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Heterocyclic compounds - 575 entradas encontradas

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  • Heterocyclic compounds

1985

CIS 86-1303 Mitomycin C
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits, physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1296 Nicotine
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-788 Ghosh S.K., Parikh J.R., Gokani V.N., Rao N.M., Doctor P.B.
Occupational health problems among tobacco processing workers: A preliminary study
Occupational health problems among 100 tobacco processing workers in India were investigated. 69 workers had symptoms including vomiting, giddiness, headache, etc. and showed an increased urinary excretion rate of nicotine and cotinine. Biochemical parameters were normal and electrocardiographic findings were non-specific; there was no clinical evidence of hypertension or ischaemic heart disease. Therefore, the symptoms of tobacco processing workers might possibly result from mild nicotine toxicity.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1985, Vol.40, No.6, p.318-321. 15 ref.

CIS 86-754 Foussereau J.
Allergic dermatitis due to mercaptobenzothiazole and its derivatives
L'eczéma allergique au mercaptobenzothiazole et à ses dérivés [en francés]
Mercaptobenzothiazole, used mostly as a rubber vulcanisation accelerator, is the agent responsible for rubber intolerance. It is also present in certain cutting oils and in antifreeze. Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical formulae; frequency of allergic response and occupational sectors in danger of exposure; allergological studies; preventive measures and compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Oct. 1985, No.24, p.13-16. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 86-696 Qian C., Lu M., Wang X., Zhao H., Dong Z., Gu X.
Epidemiologic study on the skin lesions of workers exposed to N,N'-methylene-bis-(2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole) and of children in the neighbourhood of the factory
The levels of N,N'-methylene-bis-(2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (MATDA) in the air of a bactericide production plant and in the neighbouring soil and river water were 0.1-0.8mg/m3, 6-2,650mg/kg and 0.5-2.0mg/kg, respectively. Of the 79 workers engaged in MATDA production, 44% suffered contact dermatitis and 72% showed skin pigmentation changes. All the exposed workers had experienced dermatitis at some time. Pigmentation changes were also observed in children of workers residing near the plant. Changes in the formulation of the product from a powder to an emulsion and recycling of process wastes reduced the dermatitis problems to a minimum.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.55-59. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 86-133 Henschler D.
Passive smoking in the workplace
Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Scientific background of the decision to include a new paragraph on "passive smoking" in the chapter on carcinogenic substances of the 1985 MAC list of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Commission for the Study of Harmful Industrial Substances analysed the conditions of exposure to tobacco smoke by the non-smoker, it reviewed the results of epidemiological research and it evaluated the results of research in man and in animals involving mutagenic and carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke. In conclusion, it is stated that tobacco smoke contains a mixture of substances harmful to the non-smoker in the workplace, that tobacco smoke is probably the harmful substance to which workers are most widely exposed and that tobacco smoke inhaled passively should be considered on the same basis as other harmful and carcinogenic substances or mixtures.
Senatskommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Kennedyallee 40, 5300 Bonn 2, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 34p. 95 ref.

CIS 85-1214 Milby T.H., Miller T.L., Forrester T.L.
PCB-containing transformer fires: decontamination guidelines based on health considerations
The most toxic combustion products generated from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) involved in electrical transformer fires are polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) isomers. Clean-up procedures based on experience, obtained from two such fires which occurred in the USA are discussed in the light of the carcinogenic potential of some of these compounds.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1985, Vol.27, No.5, p.351-356. 28 ref.

CIS 85-802 Kauppinen T., Lindroos L.
Chlorophenol exposure in sawmills
Personnel exposure to chlorophenol (CP) was measured in 10 Finnish sawmills where a chlorophenate salt formulation was used for the blue stain control of sawed wood. Average concentrations of CP in air were below the 0.5mg/m3 exposure limit. However, some workers had high CP levels in their urine, indicating a high skin adsorption rate from contact with the CP solutions. CP was also observed by breathing wood dust contaminated with the chemical. The risks associated with impurity contained in CP preparations (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and the need for epidemiologic studies on possible cancer risks in sawmill work are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.34-38. 17 ref.

1984

CIS 89-429
USSR Committee for UNEP
Morpholine
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation of the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts; is absorbed through the skin; neurotoxic effects.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 11p. 14 ref.

CIS 87-1426 Kauppinen T.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 54. Chlorophenols
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 54. Klorfenoler [en sueco]
The document contains a review and an evaluation of selected literature to be used for setting hygienic standards for the most widely used chlorophenols. Heavy exposure to chlorophenols, especially pentachlorophenol, can cause poisoning which is based on uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Chlorophenols and their salts are irritants. High doses of chlorophenols have been associated with liver damage, aplastic anaemia, and immunosuppressive effects, usually after exposure to technical chlorophenols containing e.g. chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans as impurities. However, both pure and technical penta- or tetrachlorophenol are foetotoxic to rats at low doses. Human data on foetotoxicity are lacking. The most severe hazard reported is the possible carcinogenicity of certain chlorophenols. Four Swedish case-referent studies show an association between chlorophenol exposure and soft tissue sarcomas, malignant lymphomas and cancer of the nose and nasopharynx. Thus, technical chlorophenols should be held as suspected human carcinogens, although the possible risk may be due to the chlorinated dioxin and furan impurities. Hygienic and biological limit values ought to be based on the irritant effects, foetotoxic effects, and possible carcinogenicity of chlorophenols.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 59p. Illus. 137 ref.

CIS 86-220 Endosulfan
The main hazard associated with this insecticide is acute intoxication through overexposure. It is classified by WHO as a moderately hazardous technical product. Endosulfan can be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. It is readily metabolised and excreted and does not accumulate in the body. On acute intoxication, neurological manifestations may occur; lung oedema and cyanosis may precede death in cases of massive intoxication. Other important aspects covered: identity, analytical methods and sources of exposure; distribution in the environment; toxicology; effects on man, animals and the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 62p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.8.00.

CIS 86-214 Paraquat and Diquat
In humans the minimum lethal dose for paraquat is about 35mg/kg of body weight and 6-12 grams for diquat bromide. Other important aspects covered: general properties; distribution in the environment; toxicology and metabolism in animals and man; recommendations in case of acute poisoning.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984, 181p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF16.00.

CIS 85-1946 Fingerhut M.A., Halperin W.E., Honchar P.A., Smith A.B., Groth D.H., Russell W.O.
An evaluation of reports of dioxin exposure and soft tissue sarcoma pathology among chemical workers in the United States
A review of employment records and tissue specimens of 7 workers reported previously as having been exposed to dioxin and having soft tissue sarcomas, confirms that 4 workers were employed from 2 to 19 years in the production of 2,4,5-T or trichlorophenol, products usually contaminated with dioxin. 2 of these workers had confirmed soft tissue sarcomas. 3 workers from another company involved in the production of 2,4,5-T had also confirmed soft tissue sarcomas; their records did not show specific assignments to the 2,4,5-T process area, but one individual worked for 10 days in the production of pentachlorophenol. The epidemiological aspects of the study are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1984, Vol.10, No.5, p.299-303. 17 ref.

CIS 85-1659 Kryžanovskaja N.A., Ermakova G.A., Ljuro S.D.
Biogenic amines and immunoglobulins in workers occupationally exposed to chemical and biological allergens
Biogennye aminy i immunoglobuliny u rabočih, podvergajuščihsja professional'nomu vozdejstviju allergenov himičeskoj i biologičeskoj prirody [en ruso]
Histamine, serotonin and immunoglobulins were measured in the blood of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate or feed protein. The workers were 20-40 years old, in good health, with 3-5 or more years of employment at their present jobs. Exposure to the allergens had no effect on biogenic amine levels. Exposure to toluene diisocyanate was correlated with reduced immunoglobulin levels, whereas exposure to protein was associated with elevated immunoglobulin levels, regardless of the sensitisation of individuals to either allergen. The shifts in immunoglobulin levels are probably adaptive; the elevated levels in the protein workers are probably more favourable to their health.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1984, No.4, p.26-29. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1606 Germanova A.L., Ajzvert L.G., Šidlovskaja L.N., Mel'nikova L.V., Bidevkina M.V., Domšlak M.G., Katosova L.D.
Comparative toxicity, hazardousness and biological action of 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine
Sravnitel'naja harakteristika toksičnosti, opasnosti i haraktera biologičeskogo dejstvija na organizm 4-okso-2,2,6,6-tetrametilpiperidina i 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetrametilpiperidina [en ruso]
The title compounds are starting materials for the synthesis of light stabilisers for polymers. In a standard battery of toxicological tests, both compounds were of low toxicity (intragastric LD50=1539 and 906mg/kg for rats for the oxo and amino compounds, respectively). Substituting the oxo group for the amino group had no effect on the toxicity or biological action of tetramethylpiperidine. A provisional exposure limit of 3mg/m3 for both compounds has been recommended and accepted.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1984, No.5, p.53-54.

CIS 85-1323 Garnier R., Bismuth C.
Paraquat
Paraquat [en francés]
This encyclopaedia article provides up-to-date information on paraquat, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. Aspects covered: uses; toxicity; toxicokinetics; mechanism of action; localised or general effects in the body; treatment; technical preventive measures applied before, during or after use; medical prevention. The role of the occupational physician is to prevent people with skin or respiratory problems from working with paraquat, to inform workers of the risks of working with the substance and to maintain a medical surveillance programme (involving a clinical examination and radio-immunological determination of paraquat in urine at least every six months).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1984, 8p. 90 ref.

CIS 85-1092 Wester R.C., Maibach H.I., Bucks D.A.W., Aufrere M.B.
In vivo percutaneous absorption of paraquat from hand, leg and forearm of humans
3 skin sites of application were used in a crossover manner for 6 subjects. Radiolabelled paraquat was used to measure the absorption. The percentages of applied dose (9µg/cm2) absorbed were 0.29±0.2 for the leg, 0.23±0.1 for the hand and 0.29±0.1 for the forearm. The in vivo absorption rate was 0.03µg/cm2 for a 24h exposure. Paraquat absorption through the intact skin seems to be minimal when compared to inhalation or ingestion.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.14, No.5-6, p.759-762. 10 ref.

CIS 85-170 Wood G.O.
Desorption of TEDA from impregnated respirator and adsorber charcoals
Evaluation of the feasibility to use charcoal impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) as a sorbent in respirator cartridges or high-volume air-cleaning adsorbers for trapping organic forms of radioiodine in air. Desorption rates of TEDA from impregnated charcoal samples (5% TEDA) were measured from 70 to 100°C. The highest rate extrapolated to 25°C was only 0.12mg/m3, well below the vapour pressure of TEDA (3500mg/m3) and the exposure limit for similar amines (4-40mg/m3). Effects of varying flowrate, bed depth, humidity and increasing the TEDA molecular weight were examined. TEDA-impregnated charcoal could be safe to use only at low temperature and air flow rates.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1984, Vol.45, No.9, p.622-625. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 84-1694 Martin J.V.
Lipid abnormalities in workers exposed to dioxin
A biochemical study of 95 workers with past exposure to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), of whom 41 had been diagnosed as having chloracne, and of 120 controls. There was significant increase in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the exposed group, and there was also higher excretion of D-glucaric acid. Protein-corrected calcium levels were significantly lower in the exposed group with chloracne. There were no significant changes in HDL cholesterol, gammaglutamyl transferase and bilirubin levels among the exposed group.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1984, Vol.41, No.2, p.254-256. 23p.

CIS 84-1599
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (France))
Aminotriazole
Aminotriazole [en francés]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, detection and determination methods in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicity in animals and in man (acute, subacute; chronic, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, metabolism). In the US, aminotriazole is classified with industrial substances suspected of causing cancer in man; the ACGIH recommends that worker exposure be rigorously maintained at levels that human and animal experiments have shown to be not dangerous. Regulations in effect in France for the protection of the workplace, for agricultural use, and French and international regulations for transportation. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1984, No.115, p.271-274. 23 ref.

CIS 84-729 Čirkova E.M.
United Nations Environment Programme
Pyridine
Data sheet in the form of a review of the Soviet literature on the toxicity and hazards of pyridine. Contents: physical properties; manufacture; pathways into the environment; concentrations in various places; environmental fate tests; bioconcentration, clearance, mammalian metabolites; mammalian toxicity; special toxicological studies (synergistic effects of cyanides, calcium, magnesium, etc.; irritation of the skin and mucosae); harmful effects on aquatic organisms; sampling and analysis; treatment of poisoning; water purification; recommendations (medical supervision of exposed workers, personal protection; maximum allowable workplace concentration: 5mg/m3).
Centre of International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 16p. 38 ref.

CIS 84-717 Hirst M., Tse S., Mills D.G., Levin L., White D.F.
Occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used anticancer drug that is rapidly metabolised to a number of mutagenic products. Urine samples from 2 nurses were analysed for CP by gas chromatography after they had prepared CP for patients. CP appeared in several urine samples, in amounts not related to the amounts of drug handled. To find out if CP might also be absorbed through the skin, urine samples from 5 volunteers were analysed after CP was applied to their skin. Variable quantities of CP were identified, but in most cases after a longer waiting period that in the case of the nurses.
Lancet, 28 Jan. 1984, No.8370., p.186-188. 10 ref.

CIS 84-414 Girard-Wallon C., Aubrun J.C.
Organic sulfur derivatives
Dérivés organiques du soufre [en francés]
This general review, divided into 6 sections on the basis of functional groups, covers thiols (mercaptans), thiahydrocarbons, sulfides, disulfides, episulfides, hydroxymercaptans and derivatives, sulfoxides, sulfones, sultones, sulfonates, sulfates, thioamides, thio amino acids, sulfamides, thiocarbamides, thiocarbamates, thiocyanates, thiazoles, thiazines, and thiohalogenated and thiophosphorylated compounds, indicating for each class its physical and chemical properties, industrial uses and toxicity. A final section covers preventive and protective measures: exposure limits where these are defined, determination of concentrations in the workplace, compensation in industry and agriculture, and diseases defined as occupational.
Encycolpédie médico-chirurgicale, 18, rue Seguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1983. Intoxications, 16058 U10, 10-1983, 16p. 35 ref.

1983

CIS 89-70 Endosulfan
Thiodan-tihenne [en finlandés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Insecticide. Exposure limit (8h): 0.1mg/kg. Toxicity: is absorbed through skin; long term exposure can cause renal and hepatic damage, and eczema. Mandatory European labelling: T, R10, R23, R24, R25, R36, R37, R38, S2, S13, S24, S25, S23, S38, S44.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1983. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 85-1976 Van Ketel W.G., Kisch L.S.
The problem of sensitizing capacity of some Grotans used as bacteriocides in cooling oils
This study was performed in connection with 4 cases of hand dermatitis in workers machining cast-iron workpieces. The skin disorders had started after some new bactericides (Grotan OX and TK) were added to the coolants. The 4 cases and the results of patch tests are described. Most references from the literature on skin disorders due to biocides in coolants are concerned with formaldehyde releasers like Grotan BK, but there is a remarkable confusion about their sensitising capacity. The continuous contact with wet workpieces and soluble oils used over longer periods is supposed to be an irritant factor, sensitisation by formaldehyde or Grotans being perhaps a secondary phenomenon. From a bacteriological viewpoint, zinc-EDTA seems to be a good non-sensitising biocide.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1983, Vol.31, No.4, p.118-121. 18 ref.

CIS 85-727 Coulston F., Pocchiari F.
Accidental exposure to dioxins: Human health aspects
The 18 papers presented at this international forum (4-7 Oct. 1981, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) are reproduced. Sections of occupational interest cover: health effects and metabolism of halogenated dioxins; mechanism of carcinogenicity and teratological aspects; health effects, epidemiology and the Seveso accident.
Academic Press Inc., 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1983. 294p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 85-469 Dalderup L.M., Zellenrath D.
Dioxin exposure: 20 year follow-up
Mortality data have been collected for a cohort of 141 men exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin as a result of an explosion in an Amsterdam factory in 1963. Within the group 69 exhibited unequivocal chloracne and 72 were without clear signs of chloracne. Of 25 who have died, 8 died from myocardial infarction and 7 of these had had chloracne. 4 belonged to a group of 16 contract cleaners with exposures to other chemicals and a relatively high alcohol consumption rate. 8 men have died from neoplasms which do not show an organ-related pattern and do not represent any excess mortality. Morbidity data are being collected on 35 of the cohort and data are being compared with those of a matched control group. No significant differences have been found but the study continues.
Lancet, 12 Nov. 1983, Vol.2, No.8359, p.1134-1135.

CIS 84-1997 Mirkova E., Antov G.
Experimental evaluation of the risk of prenatal pathology due to warfarin, a coumarin rodenticide
Eksperimentalna ocenka na riska ot prenatalna patologija pri văzdejstvie na kumarinovija rodenticid varfarin [en búlgaro]
The embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of the coumarin preparation warfarin, the active ingredient of the Bulgarian rodenticide formulation Raton, was studied in rats. The prenatal toxicity of the preparation (peroral administration) was determined at doses of 8-0,04mg/kg (LD50 oral for rats, 16mg/kg). Warfarin, at all levels studied, was embryotoxic and teratogenic. It increased the level of embryonal lethality, provoked a characteristic haemorrhagic syndrome in the foetus, induced structural malformations of the hind limbs, internal hydrocephalus and haemorrhages in the brain tissue and abdominal cavity. Measures are proposed for the protection of women working in the production of coumarin rodenticides.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, Mar. 1983, Vol.26, No.6, p.476-482. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 84-1394 Rycroft R.J.C.
Allergic contact dermatitis from a novel diamino intermediate, 5-((2-aminoethyl)thiomethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-furanmethanamine, in laboratory synthesis
Half of the 12 chemists working on the development of a new pharmaceutical product developed rashes as a result of exposure to the title compound. The case of one of these workers is described in detail. Patch testing showed that the final product was not allergenic. The unsubstituted amino group of the 2-aminoethyl moiety is apparently essential for the title compound's activity as a hapten. Although the chemists working with the compound wore rubber gloves, the occurrence of new cases of dermatitis was halted only by transfer of the synthesis to a pilot plant with a completely closed system.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.456-458. Illus.

CIS 84-1351 Ikeoka H., Hakai Y., Ohashi Y., Maruoka K., Nakata J., Masutani H., Horiguchi S., Teramoto K.
Experimental studies on the respiratory toxicity of short-term exposure to tetrahydrofuran - Its effects on the ciliary activity and the morphology of the tracheal mucous epithelium
The tracheal epithelium of rabbits was exposed for 4h to various concentrations of tetrahydrofuran. Ciliary activity declined after exposure, with full recovery within 1.5h from the end of exposure if exposure levels had not exceeded 1000ppm. After higher exposure levels, there was less than full recovery and there were noticeable permanent morphological changes in the tracheal mucous epithelium.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, Apr. 1983, No.19, p.113-119. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 84-1336 Bond G.G., Ott M.G., Brenner F.E., Cook R.R.
Medical and morbidity surveillance findings among employees potentially exposed to TCDD
204 men potentially exposed to TCDD and 61 men who had been involved in a chloracne incident in the area of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) production were compared with matched unexposed controls. There were few significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects. Workers potentially exposed to TCDD during manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid had a significantly higher incidence of ulcer and digestive diseases, but these were absent in TCP production workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.318-324. 15 ref.

CIS 84-1000 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, "dioxin")
In animals, TCDD causes tumorigenesis, immunological dysfunction and teratogenesis at a wide range of exposure concentrations, and evidence exists to suggest carcinogenicity. In humans, TCDD exposure has caused chloracne, metabolic disorders, e.g. porphyria, and other systemic problems. TCDD occurs as a contaminant of chlorophenols and chlorophenoxyacetic acids. TCDD should be regarded as a potential occupational carcinogen, and exposure should be controlled to the fullest extent feasible. Decontamination measures must be used for TCDD-contaminated workplaces.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 23 Jan. 1984. 22p. 88 ref.

CIS 84-807 Corsi G., Valentini F.
Acute hepatitis in subjects exposed to 2-acetylfuran and hydrazine
Epatite acuta in soggetti esposti a 2-acetilfurano e idrazina [en italiano]
5 cases of acute hepatitis occurring in a factory producing 2-acetylfuran are presented. The events leading to the acute poisoning episode and its subsequent course are described. All cases showed a very marked increase in aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, with inversion of the ratio between them. Clinical symptoms were nausea, vomiting, anorexia and asthenia. Laboratory changes were similar to those encountered in viral hepatitis, but a viral aetiology was excluded. Liver biopsies were not done. Determination of transaminases should be performed in the supervision of workers exposed to 2-acetylfuran and hydrazine.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1983, Vol.74, No.4, p.284-290. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 84-703 Rawls R.L.
Dioxin's human toxicity is most difficult problem
The known toxicological data, chemistry and biological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin are reviewed. The history and information about follow-up of 9 accidents resulting in occupational exposures, which occurred over a period of 27 years, are summarised.
Chemical and Engineering News, 6 June 1983, Vol.61, No.23, p.37-48. Illus.

CIS 84-470 Misumi J., Koyama W., Miura H.
Two cases of "green-tobacco sickness" in tobacco harvesters and absorption of nicotine through the skin in the rat
These are the first cases reported in Japan, occurring in both non-smokers and non-drinkers. Symptoms are dizziness, nausea and generalised weakness, and develop after exposure to wet raw tobacco leaves, probably as a result of absorption of nicotine through the skin. Studies in rats showed the minimum toxic dose of nicotine through the skin to be 21mg/kg body weight. The toxic dose in humans might be <1.96mg/kg body weight.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1983, Vol.25, No.1, p.3-9. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 84-127 Des Rosiers P.E.
Remedial measures for wastes containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs): destruction, containment or process modification
Destruction measures discussed are photolysis, microbiological techniques, incineration (land-based, at-sea), chemical methods (alkaline dehydrochlorination, catalytic reduction with iron chlorides, catalytic oxidation with ruthenium tetroxide, micellar catalysis with chloroiodides, chlorolysis), landfill. Alternative manufacturing processes for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol are discussed on account of the risk of reactor explosions.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.1, p.57-72. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 84-174 Bismuth C., Dally S., Pontal P.G., Garnier R., Diamant-Berger O., Elkouly M., Fournier P.E.
Prognostic factors and therapeutic results in paraquat poisoning
Facteurs pronostiques et résultats thérapeutiques de l'intoxication par le paraquat [en francés]
Analysis of 28 cases of acute paraquat poisoning, of which 17 were fatal. Aspects considered: prognostic factors (anamnesis, analytic and pathologic data); results of different methods of treatment (digestive, renal and extra-renal purgation); preventive measures. Conclusions: Fuller's earth (an antidote) must be immediately available for paraquat users; oxygen therapy during the transport of the poisoning victim should be forbidden; the best prevention is understanding of the product and its risks and of first-aid measures by farmers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.38-41.

CIS 83-1997 Okonek S., Weilemann L.S., Majdandzic J., Setyadharma H., Reinecke H.J., Baldamus C.A., Lohmann J., Bonzel K.E., Thon T.
Successful treatment of paraquat poisoning: Activated charcoal per os and continuous hemoperfusion
In the treatment of paraquat poisoning the first aim is to clear the gastrointestinal tract by inducing emesis and performing gastric/gut lavage; as much activated charcoal as possible should be administered per os as quickly as possible. Haemoperfusion with coated activated charcoal is the best way to eliminate paraquat from blood and tissue. This should be performed about 8 hours per day over a period of 2-3 weeks. These measures provide a means of reducing the lethality of paraquat poisoning.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1982-83, Vol.19, No.8, p.807-819. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 83-1029 Morel C., Reynier M., Falcy M., Protois J.C.
Paraquat
Paraquat [en francés]
Synonyms, use, physical and chemical properties, storage, methods for detection and determination in air, fire hazard, pathology and toxicology (experimental toxicology and toxicity to man - American TLV for average exposure to airborne respirable dust: 0.1mg/m3). French regulations concerning occupational hygiene and safety and protection of the neighbourhood. French and international regulations concerning transport.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1983, No.111, p.289-292. 20 ref.

CIS 83-713 Rappe C., Marklund S., Bergqvist P.A., Kjeller L.O.
PCB combustion yields dioxin-like substances
PCB-förbränning bildar dioxinliknande substanser [en sueco]
Attention is drawn to the fact that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) may be transformed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) - substances akin in structure to polychlorinated dioxins - by incomplete combustion. The presence of PCDF, and in particular of tetrachlorodibenzofuran, has been proved by wipe tests followed by gas chromatograhpy and mass spectrometry on certains sites of fire or explosion involving transformers or capacitors filled with PCB. Brief descriptions of capacitor-battery fires in Swedish steelworks and results of wipe-test analyses carried out after various fires. Blood monitoring for toxic isomers among the fire-fighting and decontamination personnel yielded negative results. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Kemisk tidskrift, 1983, Vol.95, No.1, p.40-43. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 83-709 Morel C., Reynier M., Falcy M., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Hexamethylenetetramine
Hexaméthylène tétramine [en francés]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (experimental toxicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity tests in animals; toxicity for humans: moderately irritant, chronic symptoms are of an allergic nature); information on French regulations concerning health and safety at work and on French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1983, No.110, p.129-132. 11 ref.

1982

CIS 88-74 Brucine
Brusiini [en finlandés]
Toxicity: LD50 = 1mg/kg. Very toxic if inhaled or ingested. Symptoms of poisoning are: nausea, vomiting, anxiety, convulsions. Mandatory European labelling: T, R26, R28, S1, S13, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 88-62 Atropine
Atropiini [en finlandés]
Atropine is a very toxic agent (LD50 = 622mg/kg), if ingested or inhaled. It paralyses the parasympathetic nervous system. Can sensitise the skin. Mandatory European labelling: T, R26, R28, S1, S25, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 88-45 Aconitine
Akonitiini [en finlandés]
Toxicity: LD50 = 295mg/kg. Skin absorbtion, inhalation and ingestion of the agent can cause serious intoxication. Irritates and corrodes the oral mucous membranes. Symptoms of intoxication are: gastric pain, disturbances of the CNS, convulsions, cardiac rhythm disturbances. Death can follow 8min. to 4 hours after ingestion. Mandatory European labelling: T, R26, R28, S1, S24, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 84-1316 Bellander T., Hagmar L.
Morpholine
Morfolin [en sueco]
Criteria document based on literature data. Morpholine is a cyclic secondary amine with corrosive and irritant action. It is readily taken up by the skin, and is excreted in the urine unchanged. High concentrations are required to produce effects in toxicological experiments. Morpholine is not mutagenic, but it is readily converted to the mutagenic N-nitrosomorpholine in the presence of nitrites in vitro and in vivo. Evaluation of morpholine exposure must thus take account of exposure to potential nitrosating agents such as nitrites or nitrous oxide.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 32p. 92 ref.

CIS 84-117 Larsen K.O., Hardt F., Sørup P., Kristiansen E., Larsen J.C., Lynge E., Hansen T.
Chlorophenols - Phenoxycarboxylic acids
Klorfenoler - Fenoxykarbonsyrer [en danés]
Literature surveys and the conclusions of a research group were used to produce this report. The group's work included animal and human experiments, dealing with absorption, excretion, acute and subacute toxicity, genetic and carcinogenic effects. Discussed were: chemical data; the toxicology of chlorophenols and of their impurities; the toxicity of phenoxycarboxylic acids and of their impurities; the production of these compounds; epidemiology of the cancers associated with phenoxycarboxylic acids (sarcomas, lymphomas, etc.); toxicologic and technical data on chlorophenols and chlorocresols; toxicologic data on phenoxycarboxylic acids and their impurities.
Arbejdstilsynet, Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet, Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Oct. 1982. 127p. Illus. 250 ref. Price: Dan.cr.25.00.

CIS 83-1959 Ohashi Y., Nakai Y., Harada H., Horiguchi S., Teramoto K., Katahira T.
Experimental studies on the mucosal membrane of respiratory tracts of rats exposed to tetrahydrofuran
Morphological changes and altered ciliary functions were observed after exposure to 100 and 5000ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF). The number of ciliary beats showed little or no decrease from control levels on exposure to THF at either concentration for 1 day. The number of beats decreased progressively for exposures of 1 week or more and the decrease was greater at the 5000ppm exposure level. Morphological changes in, and damage to, the tracheal mucosal epithelium followed a similar pattern.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1982, Vol.24, No.5, p.485-497. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 83-1016 Jovanović D.
p-Dioxin - A highly toxic contaminant of the environment
p-Dioksin kao visoko toksični kontaminant životne sredine [en serbocroata]
A review of the toxicology of dioxin, a by-product of herbicide (2,4,5-T) manufacture, and of cases of human exposure. Occupational risks of dioxin exposure include both massive, acute exposure, as in the explosion at Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and low-level chronic exposure in the course of manufacture and application of herbicides.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1982, Vol.33, No.4, p.343-351. 43 ref.

CIS 83-1007 Katahira T., Teramoto K., Horiguchi S.
Experimental studies on the toxicity of tetrahydrofuran administered to animals by repeated inhalation
Rats were exposed to 100, 200, 1000 or 5000ppm tetrahydrofuran for 4h/day for 12 weeks. 100 and 200ppm had no significant effects except for slight mucosal irritation. 1000ppm affected liver function as indicated by serum chemistry tests. 5000ppm caused marked local irritant symptoms and morphological damage of the respiratory mucosae, and affected white blood cell counts, blood sugar levels and liver functions.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1982, Vol.24, No.4, p.379-387. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 83-1006 Katahira T., Teramoto K., Horiguchi S.
Experimental studies on the acute toxicity of tetrahydrofuran in animals
20% tetrahydrofuran (THF) in various doses was given intraperitoneally and by inhalation to rats and mice. The intraperitoneal LD50 was 1,900-2,900mg/kg according to the solvent and animal used. LC50 was 21,000ppm when inhaled for 3h by rats. There were no significant effects of 100-200ppm THF for 3h in rats except for slight local irritant symptoms. Irritant and central nervous system symptoms occurred with inhalation of 5,000ppm THF.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1982, Vol.24, No.4, p.373-378. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 83-1076 Ashley W.M., Smith R.E., Dalvi R.R.
Hepatotoxicity of orally and intraperitoneally administered folpet in male rats
An intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD50 of 68mg/kg was determined in rats. 50mg/kg i.p. significantly altered the levels of enzymes reflecting liver damage, while up to 10 times this dose produced no such effects or toxic symptoms when given orally. In vitro studies with rat liver microsomes are reported.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May-June 1982, Vol.9, No.5-6, p.867-876. Illus. 15 ref.

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