophila. Monoclonal antibody subtyping of environmental and patient isolates of L. pneumophila implicated one of the plants as the source for the disease. L. pneumophila was eradicated from this plant using acidic and caustic scale removers, calcium hypochlorite, and a biocide. A systematic approach to Legionnaires' disease in the work environment, a problem which can be expected to be recognised with increasing frequency, is presented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1988, Vol.49, No.11, p.584-590. Illus. 24 ref.
Hofmann F., Heidenreich S., Achenbach W., Berthold H.
Minor injuries in hospitals - safety and medical aspects
Bagatellverletzungen im Krankenhaus - sicherheitstechnische und medizinische Aspekte [en alemán]
Determination of the frequency of needle stick injuries among the medical personnel of the university hospital in Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany, in the period 1976 - 1987 yielded a total of 139 reported injuries. Of these, 78 were caused by injection needles used on hepatitis B antigen-positive patients, 61 by needles used on HIV-positive or AIDS patients. None of the latter developed AIDS. Of the former group, 11 developed severe hepatitis, 18 had been immunised prior to injury and the rest had received hepatitis B-globulin in time. Improved information on the dangers of needle stick injuries increased the reported number seeking immediate professional help.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Jan. 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.50-53. Illus. 4 ref.
Zsögön É., Groszmann M., Szépvölgyi E.
Trends in occupational diseases, intoxication and excessive exposures reported in 1987
Az 1987. évben bejelentett foglalkozási megbetegedések (mérgezések) és fokozott expozíciós esetek alakulása [en húngaro]
Analysis of occupational diseases (1391) and cases of excessive exposure (3526) reported in Hungary during 1987. There were 11 reported cases of fatal occupational disease, and there was a case of mass poisoning (12 workers) during the manufacture of Quinalphos. Hearing damage due to noise exposure (35.5%), infectious diseases (24.2%), skin diseases (19.2%), respiratory diseases (8.5%) and diseases caused by exposure to chemicals (5%) were the most common types of declared occupational diseases. Cases of excessive exposure are analysed by type of exposure: noise; fluorine; metals (lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese); organic solvents; pesticides.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1988, Vol.34, No.4-6, p.145-155. Illus.
Responding to AIDS: Ten Principles for the Workplace
This press kit includes a background paper, the Commission's "Statement of Purpose" and report covering the problem of AIDS in the workplace. It stresses the urgent need for education about AIDS both to maintain a stable working environment and to give employees information about personal risk reduction. Ten principles of the problem of AIDS in the workplace are treated in detail.
H.J. Rubenstein Associates, Inc., Public Relations, Citizens Commission on AIDS, 51 Madison Avenue, USA, 1988. 57p. Bibl.
9 important messages about HIV at the job
Information sheet reflecting the basic views of all Swedish trade unions and federations of employers on this major problem of public health. The main points are: HIV infection in itself does not impair work capacity; HIV carriers must be given the same opportunities for work as other people; if HIV infection develops into AIDS, its medical consequences do not differ in principle from those of other potentially fatal illnesses; information concerning HIV infection is a major responsibility of the employer, the trade union organisations and occupational health services; in jobs which are subject to special requirements of safety or efficiency, health checks may include HIV screening; HIV screening results are confidential; all forms of ostracism and discrimination against HIV carriers must be actively counteracted.
Swedish National Board of Occupational and Safety Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 1p.
AIDS and the workplace
Information sheet on AIDS written for health-care personnel, personal service workers, emergency workers and other workers who might encounter HIV-infected persons in the workplace. Information covered: definition and cause with AIDS; propagation with AIDS; prophylactic measures against AIDS; responsibilities of employers and employees in connection with AIDS; practical advice on how to avoid infection by AIDS.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1988. 5p.
Ricardo Edström M.D.
HIV-screening in the interest of employee protection
Information sheet issued by the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and covering the problem of the HIV screening of workers. The main conclusion is that since HIV is not transmitted through usual social contacts, there is no justification for testing employees at ordinary workplaces, including health-care establishments.
Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 1p.
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS)
AIDS in employment
Information sheet providing essential information on AIDS and written for managers, trade union representatives and employees.
Confederation of British Industry, Centre Point, 103 New Oxford Street, London WC1A 1DU, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p. 6 ref.
Blood-borne infectious disease
Blodsmitta [en sueco]
Recommendations elaborated by the Swedish Confderation of Trade Unions to prevent the propagation of blood-borne infectious diseases caused by the HIV-virus and the Hepatitis B-virus. Contents: trade union policy; employers' responsibilities; target groups for information on blood-borne infection; working instructions; HIV-tests; work abroad; travelling abroad, vacations; trade union personnel policy in cases of established blood-borne infection. Regulation AFS 1986:23 concerning protection against blood-borne diseases is appended. English translation.
Landsorganisationen i Sverige, 105 53 Stockholm, Sweden, 1988. 67p. Illus.
Business response to AIDS
Research was carried out with the participation of 2500 US corporations of various sizes in order to assess their response to the AIDS problem. Contents: policies, attitudes and experience regarding AIDS; reactions by management and fellow workers to employees who have AIDS; testing programs; company insurance programs and AIDS; company education programs on AIDS; company support of AIDS organisations. Appendices include companies surveyed, background characteristics of respondents, members of the advisory panel and a sample questionnaire.
Fortune Magazine, Time and Life Building, Rockefeller Centre, New York, N.Y. 10020, USA, 1988. 150p.
AIDS - a new disease: Information for seafarers
Information sheet on AIDS written for seafarers. Contents: What is AIDS? How does AIDS spread? Who can be infected with AIDS? How infectious is AIDS? What are the symptoms? Can AIDS be treated? Practical advice is given to seafarers on how to avoid being infected. A summary of the contents is also given in Korean.
The Seamen's Church Institute of New York and New Jersey, 50 Broadway, New York, New York 10004, USA, 1988. 4p.
Living with AIDS at work and in the community
Policy guide on AIDS covering a wide range of problems raised by the disease. Contents: AIDS - the illness; control of AIDS - basic precautions; additional advice for particular groups of workers (health services - all departments, mortuaries and post-mortem rooms, working in sewers and sewage treatment plants, home helpers, prison workers and others); a policy for AIDS and HIV (equal opportunities and employment protection, confidentiality, training, other policy initiatives); AIDS - the campaign for health and safety at work; checklists (basic questions about AIDS, general safety for NHS workers, safety for ambulance staff, disposal of infected materials from laboratories, check on waste disposal by safety representatives); contact organisations in the United Kingdom.
General, Municipal, Boilermakers and Allied Trades Union, Thorne House, Ruxley Ridge, Claygate, Esher, Surrey KT10 0TL, United Kingdom, 1988. 58p. Price: GBP 1.50 (non-members).
What you should know about AIDS
Information booklet on AIDS containing basic facts about the disease and practical advice on how to protect oneself and one's family against infection by HIV.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 5600 Fichers Lane, Rockville M8 20852, USA, 1988. 8p.
What employees and employers should know about AIDS
AIDS: Was Arbeitnehmer und Arbeitgeber wissen sollten [en alemán]
This brochure covers medical and occupational aspects of AIDS and advises how to deal with them in the workplace. Particular attention is given to juridical problems of special interest to employers.
Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung, Postfach 91 01 52, 5000 Köln 91, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 30p.
Precautions against humidifier fever in the print industry
Health and Safety Executive, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside, L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p.
Mycoses of the skin, scalp and nails in occupational pathology
Les mycoses de la peau, du cuir chevelu et des ongles en pathologie professionnelle [en francés]
Generalities on the dermatophytes which may infect the epidermis, hair and nails, and on yeasts of the genus Candida, which may infect the mucosae, skin and nails. Mycoses of smooth skin. Mycoses of hairy regions. Mycoses of the nails. Candidiasis. Diagnosis. Sampling and analysis. Collective and personal protection. Compensation in France (Tables of Occupational Diseases 46 and 77).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.33, p.43-47. 4 ref.
La maladie de Lyme [en francés]
Text of a presentation from the 14th Agricultural Medicine Symposium (Tours, France, 3 April 1987). History of the disease in Europe and the USA. Agent (Borrelia burgdorferi). Epidemiology. Pathogenesis. Clinical course: primary phase characterised by a cutaneous lesion at the point of infection (erythema chronicum migrans); secondary phase of attack on the meninges, joints, heart and skin; tertiary phase (chronic joint, skin and neurological disease). Diagnosis. Treatment.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.33, p.17-24. 9 ref.
AIDS, an occupational disease
Berufskrankheit AIDS [en alemán]
A survey of the frequency of occupational infections with the AIDS virus among health care personnel shows that the number is low. The steps to provide evidence of occupational HIV-infection include examination for the presence of antibodies in serum samples immediately after an accident (contact with infected blood) and 4-6 weeks after possible infection. The various stages of the disease are described.
Mitteilungen der Berufsgenossenschaft für Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege, 1988, No.21, p.6-8. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
This note is an update of the document abstracted as CIS 80-677. It provides general information on asbestos and its uses. It gives guidance on exposure limits and their significance, control measures in order to reduce exposure, respiratory protective equipment, biological and clinical effects of exposure to asbestos, asbestosis (pathology and clinical features), the increased risk of lung cancer due to exposure, mesothelioma of pleura and peritoneum, cancers at other sites, asbestos corns (warts), medical examinations of workers exposed to asbestos and social security benefit criteria.
HM Stationary Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Apr. 1988. 4p. 15 ref.
HIV-testing at work [Sweden]
HIV-testning i arbetslivet [en sueco]
These general recommendations refer to HIV-testing aimed at protecting employees in work where there is a risk of HIV infection. A very slight risk of this kind is incurred by employees who are liable to come into unprotected contact (via mucous membranes or injured skin) with blood from an infected person. HIV-testing, however, can only be offered to patients, clients, etc., since the Swedish constitution includes safeguards for the physical integrity of each individual. It is stated that, from the point of view of infection prevention, there is no reason for general HIV screening of employees.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 21 Mar. 1988. 6p.
Morgan D.R., Dawson J.
Occupational health aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS
Since 1981 the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the agent that causes AIDS, has spread world-wide. HIV is spread mainly through sexual intercourse, infected blood or blood products on shared syringes and needles, and from mother to baby or before birth. There is now considerable evidence to show that the virus is not transmitted by casual contact in the workplace and the families of AIDS sufferers are at very low risk of developing infection in the home. Although the majority of workers simply need the assurance that they are safe at work, some occupations require sensible, routine protective measures for the protection of staff and their clients or patients. Occupational health professionals will have an increasingly important role in providing solutions to health and safety problems in the workplace and in co-ordinating the welfare education and training of staff.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.1, p.69-82. Illus. 14 ref.
Hazards at work - TUC guide to health and safety
Detailed guide to occupational safety and health, aimed at workers and their safety representatives. It covers: legislative aspects in the United Kingdom (including an annotated list of laws and regulations); safety representatives and safety committees; dealing with accidents; the working environment (lighting, temperature, ventilation, overcrowding, cleanliness); chemicals and toxic substances; dust; asbestos; noise; ionising radiations; biological hazards (leptospirosis, hepatitis B, AIDS, legionnaires' disease, organic dust diseases); skin hazards; hazards of physical work (work posture, manual handling, repetitive work, vibration); machinery guarding; cranes and lifting gear; hand tools; eye protection; protective clothing and equipment; welding; fire precautions; electricity; maintenance work; stress; office work; VDUs; violence; hours of work; young workers; first aid and welfare facilities; access to information; workplace health and safety services. Checklists and information on HSE and TUC publications and offices are given throughout the text.
Trades Union Congress, Congress House, Great Russell Street, London WC1B 3LS, United Kingdom, 1988. 214p. Bibl. ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
AIDS: a rehabilitation perspective
A questionnaire survey carried out among British post office employees showed that despite extensive publicity on AIDS, fears, prejudices and myths still exist about this major public health problem. Recommendations to remove possible adverse effects on industrial relations in connection with AIDS are given to management, unions and employees.
Occupational Health, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.40, No.7/8, p.618-623. Illus.
AIDS and stress
This editorial discusses the relationship between stress and AIDS, under the headings: stress, immune system competence and AIDS; diagnosis; implications for work; design and management of work.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1988, Vol.2, No.2, p.109-112. 6 ref.
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)
A THINK special report on AIDS
The attitude of IBM towards AIDS is discussed in an interview with the company's Director of Personnel Plans and Programmes. Main themes: education, no testing, no discrimination.
Think, Mar. 1988, Vol.54, No.3, p.9-15.
Brundage J.F., Scott R.M., Lednar W.M., Smith D.W., Miller R.N.
Building-associated risk of febrile acute respiratory diseases in army trainees
Airborne transmission of infectious agents and associations of indoor air pollutants with respiratory illnesses are well documented. At four Army training centres during a 47-month period, incidence rates of febrile acute respiratory disease were compred between basic trainees in modern (energy-efficient design and construction) and old barracks. Rates of febrile acute respiratory disease were significantly higher among trainees in modern barracks (adjusted relative risk estimate, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 1.56), and relative risks were about the same at the 4 centers. These results support the hypothesis that tight buildings with closed ventilation systems, designed to conserve energy, significantly increase risks of respiratory-transmitted infection among congregated, immunologically susceptible occupants.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Apr. 1988, Vol.259, No.14, p.2108-2112. Illus. 51 ref.
Disposal of medical waste
This leading article in a medical journal discusses the problem of medical waste disposal in connection with potential dangers of exposure to HIV and Hepatitis B virus. In the United States (and in most parts of Australia), it is not usually considered practical or necessary to treat all waste contaminated with body fluids as infectious, even though it is possible for AIDS and Hepatitis B to be transmitted by contact of infected blood with mucous membranes or inflamed uncovered skin. It is recommended that waste contaminated heavily with blood, such as used blood packs, disposable blood-suction sets, placentas and sanitary napkins, be labelled appropriately in order to warn staff members involved in waste disposal procedures.
Medical Journal of Australia, 17 Oct. 1988, Vol.149, No.8, p.400-402. 13 ref.
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