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- Bacterial and parasitic diseases
Muco-cutaneous candidosis and occupational exposure to enzymes - A case report
Candidosi mucocutanea nella esposizione ad agenti biologici - Un caso clinico [en italiano]
Candida albicans, a common yeast in the environment, has properties allowing it to colonize and invade host tissues, often resisting eradication. Acid proteinase is the virulence factor. Bacterial proteinases are widely used in the detergent industry and the role of occupational exposure to enzymes in the development of muco-cutaneous candidosis warrants investigation. A case of candidosis is reported in a worker employed in a detergent factory in whom there was no evidence of any kind of immuno-suppression. The relationship between occupational exposure and illness is analyzed.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1993, Vol.84, No.3, p.243-248. 25 réf.
Starzyński Z., Iżycki J.
Occupational diseases in Poland during the years 1984-1992
An analysis of 86.871 cases of occupational disease in Poland occurring between 1984 and 1992 is presented. Hearing lesions, vocal organ diseases, contagious and invasive diseases, pneumoconioses, dermatoses, vibration syndrome, poisonings and chronic bronchitis were the most common. Among the aetiological factors, noise, industrial dusts, hepatitis virus, chromium and its compounds, lead and its inorganic compounds, carbon disulfide and carbon monoxide were the most important. In addition to statistics concerning the number of occupational disease broken down by sex, age, exposure duration, economic sector and region (voivodeships), statistics are also given on workmen's compensation.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.3, p.299-308. 10 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in horse riding establishments
Contents of this guidance booklet: legal duties; management of health and safety; health and safety training; manual handling; notification of accidents and incidents and provision of first aid; assessing and controlling hazards associated with harmful substances, dust, zoonoses and tetanus; precautions during veterinary treatment; environment and welfare; inspection and maintenance of tack; riding and road safety (protective equipment); electrical safety; safe use of machinery. Appendices include: horse behaviour; self-audit checklist; advice on safety policy statement; sample reporting forms for injuries and diseases.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 76p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Contents of this manual: the nature and occurrence of laboratory-acquired infections and how they are acquired; classification of microorganisms on the basis of hazard and laboratories on the basis of use; minimizing equipment and technique-related hazards; microbiological safety cabinets; collection, transport and receipt of infectious materials; decontamination; the laboratory worker; instruction in microbiological safety; the safe working environment; risk assessment, safety supervision and emergency contingency plans; precautions against laboratory-acquired hepatitis, AIDS, typhoid fever and tuberculosis; precautions with unconventional agents, parasites in Hazard Group 3, work with mammalian cell or tissue cultures and against infections in the post-mortem room.
Butterworth-Heinemann, Lineacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 3rd edition, 1993. xi, 274p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index Price: GBP 35.00.
Microorganisms: Bioaerosols in the food and beverage industry
Microorganismes - Les bioaérosols dans le secteur des aliments et des boissons [en francés]
The hazards (allergies, infections) due to bioaerosols in the workplace are surveyed. In the food and beverage industry the principal sources of bioaerosols are meat (leptospirosis, brucellosis), grains and other vegetable matter (endotoxins, moulds), and ventilation systems (bacteria). A table summarizes the information on the main types of bioaerosols that may be present in indoor industrial environments.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1993, Vol.9, No.4, p.45-47. 17 ref.
Vignon M., Dupas D., Géraut C.
Streptococcus suis meningitis: A severe noncompensated occupational disease
Méningite à Streptococcus suis: une maladie professionnelle grave non indemnisable [en francés]
French version of article published in English in the Journal of Occupational Medicine and abstracted under CIS 93-2072. Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2, a rare disease first recognized in 1968 (108 cases worldwide in 1989), is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs and often results in very severe disabilities (definitive deafness and ataxia in 50% of cases). The case of an employee in a rendering plant whose initial symptom was deafness is reported. A detailed analysis of medical and veterinary literature is provided concerning the epidemiology of the disease, the clinical forms in man, bacteriological diagnosis and the role of the pig as a healthy carrier. It is recommended that this occupational disease be officially recognized for compensation in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.487-494. 40 ref.
Hagberg M., Hofmann F., Stössel U., Westlander G.
Occupational health for health care workers
This university-level textbook presents a state of the art review of occupational health problems among health care workers. Contents: general aspects; working conditions and health hazards of health care workers; infectious diseases and hygiene; epidemiology and prevention of viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases; chemical hazards as an occupational risk for health care workers; epidemiology and prevention of musculoskeletal accidents and diseases; dermatoses; psychological aspects of work in the health care professions.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-str. 3, 86899 Landsberg, Germany, 1993. xvii, 420p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Bouvet E., Desenclos J.C.
Recommendations for the prevention of nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis
Recommandations pour la prévention de la transmission de la tuberculose dans les lieux de soins [en francés]
This progress report on the work undertaken by a working group on tuberculosis set up in France in April 1991 outlines recommendations for the control of the risk of tuberculosis transmission in the health-care sector, in particular in hospitals. The data collected and the recommendations apply both to patients and health-care personnel, thus providing an insight into the prevention of this disease in health-care settings in general.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.51-53. 7 ref.
Blanchin N., Abadia G., Leprince A.
Risk of infection associated with the management and handling of experimental animals in animal facilities
Risques infectieux liés à la maintenance et à la manipulation des animaux de laboratoire pour le personnel travaillant dans les animaleries [en francés]
Contents of this information sheet on the risk of infection associated with the handling of laboratory animals: 1. main infectious agents of animal origin which are pathogenetic in men (table on the use of vertebrate animals in 1990); 2. real risks in relation to the animals handled and their sources (table of bacterial, viral, parasitic, ectoparasitic and fungal diseases, with information on: name of the aetiological agent, degree of pathogenicity in man, animal vectors, mode of contamination diagnosis and treatment); 3. guidelines for the prevention of infectious risks in laboratory animal facilities (vaccinations, safety precautions in case of a bite or any other contaminating incident, training and information of employees).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.3-23. 61 ref.
Leptospirosis; Leptospirosis in pigs
Two safety brochures devoted to leptospirosis (also known as Weil's disease and swineherds' disease), a common zoonosis caught from cattle, pigs, deer and some wild animals. Symptoms, means and spread of infection, persons at risk and preventative measures are described.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, [1993?]. 2 brochures of 2p. each. Illus.
Guenzi C., Simon F., Abadia G.
Waste water purification by biological treatment: Notification of a high-fever syndrome among workers
Stations biologiques de traitements des eaux usées: enregistrement de syndromes fébriles [en francés]
A study by 43 French occupational physicians of waste water purification plants (see CIS 92-1370) covers the years 1990-1993. During the collection of data, a high-fever epidemic (headaches, shivers, muscle aches) broke out among workers of such a plant treating waste water from a chemical factory by biological means. Blood tests indicated an infectious origin of this epidemic, even though no viral or bacterial pathogen could be identified.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.31-32. 2 ref.
Watch out for tick bites
Vorsicht bei Zeckenstich [en alemán]
Attenzione alle punture di zecche [en italiano]
Attention aux piqûres de tiques [en francés]
Booklet to make workers aware of the hazards of tick bites. Aspects covered: the dangers, who is at risk, the season when bites can be expected in Europe, spring and summer meningo-encephalitis, what to do in case of a bite, preventing measures.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, July 1993. 7p. Illus.
Fegan D., Glennon J.
Malaria prophylaxis in long-term expatriate mine workers in Ghana
The role of malaria chemoprophylaxis for long-term expatriates has not been re-evaluated since the emergence of widespread multidrug resistance. A survey of 106 expatriates working in a mine in Ghana (holoendemic for malaria) was conducted to determine the compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis. Overall 64 per cent took regular chemoprophylaxis. Of the long-term expatriates (5 or more years in areas with holoendemic malaria), 48.4 per cent either took malaria prophylaxis very irregularly or not at all. The main reasons for failing to comply were fear of long-term side effects and conflicting advice on prophylaxis. This reluctance to take long-term chemoprophylaxis highlights the need to re-emphasise the importance of anti-mosquito measures, prompt treatment of fevers, and perhaps consider abandoning chemoprophylaxis in those expatriate workers with ready access to hospital care.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.135-138. 17 ref.
Kudesia G., Briggs D., Donaldson M., Woolrich M., Raper J.
Hepatitis B prevalence in local authority employees
Prevalence of hepatitis B infection was determined in 420 employees from three local authorities by testing for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Five (1.2 per cent) were positive: this included a hepatitis BsAg carrier, three with antibody to hepatitis BsAg (anti-HBs) and one who had only anti-HBc. The prevalence of hepatitis B was not significantly different (P>0.05) from a control group of blood donors. However, four out of five anti-HBc positive individuals worked with mentally or physically handicapped individuals or those discharged into the community after long-term institutionalised care.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.129-131. 8 ref.
Williams N.R., Cooper B.M.
Counselling of workers handling vaccinia virus
Vaccination with smallpox vaccine for workers handling vaccinia virus was universally recommended in the United Kingdom until 1990. Since 1990, occupational physicians and other doctors acting as supervisory medical officers have been advised to consider the need for vaccination on a case-by-case basis taking into account factors such as the virulence of the organism and the nature of the proposed work. This paper describes the practice in one organisation for the counselling of prospective vaccinia workers and covers the hazards and risks of the work, the main control measures and the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.125-127. 9 ref.
Longbottom H.M., Cox K., Sokas R.K.
Body fluid exposure in an urban tertiary care medical centre
The increasing prevalence of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) and hepatitis B virus has focused attention on the risks that health care workers face when exposed to potentially infective body fluids. This study establishes a profile of 320 parenteral exposure incidents and 47 exposure incidents to mucous membranes or abraded skin, reported in a medical centre between July 1988 and July 1990. It was found that 102 (27.8%) of the incidents involved an HIV-positive patient, that 130 (35.4%) of the reporting employees had completed their hepatitis B vaccination at the time of the incident, and that, although the majority of incidents involved employees with patient contact, service workers also were represented (4.6%, n=17). Factors contributing to incidents included recapping (10.9%, n=40), full needle-boxes (7.6%, n=28), and inappropriate disposal (13.1%, n=48). A health fair featuring walk-in hepatitis B immunisation attracted 260 participants, 90% of whom completed the entire immunisation series. This significantly improved the immunisation rate of employees subsequently reporting body fluid exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.703-710. Illus. 14 ref.
Moore R.M., Davis Y.M., Kaczmarek R.G.
An overview of occupational hazards among veterinarians, with particular reference to pregnant women
Veterinarians are challenged by a large number of occupational hazards, including exposure to ionising radiation, injury, infectious agents, and chemicals. In this paper, the health hazards in a typical veterinary practice are inventoried, and the risks of each are assessed. During the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in women entering the veterinary profession. Information is presented concerning the impact of various occupational hazards on the health of female practitioners and paraprofessionals, particularly with regard to the reproductive system. Many of the occupational hazards are exclusively, or more significantly, detrimental to females (particularly when pregnant) and to their unborn. Women must be aware of and avoid these hazards in their clinical environment. The purpose of this review is to assist practitioners in identifying and assessing the hazards in their practice and determining what steps must be taken to eliminate or reduce them.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1993, Vol.54, No.3, p.113-120. 62 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The control of legionellosis including legionnaires' disease
This guidance note is a revision of the 1991 edition (see CIS 91-2075). Contents: microbiology of legionella bacteria; medical aspects of the disease; sampling for legionella; legislation; identification and assessment of risk; drawing-up and applying precautions; management and the responsibilities and competence of personnel; record-keeping; responsibilities of manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers; risks and precautions for hot and cold water services, air conditioning and industrial cooling systems, spas and whirlpool baths, humidifiers and air washers and firefighting systems; protection of personnel; action in the event of an outbreak.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 20p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 3.75.
The work environment. Volume 2. Healthcare, laboratories and biosafety
This manual discusses occupational hazards which may be encountered by laboratory or healthcare workers. Contents: laboratory and clinical environments (the laboratory safety standard; working with biohazards; research laboratory ventilation systems); healthcare provider exposures (occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, HBV and HIV; resurgence and control of tuberculosis; occupational health hazards in the dental office); laboratory spills and medical waste disposal; glossary. Appendices include the texts of relevant standards and recommendations.
Lewis Pubishers Inc., 121 South Main Street, Chelsea, Michigan 48118, USA, 1993. xii, 351p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 44.00.
This information sheet provides practical guidance on health and safety in deer farming. Contents: avoidance of personal injury to stockmen during handling and routine husbandry tasks; precautions in the use of veterinary products and tranquillisers; safe methods of removing antlers, managing stock stags and hinds, deer slaughtering; precautions against disease; risks to the general public from public access.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The occupational zoonoses
Details are given of 17 zoonoses. Information provided includes: name of disease and responsible organism; animals carrying the organism; incidence; hazard to humans; means of transmission; occupations and activities at risk; means of control; clinical diagnosis; immunisation; legislation relating to notification of the disease. An introductory chapter outlines general regulatory requirements for hazard assessment, prevention and control, health surveillance and supply of information to employees. The diseases considered are: anthrax; bovine tuberculosis; brucellosis; cryptosporidiosis; hantavirus disease; hydatid disease (echinococcosis); leptospirosis (Weil's disease and cattle form); Lyme disease; Newcastle disease; orf; ovine chlamydiosis; psittacosis; Q fever; rabies; ringworm; Streptococcosis suis. A list of occupations with associated zoonosis hazards is appended.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. viii, 32p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
The health care industry
This article is concerned with technological change in industry over the last 20 years, its effect on the health of the worker, and the measures taken by the employer to control any risk arising therefrom. Technological change cannot be viewed in isolation. Although advances in technology and the introduction of new processes are the outward and most visible sign of change in work practices, in most cases it is managerial restructuring, political pressures, and changes in legislation which bring about far greater change and which in the long term may have a greater effect on the health of the worker. No industry illustrates this better that the National Health Service and more recently the rapidly expanding private health care sector.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.47-50. 10 ref.
Norma final de los agentes patógenos transmitidos por la sangre: sumario de disposiciones llave
Bloodborne pathogens final standard: Summary of key provisions [en inglés]
Nota informativa aparecida con ocasión de la publicación de la norma americana Bloodborne Pathogens Final Standard (Agentes patógenos transmitidos por la sangre) (CIS 93-371). Esta nota explica en un lenguaje simple los siguientes puntos: ámbito de la norma; preparación de planes de limitación de la exposición; control de la aplicación; reglas especiales aplicables en los laboratorios de investigación del SIDA y la hepatitis B y establecimientos de producción; vacunación contra la hepatitis B; evaluaciones y seguimiento tras la exposición; comunicación de riesgos; información y formación; seguimiento.
OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room N3101, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 1992 (también en: INTERNET http://www.osha.gov/oshpubs/oshfacts/92-46.html). 1 doc.
96-2065.pdf [en inglés]
Schaubschläger W.W., Rüsch-Gerdes S., Gödde M.
Infecciones por Mycobacterium marinum en medicina laboral
Arbeitsmedizinisch relevante Mycobacteriosen durch M. marinum [en alemán]
El estudio realizado sobre un horticultor de 59 años de edad demuestra la dificultad que representa diagnosticar una infección por Mycobacterium Marinum. Dicha infección no presenta síntomas específicos. Por otra parte, el aislamiento de este tipo de micobacterias es inviable mediante los métodos tradicionales. Sus cultivos necesitan una temperatura de incubación entre 30°C y 32°C, mientras que generalmente en los cultivos son necesarias temperaturas de 37°C. En el caso del horticultor, hicieron falta dos años para poder identificar la causa de la úlceras que presentaba en las manos. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium marinum en las muestras tomadas en tanques de peces tropicales, en los que el horticultor había sufrido, debido al trabajo, menos lesiones en las manos. Los reconocimientos a los que fueron sometidos los otros miembros del personal no revelaron más casos de infección micobacteriana.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, ago. 1992, vol.27, n°8, p.331-334. Ilus. 11 ref.
96-1090.pdf [en alemán]
Conocimientos elementales de las lesiones producidas por objetos cortantes y afilados
What you should know about injuries from sharps [en inglés]
Folleto formativo sobre la prevención de las lesiones que se producen por los objetos cortantes y afilados en los centros de atención médica. Relación de los riesgos de la exposición al virus de la hepatitis B y al VIH. Prueba de autoevaluación.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, Reino Unido, 1992. 15p. Ilus. Precio: GBP 0,55-0,94. ###
Décimoquintas Jornadas de formación de los médicos del trabajo, del personal sanitario - Tema I. Parasitosis y afecciones tropicales en el medio hospitalario. Tema II. Situación de los médicos del trabajo hospitalarios en Francia y Europa
XVes Journées de formation des médecins du travail du personnel des hôpitaux - Thème I. Parasitoses et affections tropicales en milieu hospitalier. Thème II. Situation des médecins du travail hospitaliers en France et en Europe [en francés]
Principales temas de las comunicaciones presentadas en las XV Jornadas de formación de médicos del trabajo del personal sanitario, organizadas en La Baule, Francia, del 4 al 6 de diciembre de 1991. Tema I: Parasitosis y afecciones tropicales en el medio hospitalario - modo de actuación ante una hipereosinofilia sanguínea; balance de los reconocimientos coprológicos parasitológicos de heces prescritos al personal de los hospitales de la Isla de la Reunión de 1987 a 1990; cisticercosis en la Reunión; aspectos actuales del paludismo; diagnóstico inmunológico de las parasitosis y enfermedades tropicales del personal de hospitales; parasitosis digestivas; precauciones a tomar previas a viajes al extranjero. Tema II. Situación de los médicos del trabajo hospitalarios en Francia y Europa (estudio general sobre la situación de los médicos del trabajo en el sector hospitalario; medicina del trabajo del personal sanitario alemán; medicina del trabajo en hospitales en Bélgica; medicina del trabajo del personal de los servicios de salud suecos; medicina del trabajo en España; organizaciones internacionales y medicina del trabajo hospitalaria.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, de médecine du travail et de sécurité sociale, 1992, vol. 53, n°8, p. 739-774. Ilus.
Luisto M., Seppäläinen A.M.
Tétanos derivado de accidentes laborales
Tetanus caused by occupational accidents [en inglés]
Estudio de varios casos de tétanos detectados en Finlandia entre 1969 y 1985: 28 de los 106 casos (es decir, un 26 %) se dieron en los sectores de la agricultura y la silvicultura.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, oct. 1992, vol.18, n°5, p.323-326. Ilus. 15 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of the Provence-Côte d'Azur and Corsica regions - Meetings of 29 May, 26 June and 23 Oct. 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de la région Provence-Côte d'Azur et de la région Corse - Séances du 29 mai, du 26 juin et du 23 octobre 1991 [en francés]
Papers presented at the meetings of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of the Provence-Côte d'Azur and Corsica Regions (France, 29 May, 26 June and 23 Oct. 1991): caretakers in the Alpes-Maritimes; infectious hepatitis in specialized occupational environments; role of the industrial physician in the prophylaxis of tuberculosis; prospective survey of the employment status of construction workers declared as permanently disabled (France); vaccination against hepatitis B of non-medical personnel in a large French hospital; rehabilitation of workers with transplants and of cardiac patients after their operation; osteolysis of ungual phalanges in an automobile body-repair worker; hands of automobile body-repair workers in small and medium-size enterprises (48 cases); medical surveillance in the group-catering sector: complementary check-ups on an "as needed" basis; activity plan undertaken by several physicians (example: hygiene and ergonomics in the group-catering sector).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.296-310.
Poyen D., Martin F.
Prevention of hepatitis B in the workplace by vaccination
La prévention de l'hépatite B professionnelle par la pratique vaccinale en médecine du travail [en francés]
Hepatitis B (HBV) remains a frequent and serious disease, sometimes still lethal. The best way to prevent it is vaccination. According to French legislation (CIS 91-1754), vaccination is compulsory for certain categories of workers. This responsibility is shared by workers, employers and physicians. All anti-HBV vaccines available today (whether plasma-based or manufactured by genetic engineering methods) are effective. This study reports on the very positive results of a vaccination campaign undertaken in France since 1981 among the workers of a large hospital.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.621-626. Illus. 15 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Proceedings of the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances du 24 mai, du 15 novembre et du 13 décembre 1991 [en francés]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): Health and safety in the use of composite materials in the aircraft industry; comments on the problems associated with the notification of occupational diseases under the French Scheme (example of Schedule 64 (intoxication due to carbon monoxide); repercussions of work on perinatal problems in rural settings (survey of 534 women); conditions of work; comparison of the results of objective and subjective analysis; work in tropical countries: update of specific preventive measures; medical problems due to laser check-out workstations in supermarkets; problem of aptitude to apprenticeship in the case of a subject suffering from tuberous sclerosis: a case study; survey of occupational deafness cases diagnosed in the unit of occupational diseases in Bordeaux; the concept of occupational risk (danger, risk, cyndinics); compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B (Law of 18 Jan. 1991; Order of 15 March 1991: CIS 91-1754).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.426-442.
Hogan D.J., Tanglertsampan C.
The less common occupational dermatoses
While contact dermatitis and nonmelanoma skin cancer are the most common occupational skin disorders in North America, there are many other occupational dermatoses that illustrate the wide range of pathological and adaptive responses of the skin to workplace exposure. Discussed are: acne, chemically induced leukoderma, nail diseases, contact-related burns, high pressure injection injuries, knuckle pads, contact urticaria, heat reactions, isomorphic (Koebner) reaction, photosensitivity, exogenous discoloration of the skin and infections.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992. Vol.7, No.3, p.385-401. Illus. 60 ref.
Diseases of unusual occupations: An historical perspective
An historical review of the nature and occurrence of some unusual occupational diseases is presented: coal miners' nystagmus; scrotal cancer and chimney sweeps; phossy jaw and matchmaking; mercurialism and hatters' shakes; painters' colic; potters' rot and endemic silicosis; chauffeurs' knee and the diseases of transportation; glanders and unusual infectious occupational diseases (factory fever, woolsorters' disease); diseases affecting work in marine-related occupations (mariners' tuberculosis, caisson disease); craft neuroses and trade palsies (writers' and telegraphers' cramps); unusual occupations and contemporary occupational diseases.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992. Vol.7, No.3, p.369-384. 82 ref.
Leprince A., Bouvet E., Abiteboul D.
Risk of workplace infection with the HIV virus
Risque professionnel d'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine [en francés]
Survey of existing knowledge concerning the risk of infection with the AIDS virus (HIV) among hospital workers in France, based in part on a study. Data are presented on the actual cases of occupational HIV infection found in France. The occupational risk of contamination is discussed. Recommendations are made as to the basic and absolutely necessary preventive measures to be applied both in the wards and in laboratory work: wearing of safety gloves and masks; safe handling of sharp objects; contamination etc. Action to be taken after an accident possibly involving contamination is discussed: notification of the accident, tests, repairs. Case-story of a nurse who suffered an accident with potential transmission of the HIV virus.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1992, No.505, p.552-562. Illus. 9 ref.
Leslie G.B., Lunau F.W.
Indoor air pollution. Problems and priorities
Contents of this manual: introduction to indoor air pollution problems; the perception of indoor air quality; legionella; bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms; the oxides of nitrogen; mineral fibres; radon; formaldehyde; hazards from solvents, pesticides and PCBs; vegetable dusts and lung disease; danders, etc. from domestic and laboratory animals; environmental tobacco smoke; industrial environments; extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation; contributions from outdoor pollutants; ventilation for control of airborne pollutants. Each chapter covers exposure levels, sources of pollution and routes of uptake, health effects, control measures and regulatory guidelines.
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom, 1992. xi, 329p. Index. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 45.00; USD 84.95.
Fukui T., Noda H., Hinami F., Tsuneoka T., Iwasaki M., Maeda T., Usuki S., Takata T., Tsujimoto G., Fukuhara M., Ohnishi K., Toyokawa K., Tanemoto K.
Blood contamination of medical staff and positive rate of HCV antibody in patients
Iryō jūjisha no ketsueki osen jiko to nyūin kanja no HCV kōtai yōsei ritsu [en japonés]
Between 1 June 1990 and 5 May 1991, 25 cases of blood contamination occurred at Kobe Rosai Hospital. Ten staff members were contaminated by blood from patients with anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody. Nine were treated with alpha-interferon; none of the 10 contracted hepatitis. Screening of inpatients for this antibody (C100-3) revealed a prevalence of 11.3%, which is almost 10 times the rate in normal subjects in Japan. The rate in patients with liver disease was 15.4%, and 4.8% in the other departments. Thus, the risk of HCV infection of staff is high. Patients should be screened for HCV on admission.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, 9 Sep. 1992, Vol.40, No.9, p.603-607. Illus. 7 ref.
Dupas D., Vignon M., Géraut C.
Streptococcus suis meningitis - A severe noncompensated occupational disease
Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2, a rare disease first recognised in 1968 (108 cases worldwide in 1989), is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs and often results in very severe disabilities (definitive deafness and ataxia in 50% of cases). The case of an employee in a rendering plant whose initial symptom was deafness is reported. A detailed analysis of medical and veterinary literature is provided concerning the epidemiology of the disease, the clinical forms in man, bacteriological diagnosis and the role of the pig as a healthy carrier. It is recommended that this occupational disease be officially recognised for compensation in France.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.34, No.11, p.1102-1105. 28 ref.
Frumkin H., Horowitz M., Jabre J.F., Payton M., Kantrowitz W.
An investigation of a workplace cluster of Bell's palsy
The study undertook to confirm the existence of an apparent cluster of Bell's palsy in an industrial plant ("W4"), and to test various aetiological hypotheses. Infectious, chemical, and radiation exposures were evaluated in W4. The lifetime incidence of self-reported Bell's palsy was 11.6 cases/10,000 person-years (P-Y) in W4 and 2.4 cases/10,000 P-Y in a comparison building (RR=4.8, P<0.05). When restricted to cases occurring after the onset of work, the W4 incidence was 29.2 cases/10,000 P-Y, compared to 4.8 cases/10,000 P-Y in the comparison building (RR=6.1, P<0.05). The cases and non-cases did not differ with respect to clinical histories or infectious disease titres. The W4 non-cases had small but significant decreases in T lymphocyte (1,974 ±86 vs 2,291 ±103) and CD4 (1,083 ±318 vs 1,459 ±494) counts compared to the remote non-cases. The cases had significantly longer blink reflex latencies than either group of non-cases.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.34, No.11, p.1064-1070. 31 ref.
Li G.Y., Wang T., Huggins E.M., Shams N.K.B., Davis J.F., Calkins J.H., Hornung C.A., Altekruse J.M., Sigel M.M.
Cholylglycine measured in serum by RIA and interleukin-1β determined by ELISA in differentiating viral hepatitis from chemical liver injury
Serum bile acids have been shown to serve as useful indicators of liver disease. The study confirms these findings and adds an analysis of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) profiles to differentiate viral hepatitis from toxic liver damage associated with exposure to vinyl chloride (VC) or trinitrotoluene (TNT). The frequency of elevated cholylglycine (CG) was 100%, 75%, and 37.5% in viral hepatitis, VC- and TNT-linked liver-injury patients, respectively. The mean levels (µg/dL) were 578, 507, 142, and 65 in hepatitis B, hepatitis non-A non-B, VC and TNT liver-injury patients, respectively. The mean level of IL-1β in patients with hepatitis B was 424pg/mL and hepatitis non-A non-B was 384pg/mL compared with a mean of 33-40pg/mL in those with VC or TNT-linked liver disease. The IL-1β detection test proved further to be an important distinguishing parameter as it was 100% positive in patients with viral hepatitis but only 12.5% to 25% positive in patients with VC/TNT-induced liver damage.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.34, No.9, p.930-933. 15 ref.
Di Perri G., Cadeo G.P., Castelli F., Cazzadori A., Bassetti S., Rubini F., Micciolo R., Concia E., Bassetti D.
Transmission of HIV-associated tuberculosis to health-care workers
This letter summarises the results of a retrospective review which showed that the incidence of occupational tuberculosis among health care workers caring for HIV-positive tuberculosis patients was significantly higher than that for those caring for HIV-negative patients. It is considered that besides the preventable risk of acquiring HIV infection, tuberculosis is the major threat for hospital workers assisting AIDS patients.
Lancet, 12 Sep. 1992, Vol.340, No.8820, p.682. 6 ref.
Needlesticks: Preaching to the seroconverted?
This editorial on needlestick accidents discusses the potential for infectious disease transmission and the need for prevention strategies. The principal causes for concern are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Most of the work published on needlestick injuries concerns primary prevention (improved designs for the recapping and disposal of needles, staff training), while secondary prevention issues have been less publicised. It is argued that optimum management of injuries and peace of mind, particularly in less medically informed staff, demand a hospital policy for action and an expert contact for advice.
Lancet, 12 Sep. 1992, Vol.340, No.8820, p.640-642. 23 ref.
Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation professionnelle
Decree No.92-1348 of 23 Dec. 1992. Schedules of prescribed occupational diseases. Modifications and additions [France]
Décret n°92-1348 du 23 déc. 1992. Tableaux de maladies professionnelles - Modifications et adjonctions [France] [en francés]
Decree No. 92-1348 makes mainly the following changes in the French schedules of prescribed occupational diseases: Creation of new schedules: No.25 bis "Non-pneumoconiotic disorders caused by the inhalation of inorganic dusts containing free silica"; No.44 bis "Cancers subsequent to the inhalation of iron oxide dusts or fumes"; No.91 "Chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease in coal miners". Replacement of the old schedules: No.44 "Disorders subsequent to the inhalation of iron oxide dusts or fumes"; No.76 "Diseases related to infectious agents contracted in hospitals and during hospitalisation in the home".
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.150, Note No.1917-150-93, p.139-142. Also in: Journal officiel, 24 Dec. 1992.
Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
Five-step plan to prevent hepatitis B infection
Articles in this issue include consensus statements by the VHPB (Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board) on: no routine work restrictions on infected healthcare workers or non-responders; principles to prevent exposure to blood-borne infections (identification of risk, improved working practices, isolation of potentially infected material, individual protection, compliance monitoring); post-exposure prophylaxis. Other articles discuss the need for measuring compliance with protection guidelines and action recommended by the European Community.
Viral Hepatitis, 1992, No.4, 11p. Illus. Available from: Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom.
Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
VHPB acts to eliminate HEP B risk to workers by 1997
This issue contains a discussion of the need for hepatitis B risk assessment along with VHPB (Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board) consensus statements on reducing and assessing the risk of hepatitis B infection in employees, setting up policies and vaccination programmes for hepatitis B prevention and following up an initial course of vaccine. Other articles include studies on the cost-effectiveness of vaccination programmes and a comparison of vaccination policies in Australia and seven European countries.
Viral Hepatitis, 1992, No.3, 11p. Illus. Available from: Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom.
Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
Employers have key role in staff protection
This second issue of Viral Hepatitis contains some practical suggestions for improving protection of those occupationally exposed to viral hepatitis including VHPB (Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board) guidelines for the improvement of vaccination programmes. Other articles include a discussion on how to decide who is at occupational risk of hepatitis B, results of a survey into the knowledge and attitudes of unions towards occupational health and hepatitis B in Germany, Spain and the UK and the effects of a national campaign on improving rates of protection among medical students and doctors.
Viral Hepatitis, 1992, No.2, 11p. Illus. Available from: Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom.
Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
Improving protection against hepatitis B in the workplace
This special issue contains papers presented at a session of the International Congress on the Management of Infection (ICMI), held in Amsterdam in 1992. Topics covered: the risks for healthcare workers of hepatitis infection and techniques currently employed to reduce its spread; new US regulations for the control of blood-borne diseases in the workplace; reasons for different approaches to protective vaccination of healthcare workers across Europe; background to the formation of the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board and its aims for European workers.
Viral Hepatitis, 1992, symposium special, 7p. Illus. Available from: Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom.
The Victorian Congress of Employer Associations
Occupational health and safety handbook
This manual is divided into five parts: Part 1 - General information (government authorities; costs and benefits of OHS; understanding Acts, Regulations, Codes and Awards); Part 2 - Requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (duties of employers and employees; procedures for dealing with OHS issues; OHS representatives and committees; role of inspectors; for text of the Act, see CIS 88-1751); Part 3 - Specific OHS issues (reporting and recording of accidents and injuries; fire hazards; machine guarding; manual handling; occupational over-use syndrome; noise; asbestos; chemicals; hot working conditions; smoking in the workplace; personal protective equipment; first aid; general facilities; walk-through surveys; OHS training; sick building syndrome and Legionnaires' disease); Part 4 - Related issues (industrial waste, air and water pollution; alcohol in the workplace; AIDS in the workplace; opposition policy on OHS; Part 5 - Directory of OSH products and services.
Information Australia, A.C.N. 006 042 173, 45 Flinders Lane, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia, 2nd edition, 1992. xv, 268p. Illus.
Rivoalen C., Manouvrier C., Frenkiel J., Faure J.J., Caillard J.F., Czernichow P.
Behaviour of hospital staff regarding prevention. The case of hepatitis B.
Comportement du personnel hospitalier à l'égard de la prévention. Le cas de l'hépatite à virus B [en francés]
A programme of immunisation against hepatitis B was introduced at the university hospital of Rouen (France) in the 1980s. The mean participation rate (55,8%) was compared to the corresponding sero-prevalence according to various criteria: age, sex, seniority, professional category, and hospital department. Staff were classified into four categories, depending on whether their seropositivity rates and their participation rates in the vaccination programme were higher or lower than the average in the hospital. The young and/or recently employed staff had a higher participation rate. Surgeons and personnel with few qualifications had a lower participation rate despite a higher risk. Voluntary prevention programmes must be particularly concentrated and adapted to the more exposed and less qualified categories of staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.363-368. Illus. 17 ref.
Davis W., Vainio H.
Special issue devoted to occupational cancer in Africa. It reproduces some of the papers presented at the International Course on Detection of Health Hazards in Human Populations Exposed to Chemical Mutagens and Carcinogens held in Harare (Zimbabwe), 9-20 Sep. 1991. The papers concern: public health in Africa - from infectious diseases to cancer prevention (Vainio H., Matos E.); limitations of the epidemiology of cancer in Africa (Jack A.D.); importance of cancer registries in Africa for cancer surveillance (Jack A.D.); occupational hazards and reproduction (Lindbohm M.L., Hemminki K.); causes, mechanisms and prevention of environmentally-induced cancers (Weinstein I.B., Groopman J.D.); hereditary factors in human cancers (Sylla B.S.); chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cytogenic surveillance (Anwar W.A.); viruses and human cancer in Africa (Jack A.D.); mycotoxins (Nyathi C.B., Dube N., Hasler J.A.); molecular approaches to epidemiological studies of aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma (Wild C.P.); interactions between schistosomiasis and carcinogenesis (Hasler J.A., Naik Y.S., Nyathi C.B.). In annex: list of faculty; list of participants.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 1992, Vol.2, Suppl.1, i, 75p. Bibl.ref.
Making hepatitis B prevention a priority in the workplace
First issue of a new quarterly publication. The articles provide a broad overview of the current problems of hepatitis B in the workplace and look at some of the steps already taken to improve protection for workers. The publication is also available in French, German and Spanish.
Viral Hepatitis, 1992, Vol.1, No.1, 11p. Illus. Available from: Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom.
Chaturvedi N., Cockcroft A.
Tuberculosis screening in health services employees: Who needs chest X-rays?
There is uncertainty in the British National Health Service about which individuals should be offered pre-employment screening by chest X-ray and whether this procedure is of value in the detection of tuberculosis. To provide evidence for practice, pre-employment chest X-ray and tuberculin skin test status were examined retrospectively for employees of a health district. Cases were those with an abnormal chest X-ray. The majority of the population had positive tuberculin skin tests and there was no difference between cases (58 positive out of 68) and referents (170 positive out of 212). Most of the X-ray abnormalities were trivial: four findings were thought significant, but would have caused no problems if undetected and none of these findings were related to tuberculosis. It is concluded that in new employees in the Hampstead health district, X-ray abnormalities are rare and not predicted by testing tuberculin skin reactivity; neither procedure is justified routinely as a means of screening for tuberculosis. The situation in districts with a high incidence of tuberculosis needs to be investigated.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.42, No.4, p.179-182. 24 ref.
Muñoz N., Bosch F.X., Shah K.V., Meheus A.
The epidemiology of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer
This volume is based on background papers from an IARC workshop held in Brussels, Belgium, in November 1991. Topics covered: epidemiology of cervical cancer and of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; clinical and morphological diagnosis of HPV-associated lesions and serological markers for other sexually transmitted agents; hybridisation and serological methods for HPV detection; methodological issues in HPV epidemiology; interactions between HPV and HIV; association of HPV and anogenital cancer and implications for screening policy.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1992. x, 288p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 28.00.
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