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CIS 12-0252 Armstrong T.W., Liang Y., Hetherington Y., Bowes S.M., Wong O., Fu H., Chen M., Schnatter A.R.
Retrospective occupational exposure assessment for case-control and case-series epidemiology studies based in Shanghai China
To provide exposure information for epidemiology studies conducted in Shanghai from 2001 to 2008, this study completed retrospective exposure assessments (EA) of benzene and other hazards. Interviewers administered questionnaires to subjects from Shanghai area hospitals. An initial exposure screening by EA staff members, blinded as to case-control status, stratified jobs into exposed, unexposed, or uncertain categories prior to review by a separate expert panel (EP). Resources for the EA included questionnaire responses by subjects, short-term benzene area concentration measurements from a Shanghai regulatory agency database, Chinese literature for qualitative and short-term quantitative measurements, on-site investigations, summaries of technology changes and selected task simulations with concurrent benzene concentration measurements. An EP in Shanghai completed semi-quantitative benzene exposure assignments. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2011, Vol.8, No.9, p.561-572. Illus. 48 ref.
Retrospective_occupational_exposure_assessment_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0239 Zhang L., Ye F.L., Chen T., Mei Y., Song S.Z.
Trans, trans-muconic acid as a biomarker of occupational exposure to high-level benzene in China
The work aimed to study the potential correlation between high-level benzene exposures and urinary benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) among Chinese shoe industry workers. Individual benzene-exposed levels were determined by gas chromatography analysis; urinary metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The concentration of benzene ranged from 2.57 to 146.11 mg/m3. The correlation between benzene and t,t-MA was significantly higher than that of SPMA at the postshift. It is concluded that t,t-MA is a more specific biomarker than SPMA at high-level benzene exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1194-1198. Illus. 41 ref.
Trans_trans-muconic_acid_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0181 Cave M., Falkner K.C., Henry L., Costello B., Gregory B., McClain C.J
Serum cytokeratin 18 and cytokine elevations suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease in highly exposed elastomer/polymer workers
Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a novel serologic biomarker for occupational liver disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CK18 elevation in elastomer/polymer workers exposed to acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and styrene. A total of 82 chemical workers were evaluated. Cytokeratin 18 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by multi-analyte chemiluminescent detection. Thirty-nine percent (32 of 82) had elevated CK18 levels. The pattern of CK18 elevation was consistent with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) in the majority of cases (78%). Tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were increased in these workers compared with those with normal CK18 levels. These results suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease and TASH in elastomer/polymer workers with elevated proinflammatory cytokines.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1128-1133. 42 ref.
Serum_cytokeratin_18_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0237 Scarselli A., Binazzi A., Di Marzio D.
Occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy: Findings from a national database
The aim of this study is to summarize data about occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy. Airborne concentrations of benzene were selected from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens in the period 1996-2007. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for the industrial sectors better characterized in the database. An analysis through linear mixed model was performed to determine factors affecting the exposure level. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.617-625. Illus. 38 ref.
Occupational_exposure_levels_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0236 Chen M., Ho C.W., Huang Y.C., Wu K.Y., Wu M.T., Jeng H.A., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Lai C.H., Pan C.H., Chen Y.M.
Glycine N-methyltransferase affects urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels after PAH exposure
The objective of this study was to assess the modulating effects of genetic polymorphisms of glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) genotypes on 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine from coke-oven workers, consistently exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study participants included 289 coke-oven workers from a steel company in Taiwan. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, peripheral blood samples, and questionnaires were used to quantify PAH exposure, oxidative DNA damage, GNMT gene polymorphisms, demographic data, and environmental pollutants. Urinary 1-OHP level, GNMT STRP1 genotype, and worksite were significant predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjustments were made for covariates. This study suggests that GNMT STRP1 could modulate urinary 1-OHP and 8-OHdG levels in coke-oven workers exposed to PAHs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.812-819. 39 ref.
Glycine_N-methyltransferase_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0128 Lee M.S., Magari S., Christiani D.C.
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Continuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Findings provide evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.474-478. Illus. 40 ref.
Cardiac_autonomic_dysfunction_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0223 Jeng H.A., Pan C.H., Diawara N., Chang-Chien G.P., Lin W.Y., Huang C.T., Ho C.K., Wu M.T.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in relation to immunological alteration
This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and immunological measurements using blood samples from coke oven workers exposed to high and low PAH levels. It was conducted from 2008-2009 with coke oven workers and steel-rolling workers as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Questionnaires on basic demographic information were administered. Personal breathing zone and urine samples were collected to quantify personal PAH intake and biological response doses. Immunological and cytokine parameters in serum were analysed. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were analysed to determine oxidative stress induced by PAHs in relation to altered humoural immunological status. Results were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs may develop immunological alteration. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by PAHs may partly explain the alteration in immunological parameters.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.653-658. 31 ref.
Polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbon-induced_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 11-0367 Friesen M.C., Costello S., Thurston S.W., Eisen E.A.
Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers
The various types of metalworking fluids (MWFs) have overlapping components. This study derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios for each cancer and cumulative exposures were estimated. For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH. Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. These findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.450-460. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 11-0403 Kim J.H., Moon J.Y., Park E.Y, Lee K.H., Hong Y.C.
Changes in oxidative stress biomarker and gene expression levels in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds
This study was conducted to evaluate the change of oxidative stress biomarker and gene expression levels in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds. Urine and blood samples were collected from 21 subjects before and after occupational exposure to VOCs. Muconic (MuA), hippuric (HA) mandelic (MaA) and methyl hippuric (MHA) acid were measures as urinary exposure biomarkers for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (collectively BTEX), while malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers in all subjects. BTEX-mediated RNA expression using cDNA microarray were also evaluated in 14 subjects. Findings are discussed. The study results suggest that exposure to VOCs, specifically toluene, induces oxidative stress and various gene expression changes, some being possibly responsible for oxidative stress.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.8-14. Illus. 28 ref.
Changes_in_oxidative_stress_biomarker.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0391 Widner T.E., Gaffney S.H., Panko J.M., Unice K.M., Burns A.M., Kreider M., Marshall J.R., Booher L.E., Gelat R.H., Paustenbach D.J.
Airborne concentrations of benzene for dock workers at the ExxonMobil refinery and chemical plant, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (1977-2005)
Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. In this study, historical samples of airborne benzene collected from 1977-2005 at the docks of a large refinery and petrochemical plant in the United States were evaluated. Workers were categorized into 11 job titles for which benzene concentrations were assessed. Approximately 800 personal air samples were analyzed. Findings are discussed. Samples for specific job categories showed that concentrations have decreased over the past 30 years. Recognizing the potential for benzene exposure, this facility has required workers to use respiratory protective equipment during selected tasks and activities; thus, the concentrations measured were likely to be greater than those that the employees actually experienced.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.147-158. Illus. 43 ref.
Airborne_concentrations.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0240 Vyskocil A., Leroux T., Truchon G., Lemay F., Gagnon F., Gendron M., Boudjerida A., El-Majidi N., Viau C.
Effect of chemical substances on hearing - Interactions with noise
Effet des substances chimiques sur l'audition - Interactions avec le bruit [en francés]
While noise is the main cause of occupational deafness, certain chemical substances can produce ototoxic effects that may make the ear more prone to acoustic assault, as opposed to noise alone. They are mainly solvents, asphyxiants, metals and pesticides, widespread in workplaces. In Quebec, over 400,000 workers are exposed to high noise levels, which raise concerns regarding the prevention of hearing impairments. This literature survey evaluated the effects of various chemical substances on hearing, and characterized the interactions between these chemical substances and noise at exposure levels respecting the current standards of the Occupational health and safety regulations. Strong interactions were found for toluene and carbon monoxide. Less solid evidence was found for other substances, with either lack of evidence or inconclusive results.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 18p. Illus. 59 ref.
R-685.pdf [en francés]


CIS 11-0680 Fustinoni S., Campo L., Cirla P.E., Martinotti I., Buratti M., Longhi O., Foà V., Bertazzi P.
Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt workers
The objective of this study was to assess dermal exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphalt workers in the region of Milan, Italy, to identify the most frequent compounds and exposure sites and to integrate dermal exposure results with environmental and biological data. Twenty-four asphalt workers were recruited. Dermal exposure was assessed during a single work shift. Sixteen PAHs were quantified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dermal exposure was assessed by applying polypropylene pads to six body sites (neck, shoulder, upper arm, wrist, groin and ankle). Airborne exposure, and urinary PAHs and monohydroxy metabolites were also investigated. Findings are discussed. Overall, dermal exposures to PAHs were in the low ng/cm2 range. Phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were the most representative compounds and the wrist was the best location to perform dermal exposure assessments. Both dermal and airborne exposure contributed to the total body burden of PAHs, with the relative contribution varying according to the specific PAH.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.456-463. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 11-0108 Galland B., Henrard J., Martin P., Tran-Thi T., Crunaire S., Rivron C.
A new approach to qualifying and quantifying monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH ) in workplace atmospheres
Une nouvelle approche pour la qualification et la quantification des hydrocarbures aromatiques monocycliques (HAM) dans l'atmosphère des lieux de travail [en francés]
Presently, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are selectively detected in workplace atmospheres mostly by conventional methods, namely specifically, sampling on a medium and conducting a posteriori analysis in the laboratory. This article presents the concept of a new real-time analyzer, based on laboratory research and validated by INRS. Work is underway to design a prototype in the next few years.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.45-50. Illus. 5 ref.
ND 2324-218-10.pdf [en francés]

CIS 10-0848 Kriech A.J., Emmel C., Osborn L.V., Breuer D., Redman A.P., Hoeber D., Bochmann F., Ruehl R.
Side-by-side comparison of field monitoring methods for hot bitumen emission exposures: The German IFA Method 6305, U.S. NIOSH Method 5042, and the Total Organic Matter Method
Field studies were conducted at multiple paving and roofing sites to compare the infrared spectroscopy method 6305 of the German Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Social Accident Insurance (IFA) with the benzene soluble fraction method 5042 of the National Institute for Occupational Science and Health (NIOSH) and the Total Organic Matter method. Sampling using both methods was performed in multiple bitumen-related workplace environments. To provide comparable data, all samplings were performed in parallel and the analytical data were related to the same representative bitumen condensate standard. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.712-725. Illus. 31 ref.
Side-by-side_comparison.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0845 Fioretti M., Catrambone T., Gordiani A., Cabella R.
Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter: Validation and application of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method
This study concerns the validation of an analytical method for the measurement of occupational exposure to trace levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter (APM). Personal exposures to selected PAHs of five workers occupationally exposed to urban pollution in Rome, Italy, were evaluated. The samples were collected over 10 days evenly-distributed during the winter and summer of 2008. It was found that phenanthrene was the predominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; the highest benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher than European annual target values: seasonal variations of personal exposure to selected PAHs suggested higher emissions and reduced atmospheric reactivity of PAH compounds in winter. The analytical method used was found to be reliable and a useful tool to evaluate occupational exposure to low PAH levels.
Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.672-682. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 10-0840 Uzma N., Kumar B.S., Hazari M.A.H.
Exposure to benzene induces oxidative stress, alters the immune response and expression of p53 in gasoline filling workers
This study investigated the adverse effects of benzene among workers occupationally exposed to benzene in India. It involved 428 gasoline filling workers occupationally exposed to benzene and 78 unexposed individuals. A significant increase in the concentration of benzene and its byproducts in both blood and urine were found in the workers compared with the controls. Occupational exposure to benzene causes oxidative stress, immune suppression and increases the expression of tumor-suppressing gene p53 in gasoline filling workers. These bio-functional markers might be useful in screening and surveillance for occupational hazard.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.1264-1270. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 10-0557 Hopf N.B., Kirkeleit J., Kramer S.L., Moen B., Succop P., Genter M.B., Carreón T., Mack J., Talaska G.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in offshore workers
The objective of this study was to compare differences in pre- and post-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) levels as a measure of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between two groups of oil production workers offshore assumed to be exposed to PAH, and to compare the exposed group to an unexposed control group. Urine samples of the 42 participants were collected over a study period of three consecutive 12-h work days (pre-shift on the first day and post-shift on the third day), and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analysis of covariance was used in the statistical models. Post-shift 1HP levels were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the controls. Tank workers and process operators did not show statistically significant different post-shift 1HP levels. Overall, this study indicates a low level of PAH exposure among offshore oil production workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.83, No.1, p.55-59. Illus. 17 ref.
Urinary_1-hydroxypyrene.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0256 Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.

CIS 10-0251 Some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures
This volume reviews the potential carcinogenicity of 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and several occupational exposures involving coal-derived PAHs. These are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. Environmental sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons include industrial air pollution, urban air pollution, tobacco smoke and diet (which is commonly the main source of exposure in non-smokers who are not exposed to such hydrocarbons through their occupations). High occupational exposure can arise during the conversion of coal to coke and coal tar, and during the processing and use of products derived from coal tar. In this volume, benzo[a]pyrene, other PAHs and related occupational exposures were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2010. viii, 853p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00; USD 55.00; CHF 38.50 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge. [en inglés]


CIS 11-0834 Liu H., Liang Y., Bowes S., Xu H., Zhou Y., Armstrong T.W., Wong O., Schnatter A.R., Fang J., Wang L., Nie L., Fu H., Irons R.
Benzene exposure in industries using or manufacturing paint in China - A literature review, 1956-2005
A systematic review of the Chinese literature was conducted from 1956 to 2005. The survey included both online and manual searching, as well as expert discussions aimed at providing insight into factors affecting benzene exposure levels in paint/coatings industries. Data were extracted from 204 articles. Most benzene measurements were short-term samples for comparison with the Chinese maximum allowable concentration standard. The accuracy and precision of the sampling and analytical methods were not reported. The overall median benzene exposure levels were 215, 82, 31 and 6 mg/m3 during the periods 1956-1978, 1979-1989, 1990-2001 and 2002-2005, respectively. Mean benzene exposure was significantly lower for paint manufacturing than paint spraying. No significant difference was found among paint types and benzene exposure for paint application. Benzene exposure was significantly higher in workplaces judged to have poor ventilation. No significant differences were found in benzene exposure as a function of industry type. Even though substantially lower when compared with levels in the past, recent benzene exposure measurements suggested that many facilities in the paint/coatings industries in China still have benzene concentrations that are above the current China occupational exposure limit for benzene (6 mg/m3) as a time-weighted average).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2009, Vol.6, No.11, p.659-670. Illus. 19 ref.
Benzene_exposure.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0832 Panko J.M., Gaffney S.H., Burns A.M., Unice K.M, Kreider M.L., Booher L.E., Gelatt R.H., Marshall J.R., Paustenbach D.J.
Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery at Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1977-2005)
This study evaluated the airborne concentrations of benzene and their variability over time at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baton Rouge between 1977 and 2005. Refinery workers were categorized into 117 worker groups using company job descriptions. These 117 groups were further collapsed into 25 job categories based on similarity of measured exposure results. Results of 5289 personal air samples are included in this analysis. Findings are discussed. Even the tasks with the highest estimated exposures were well below the STEL of 5 ppm. This study thus provides a task-focused analysis for occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, which can be insightful for understanding exposures at this refinery and perhaps others operated since about 1975.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.517-529. Illus. 32 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_benzene.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 09-1308 Triebig G., Bruckner T., Seeber A.
Occupational styrene exposure and hearing loss: A cohort study with repeated measurements
This study investigated the associations between styrene exposure and hearing loss among workers of a boat factory in Germany, classified into groups of low, medium and high levels of exposure to styrene. At levels of 30-50ppm of inhaled styrene per work day over a period of 15 years, an elevated risk for impaired hearing thresholds can be expected. However, formerly published results on ototoxic effects below 20ppm could not be confirmed. With few exceptions, no dose-response relationship between threshold and exposure data was found. The hearing loss is partly reversible during exposure-free periods.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.463-480. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 09-1296 Seeber A., Bruckner T., Triebig G.
Occupational styrene exposure, colour vision and contrast sensitivity: A cohort study with repeated measurements
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occupational styrene exposures and colour vision deficiency and contrast sensitivity. Workers from a German boat building plant were classified in groups of low, medium and high levels exposure to styrene, and subjected to visual function tests. There was no evidence of significant associations between exposure parameters and colour confusion or contrast sensitivity. The largest portions of the variances in both tests were explained by age.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.757-770. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 09-1113 Seeber A., Bruckner T., Triebig G.
Occupational styrene exposure and neurobehavioural functions: A cohort study with repeated measurements
Possible associations between occupational styrene exposure and cognitive as well as psychomotor functions were investigated with a view to determining whether they are related to current or to chronic exposure and to what extent they are reversible. Workers of a plant producing glass-reinforced polyester boats in Germany were divided into three groups based on their estimated exposure to styrene being low, medium or high. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and various tests of cognitive function. The overall findings were that symptoms were not related to exposure and that cognitive function tests generally revealed no exposure-related associations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.969-984. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 09-1112 Wang Y., Duan H., Dai Y., Bin P., Cheng J., Pan Z., Huang C., Leng S., Chen W., Zheng Y.
Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed workers
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-exposed workers. Blood and urine samples of 140 PAH-exposed workers and 66 non-PAH-exposed workers were collected. The polymorphisms of UGT1A7, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and 1-hydroxypyrene were analyzed. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that polymorphisms of UGT1A7 gene may alter the severity of PAH-induced chromosomal damage among the exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.682-689. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 09-396 Sobus J.R., Waidyanatha S., McClean M.D., Herrick R.F., Smith T.J., Garshick E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Zheng Y., Rappaport S.M.
Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds
This study investigated the utility of unmetabolised naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as biomarkers of exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It involved 39 workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level), 26 exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level) and 28 exposed to emissions from coke ovens (high PAH exposure level). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe and other PAHs in the relevant sectors were taken into account. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflected the workplace atmospheric concentrations of these compounds and therefore constitute promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.99-104. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 09-1338 Schäper M., Seeber A., van Thriel C.
The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: An evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry
The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during five years. Workers' lifetime weighted average exposures to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings. Recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study. Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry. Noise intensity was significant for auditory thresholds. However, no relationships were found between auditory thresholds and toluene concentrations, toluene exposure duration and interactions between toluene and noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-1124 Elihn K., Ulvestad B., Hetland S., Wallén A., Randem B.G.
Exposure to ultrafine particles in asphalt work
An earlier study demonstrated that asphalt workers show a loss of lung function and an increase of inflammation biomarkers during the paving season. The aim of this study was to investigate which possible agents cause the inflammatory reaction, with emphasis on ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure to total dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and NO2 was determined by personal sampling. Ultrafine particles were measured by means of particle counters mounted on a van following the paving machine. Findings showed that pavers were exposed to relatively high concentrations of ultrafine particles throughout their working day, with possible adverse health effects.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.771-779. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 09-1097 Williams P.R.D., Panko J.M., Unice K., Brown J.L., Paustenbach D.J.
Occupational exposures associated with petroleum-derived products containing trace levels of benzene
Benzene may be present as a trace impurity in many petroleum-derived products. In this article, the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products is reviewed and the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States are characterized, based on indoor exposure modeling and industrial hygiene air monitoring data collected since the late 1970s. Overall findings indicate that the vast majority of products manufactured in the United States after 1978 contained less than 0.1% benzene by volume, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not have been expected to exceed 0.5ppm under most product use scenarios.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.565-574. Illus. 97 ref.

CIS 08-1380 Ferrari M., Negri S., Zadra P., Ghittori S., Imbriani M.
Saliva as an analytical tool to measure occupational exposure to toluene
Biomonitoring of toluene exposure is commonly performed using blood or urine sampling. Sampling of saliva may be a simple and a viable alternative. In this study, solvent concentrations in urine and saliva were measured in a group of 36 workers exposed to toluene in the synthetic leather industry. Their environmental exposure to toluene was assessed using passive samplers. Toluene in urine, saliva and environmental samples was measured by GC-MS. Environmental toluene levels ranged from 0.22 to 57.20mg/m3, while the concentrations of the solvent in saliva and urine ranged from 0.12 to 18.30µg/L and from 0.47 to 26.64µg/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients between biological and environmental levels of toluene were 0.77 and 0.93, respectively, for saliva and urine samples. These findings suggest that saliva monitoring could be a simple and practical method of evaluating exposure to toluene.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.81, No.8, p.1021-1028. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 09-419 Wang H., Chen W., Zheng H., Guo L., Liang H., Yang X., Bai Y., Sun J., Su Y., Chen Y., Yuan J., Bi Y., Wei Q., Wu T.
Association between plasma BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers
Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can induce both benzo[a]pyrene-r-7, t-8, t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. In this study, 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE were recruited in the same steel plant in northern China. BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations in plasma was measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes by alkaline comet assay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE-Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed but not in control group. The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.753-758. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 09-141 Johnson A.C.
Relationship between styrene exposure and hearing loss: Review of human studies
Occupational exposure to styrene occurs mainly in the manufacturing of fibreglass-reinforced plastics. Since 1988, nine studies have been published on the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and hearing loss. All studies were cross-sectional epidemiological studies or clinical studies from occupational health clinics. They involved more than 1000 workers exposed to styrene, both with and without concurrent noise exposure. Of the nine studies, seven showed some effects on the auditory system associated with styrene-alone exposure. These effects are examined using different outcome measures such as pure tone audiometry, high frequency hearing loss, and central hearing tests. In some studies, an increased risk for hearing loss was associated with exposure estimates.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.315-325. 27 ref.

CIS 08-1396 Costa K.N.S., Pinheiro I.O., Calazans G.T., Nascimento M.S.
Assessing risks concerning the use of xylene in cytology and pathological anatomy laboratories
Avaliação dos riscos associados ao uso do xilol em laboratórios de anatomia patológica e citologia [en portugués]
An evaluation of occupational exposure to xylene used by technicians in cytology and pathological anatomy was carried out in eight laboratories of a region of Brazil. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Emphasis was given to information concerning occupational health and risk perception when using xylene and disposing waste. Results show that personal and collective protection equipment were neglected. Eighty percent of the technicians interviewed had noticed changes in health after they had been exposed to xylene for some years. However, only 6.6% of them went through regular monitoring of urinary methyl hippuric acid, a biomarker of xylene exposure. It was noticed that 76.6% of the people interviewed disposed waste directly into a sink, as there was no proper place for waste disposal. Findings highlight the need for workers' training with respect to occupational and environmental hazards.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.50-56. Illus. 13 ref. [en portugués]

CIS 08-759
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary Reports XII (Nos. 39, 62, 67, 150, 151, 180,181, 194, 206)
Ergänzungsbericht XII [en alemán]
This document included translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1986 and May 1997, relating to nine substances or groups of substances (naphthalene, hexachlorobutadiene, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, chloracetic acid methyl ester, chloracetic acid ethyl ester, C10-C21-alkane sulfonic acids, phenyl esters, chloroalkane sulfonic acids, sodium salts, 3-methyl-2-butenal and surfactants) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Irritant effects and contact allergy in humans are reported respectively for methyl chloroacetate and ethyl chloroacetate.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 95p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.

CIS 08-769
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for xylene (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of xylene is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract; respiratory disorders; lung diseases; gastric disorders; visual function disorders; liver damage; renal damage; neurotoxic effects; heart diseases; teratogenic effects. IARC has determined that xylene is not classifiable with respect to its human carcinogenicity because of insufficient evidence (Update of CIS 97-235).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 330p. Illus. Approx. 750 ref. Index. [en inglés]

CIS 08-766
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for benzene (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of benzene is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects; bone marrow disorders (blood-cell anomalies); immunotoxic effects; mutagenic effects (chromosome changes); damage to the female reproductive system; carcinogenic effects (leukaemia). IARC has classified benzene in group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). (Update of CIS 99-1287).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 382p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Index. [en inglés]

CIS 08-647 Gaudin R., Marsan P., Baty G., Orivelle D.
Forestry and exposure to benzene - Survey findings
Bûcheronnage et exposition au benzène - Résultats d'une enquête [en francés]
Benzene is a chemical agent that is potentially responsible for increased risks of leukaemia among certain categories of workers exposed to engine fuels. This article describes a study aimed at evaluating the exposure to benzene among loggers and forestry workers, using a biological sampling method. A total of 55 volunteers were subjected to urine sampling before and after a day of work. They also answered a questionnaire on their work and several personal factors, including their smoking habits. It was found that exposures were very moderate, well within permissible levels. This was equally true for smokers, despite the strong effect of smoking on biological markers of benzene exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.89-93. Illus. 9 ref.$File/pr32.pdf [en francés]

CIS 07-1372 Fustinoni S., Mercadante R., Campo L., Scibetta L., Valla C., Consonni D., Foà V.
Comparación entre el o-cresol y el tolueno urinarios como marcadores biológicos de exposición al tolueno
Comparison between urinary o-cresol and toluene as biomarkers of toluene exposure [en inglés]
En este estudio caso-control, se han comparado el o-cresol (U-OC) y el tolueno (U-TOL) urinarios como marcadores biológicos de la exposición profesional al tolueno. El estudio se ha realizado sobre 100 trabajadores de impresión por retrograbado, de sexo masculino y con buena salud, así como en 161 controles de ambos sexos, no expuestos al tolueno. Se efectuó una determinación de la exposición al tolueno del ambiente (TOL-A) a lo largo de un turno de trabajo, como media ponderada en el tiempo. Para las determinaciones de U-OC y de U-TOL al final de la jornada laboral, se utilizaron métodos analíticos simples, basados en la micro-extracción en fase sólida, seguida de una cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los valores medianos de TOL-A fueron de 48mg/m3 entre los impresores y de 0,021mg/m3 entre los controles. El U-OC era de 0,185mg/g de creatinina en los impresores frente a los 0,027mg/g en los controles, y el U-TOL de 7,6µg/L en los impresores frente a 0,140µg/L en los controles. El U-TOL se ha revelado como un marcador biológico ligeramente más fiable para la exposición al tolueno que el U-OC
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2007, Vol.4, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 12-0032
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of July 2004: 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene can be absorbed orally, dermally and by inhalation. In the rat, the oral LD50 is about 200 mg/kg and the dermal LD50 84 mg/kg. In general, the symptoms after acute 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene uptake are staggering, spasms, tremor, accelerated respiration or breathing sounds. Oral administration of 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene also leads to the formation of methemoglobin and Heinz bodies, whereas dermal administration causes cyanosis. Investigations are lacking on the toxicity after repeated uptake. After an exposure period of 15 minutes, undiluted 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene does not irritate the skin. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is slightly irritating to the rabbit eye. Studies on the allergenic effect are not available. Considering the structural similarity to such substances as 3-chloro-2,4-difluoronitrobenzene, a sensitizing potential cannot be ruled out. Data are not available on the reproductive toxicity. Against the backdrop of the fertility-damaging effects of other nitro-aromatics, an effect on the reproductive capacity cannot be excluded. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is positive in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium. No other investigations are available on the in vitro or in vivo genotoxicity in mammalian cells or on the carcinogenic potential. However a carcinogenic potential cannot be ruled out, considering the similarity to other nitro-aromatics. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiv, 27p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_252_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
BUA_Report_252_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-254 Xileno
Chemical safety data sheet for xylene. The liquid and its vapours are flammable. Ingestion is harmful and can lead to death. Xylene is a central nervous system depressor. Inhalation results in nasal and pharyngeal mucous membrane irritation and at high concentrations, causes nausea, vomiting, migraine, tinnitus and severe respiratory disorders. Ingestion can cause irritation of the oral cavity and the stomach. Reflux of low amounts into the lungs can cause chemical pneumonia, with severe and possibly fatal lung damage. Contact with the skin causes degreasing and can often give rise to characteristic dermatitis. Xylene is absorbed through the skin. Eye contact causes irritation. Repeated exposure to vapours can cause reversible eye damage and haematopoietic effects. Chronic effects include migraine, tremors, nervousness, skin roughness and liver and renal damage.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2006]. 4p. Illus.

CIS 08-176 Falcy M., Reygagne A.
Derivados halogenados de hidrocarburos aromáticos. Cloronaftalenos
Dérivés halogénés d'hydrocarbures aromatiques. Chloronaphtalènes [en francés]
Este artículo revisa los datos físico-químicos y toxicológicos de un grupo de sustancias orgánicas que disponen de anillos aromáticos en los que uno o varios átomos de hidrógeno han sido sustituidos por un halógeno. Algunos cloronaftalenos se utilizan mucho en sectores industriales (síntesis química) y en la preparación de productos de uso corriente (pinturas, perfumes o desodorantes). Las características toxicológicas difieren según en compuesto, aunque suelen tener efectos irritantes y neurológicos. Se detallan los efectos sistémicos (hepatotoxicidad, porfiria, lesiones renales o hematológicas) para las sustancias más importantes. Finalmente, se describen, cuando se conocen, los efectos específicos (mutágenos, cancerígenos o reprotóxicos)
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.151, 20p. Illus. 156 ref.

CIS 07-1370 Chalbot M.C., Vei I., Lykoudis S., Kavouras I.G.
Partículas de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos y de n-alcanos en las operaciones de tratamiento de papel reciclado
Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations [en inglés]
Mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se han analizado las fracciones alifáticas y aromáticas policíclicas de polvos captados en la proximidad de operaciones de reciclado de papel. Las concentraciones de polvos totales medidas (de hasta 8,73mg/m3) diferían considerablemente de una a otra etapa del proceso de fabricación. Las partículas de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) (del fluoreno al benzo[g,h,i]perileno con concentraciones medias de 3,85 a 41,4ng/m3) y la mezcla de hidrocarburos insaturados ramificados y cíclicos se determinaron en todas las muestras, mientras que los n-alcanos de m-C220l al n-C27 solo se han encontrado en las zonas de corte y empaquetado (180,6 a 4297,9ng/m3). Las concentraciones totales de partículas, expresadas en equivalente de benzo[a]pireno, que variaron entre 323 a 1104pg/m3, demuestran que los trabajadores están expuestos a dosis elevadas de HAP que, a largo plazo, representan un riesgo para la salud
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.2, p.742-751. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 07-1130 Sińczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M., Aniołczyk H., Brzeźnicki S., Raźniewska G., Trzcinka-Ochocka M., Matczak W.
Efectos de una exposición combinada a factores químicos y físicos sobre el sistema nervioso, durante la producción de aluminio: resultados preliminares
Skutki zdrowotne w układzie nerwowym łącznego narażenia na czynniki chemiczne i fizyczne podczas produkcji aluminium: Doniesienie wstępne [en polonés]
Treinta y nueve trabajadores varones expuestos a polvos de aluminio, hidrocarburos policíclicos aromáticos y campos magnéticos, se sometieron a reconocimiento medico. Entre los síntomas clínicos del sistema nervioso central se evidenciaron, particularmente, dolor de cabeza (46,2%), mayor irritabilidad emocional (66,7%), problemas de concentración (25,6%), insomnio (30,8%), hipersomnia (15,4%) y emotividad (10,3%). Por el contrario, en los exámenes neurológicos objetivos no se encontró ninguna lesión orgánica del sistema nervioso central. En los trazados electroencefalográficos anómalos, las alteraciones más comunes eran los paroxismos
Medycyna pracy, 2006, Vol.57, No.1, p.7-13. 28 ref.

CIS 07-1127 Iavicoli I., Carelli G., Bergamaschi A.
Evaluación de la exposición a hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos en un aeropuerto italiano
Exposure evaluation to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an Italian airport [en inglés]
El objeto de este estudio era evaluar la exposición profesional a hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) en un aeropuerto italiano. En el invierno de 2005 se tomaron 12 muestras de aire, a una velocidad de captación de 120l/min durante 24 horas en tres zonas diferentes del aeropuerto. En todas las zonas examinadas, las concentraciones más elevadas correspondieron al naftaleno (130-13.050ng/m3), seguido del metil-2 naftaleno (64-28.500ng/m3), el metil-1 naftaleno (24-35.300ng/m3) y el bifenilo (24-1.610ng/m3). Sin embargo, en ciertos casos, las tasas observadas para dos HAP que tienen puntos de ebullición altos, el benzo[i+j+k] fluoroeteno y el benzo[a]pireno (respectivamente de 54,2ng/m3 y 8,6ng/m3) son preocupantes
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.815-822. 32 ref.

CIS 07-882 Colman R., Coleman A.
Alta absorción de benceno, por causa inesperada, entre trabajadores con subproductos de coque
Unexpected cause of raised benzene absorption in coke oven by-product workers [en inglés]
El control biológico urinario del benceno en trabajadores con subproductos de hornos de coque (mediante dosificación de los metabolitos del benceno) ha tenido un resultado inesperado: la tasa de acido S-fenil mercaptúrico estaba significativamente alta en dos de diez trabajadores. Sin embargo, los muestreos simultáneos del aire respirable no habían revelado ninguna exposición excesiva. Se investigaron las posibles causas de este hecho, tras excluir la inhalación como vía de absorción. Se sospechó que hubiera podido producirse una absorción percutánea debido a la contaminación de los monos de trabajo, por lo que se puso en práctica un plan para cambiar las ropas de trabajo con una frecuencia regular. Se comprobó que el cambio de los monos de trabajo cada cuatro turnos redujo el nivel de absorción hasta límites inferiores al equivalente a una dosis inhalada de 1ppm para todos los trabajadores. Se concluye que, entre los trabajadores en contacto con subproductos de hornos de coque, la absorción cutánea del benceno a causa de la contaminación de los monos de trabajo puede ser significativa, por lo que se hace necesario sustituir dichas prendas de forma regular y frecuente
Occupational Medicine, June 2006, Vol.56, No.4, p.269-271. 4 ref.

CIS 07-881 Wu M.T., et al.
Alteración del ADN del semen asociada a marcador biológico de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos en trabajadores de hornos de coque
Sperm DNA damage correlates with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomarker in coke-oven workers [en inglés]
La finalidad de este estudio era determinar si la exposición a hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) tenía efectos negativos, sobre los varones, en cuanto a la calidad del semen. El estudio se ha realizado sobre 48 trabajadores de hornos de coque verticales (FV) y 32 trabajadores de hornos de coque laterales (FL). Se determinó la exposición a HAP en el aire, las tasas de hidroxi-1 pireno (HO-1-P) urinario y diversos parámetros de calidad del semen. Se comentan los resultados. En los trabajadores expuestos a niveles altos de HAP existe un riesgo potencial de alteración del semen. El tabaquismo podría ser un factor agravante. El HO-1-P urinario se ha revelado como un marcador biológico útil para predecir una alteración espermática
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2006, Vol.79, No.5, p.349-356. Illus. 41 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 07-644 Skowroń J.
2-Metilnaftaleno: Documentación relativa a los valores máximos admisibles para exposiciones profesionales
2-Metylonaftalen: Dokumentacja dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [en polonés]
El 2-metilnaftaleno (2-MN) es una sustancia sólida, de color blanco, que se evapora rápidamente. Se utiliza con el 1-metilnaftaleno para la obtención de otros productos químicos tales como tintes, resinas, agentes de curtición del cuero e insecticidas. También es un componente de numerosos solventes comerciales de uso común. El 2-metilnaftaleno puede penetrar en el organismo por inhalación, por vía percutánea o por ingestión. Es un irritante ocular, cutáneo y de las mucosas. En los animales de laboratorio, el LOAEL (nivel más bajo sin efectos nocivos aparentes) se ha fijado en 87,5mg/Kg y, en los seres humanos, el límite de exposición máximo (MAC) en 25mg/m3. Por razón de sus efectos irritantes, el valor MAC-STEL (exposiciones máximas de corta duración) se ha establecido en 50mg/m3. Deben incluirse notaciones I (irritante) y Sk (absorción cutánea).
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2006, Vol.47, No.1, p.185-204. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 07-326 Mortalidad de los trabajadores de la industria del calzado: Actualización
Mortality of workers employed in shoe manufacturing: An update [en inglés]
Este estudio examina la mortalidad de una cohorte formada por 7.828 personas que trabajaron uno o más meses en una de las dos fábricas de calzado entre 1940 y 1979, y que fueron incluidos en el estudio de 1982 cuyos datos revelaron un aumento de la mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. En los posteriores años de seguimiento continuaba observándose un exceso de mortalidad por cáncer pulmonar (índice de mortalidad normalizado IMN=1,36). Los datos no indicaron una tendencia positiva entre el cáncer de pulmón y la duración del empleo. El análisis actualizado de los datos no indicó un aumento significativo de la mortalidad por leucemia. Los autores concluyen que puede existir una asociación entre el cáncer de pulmón y la exposición crónica a niveles bajos de tolueno.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.535-546. 60 ref.

CIS 07-373 Lawton B.W., Hoffmann J., Triebig G.
Ototoxicidad del estireno: Revisión de estudios
The ototoxicity of styrene: A review of occupational investigations [en inglés]
Se analizan siete estudios relativos a los efectos tóxicos del estireno en el ámbito profesional. Los factores evaluados incluyen las características de diseño de los estudios, la medición de la concentración de estireno en el aire, la confirmación de la exposición a estireno mediante analítica de sangre u orina, la determinación de los valores límite de audición y la medición del ruido en el lugar de trabajo. Los resultados obtenidos son divergentes. Cuatro de estos estudios no indicaron efecto alguno del estireno sobre los valores límite de audición. Por el contrario, los estudios restantes sostienen que los resultados obtenidos demuestran una pérdida auditiva inducida por estireno en poblaciones industriales, observándose una sinergia entre el estireno y el ruido. No obstante, estos informes muestras algunas lagunas por lo que respecta al diseño experimental y análisis de datos. Considerando los datos disponibles en su conjunto, no se ha podido demostrar de manera científicamente fiable la existencia de una pérdida auditiva producida por la exposición profesional a estireno en dosis bajas.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2006, Vol.79, No.2, p.93-102. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 07-160 Toppila E., Forsman P., Pyykkö I., Starck J., Tossavainen T., Uitti J., Oksa P.
Efectos del estireno sobre la estabilidad postural entre trabajadores de empresas de fabricación embarcaciones de plástico reforzado en Finlandia.
Effect of styrene on postural stability among reinforced plastic boat plant workers in Finland [en inglés]
Numerosas sustancias son tóxicos vestibulares que pueden alterar el equilibrio. El estireno es, simultaneamente, ototóxico y neurotóxico, si bien sus efectos sobre el equilibrio están poco estudiados. En este estudio se ha evaluado el efecto de la exposición a concentraciones débiles de estireno sobre el equilibrio entre trabajadores dedicados a la fabricación de embarcaciones de plástico reforzado, en Finlandia. Se procedió a determinar la estabilidad postural y la concentración urinaria de ácido mandélico en 252 trabajadores varones. La estabilidad postural se evaluó mediante registros en una plataforma de fuerza y registros fotográficos. En 148 trabajadores se realizaron determinaciones de las concentraciones de estireno en el aire respirable. Los resultados han demostrado que la estabilidad postural de los laminadores era peor que la del resto de compañeros. Estos problemas se habían observado ya en trabajadores jóvenes y se vio que tienden a agravarse con la edad.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.175-180. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 07-157 González-Yebra A.L., Kornhauser C., Wrobel K., Pérez-Luque E.L., Barbosa G.
Exposición profesional al tolueno y posible relación con el desarrollo de lesiones renales entre trabajadores del sector del calzado.
Occupational exposure to toluene and its possible causative role in renal damage development in shoe workers [en inglés]
Numerosos trabajadores del sector de fabricación de calzado en León, Méjico, están continuamente en contacto con pegamentos a base de tolueno. La finalidad del presente estudio caso-control, realizado sobre 50 trabajadores de una fabrica de zapatos expuestos al tolueno y 25 controles, era evaluar la relación entre dicha exposición profesional y posibles lesiones renales. Como indicador de la exposición al tolueno se ha utilizado la titulación en orina de o-cresol. La eliminación urinaria de albúmina y la actividad enzimatica de N-acetil-B--D-glucosaminidasa (NAG) se han utilizado como indicadores de disfunción renal. En los individuos expuestos se observaron tasas de o-cresol en orina superiores, mientras que la excreción de albúmina era similar entre los individuos expuestos y los del grupo de control. La actividad enzimática de NAG estaba más alta entre los trabajadores expuestos que entre los controles (3,5U/g de creatinina respecto de 1,9). Se pudo detectar una relación inversa entre el número de años de escolarización y la actividad enzimatica de la NAG en ambos grupos. Estas observaciones avalan la hipótesis según la cual el tolueno podría ser un factor de riesgo para la función renal entre los trabajadores del sector de fabricación de calzado expuestos a dicha sustancia.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.259-264. Illus. 27 ref.

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