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A critical view of the mechanism(s) of toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
From extensive studies on experimental animals some hypotheses have been developed on the mechanism by which TCDD causes toxic effects. These mechanisms are outlined. None of them provides an explanation for the observed inter-species differences. Evidence indicates that TCDD is a tumour promoter, not an initiator; 10pg/day TCDD are recommended as a safe lifetime exposure level for humans with regard to promotion of cancer, porphyria and chloracne.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1989, Vol.37, No.3, p.81-92. Illus. 86 ref.
Widström J., Friis L.
DEC and SCG basis for an occupational health standard - Tetrahydrofuran
Literature survey on tetrahydrofuran, to be used as background information for discussions on occupational exposure limits in the Netherlands and Sweden. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is often used as a solvent in adhesives and lacquers. The most probable route of occupational exposure is inhalation. Some results indicate that THF is metabolised by an induceable oxidative enzyme system. THF is irritant to mucous membranes and skin. Effects on the liver and kidneys have been found in a few cases and in animal experiments. THF has anaesthetic and possible epileptogenic properties and causes headache. The studies of THF teratogenicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity are negative. The critical effect of THF seems to be irritation of mucous membranes and skin.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 35p. 58 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans
This report concludes that for occupational and accidental exposures to PCDDs and PCDFs no clear-cut persistent systemic effects have been delineated except for chloracne. Other effects have been noted, but none have been persistent. In some epidemiological studies of people exposed to a mixture of dioxins, furans and other chemicals, an increased incidence of cancer has been claimed, but a number of factors limit confidence in the findings. Details are given of the sources of environmental pollution by these compounds, their effects on experimental animals and on human beings, and results of epidemiological and case studies following exposure.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Services, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 409p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 40.00.
Tanaka S., Abuku s., Imaizumi K., Ishizuka H., Seki Y., Imamiya S.
Efficiency of respirator canisters with methyl bromide
Two kinds of respirator canisters, an organic vapour (OV) canister containing activated carbon and a methyl bromide (MB) canister containing activated carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine were investigated for their ability to retain MB gas under various conditions of MB concentration, humidity and temperature. At lower MB concentrations, the breakthrough time of the OV canister was shorter than that of the MB canister and decreased with an increase in temperature, remaining unchanged for the MB canister. Examination of the desorption and the residual adsorption capacity for MB gas showed that more than 5ppm of MB gas leaked from 11 out of 18 used OV canisters, whereas less than 0.1ppm MB leaked out from each of the used MB canisters. The mean remaining breakthrough time of the used OV canisters was 9.3min. whereas that of the used MB canisters was 74.4min. It was shown that the gas masks with the OV canisters were not suitable for fumigating with MB gas.
Industrial Health, Dec. 1989, Vol.27, No.3, p.111-120. Illus. 13 ref.
Dreyfors J.M., Jones S.B., Sayed Y.
Hexamethylenetetramine: A review
This review covers the available literature on hexamethylenetetramine (hexamine) with emphasis on its toxicology and epidemiology, its thermal decomposition and regulatory concerns related to its uses. Hexamine has many diverse industrial applications, particularly in the foundry, tyre and rubber, and phenoformaldehyde resins industries. Excessive exposure to solid hexamine or its vapour has been reported to cause dermatitis and respiratory allergies. Pure hexamine has been used as a food preservative and as an internal antiseptic in humans and animals. A WHO study in 1972 listed a temporary acceptance level of 5mg/kg body weight as an acceptable daily intake for man. Most animal studies have shown hexamine to be of very low genetic risk. Many thermal decomposition studies were initiated because of concern over the potential emission of toxic substances when hexamine was subjected to very high temperatures. Studies show that hexamine decomposition can be characterised by an increase in HCN and a decrease in NH3 emissions with increasing temperature, with release of HCN beginning at about 300°C. It is known that hexamine can decompose to form formaldehyde under acidic conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1989, Vol.50, No.11, p.579-585. 51 ref.
Damage of a chlophen-containing transformer requires extensive clean-up and reveals weaknesses of safety system
Schadensfall an einem Clophen-Transformator erfordert aufwendige Sanierung und deckt Schwächen im Sicherheitssystem auf [en alemán]
A short-circuit led to overheating and pollutant release from a transformer in the switching station of a sports stadium when a circuit breaker failed. An alternative switching mechanism is described. Clean-up operations for removal of released tetrachloro-dibenzofuran included demolition of some walls and washing of more remote walls, doors and floors with a special agent.
Informationsforum Arbeitsschutz, 1989, No.17, p.1-8.
Toxicological profile for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of TCDD is identified and reviewed.
Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, 1989. 129p. Illus. Bibl.
Donna A., Crosignani P., Robutti F., Betta P.G., Bocca R., Mariani N., Ferrario F., Fissi R., Berrino F.
Triazine herbicides and ovarian epithelial neoplasms
The possible role of a class of herbicides, triazines, in ovarian carcinogenesis has been evaluated in a population-based case-referent study. Women previously exposed to triazines showed a significant relative risk of 2.7 for ovarian neoplasms. Although none of the doses could be quantified for the study subjects, 2 risk trends in favour of the plausibility of the association were found: the first by duration and the second by probability of exposure. The population representativity of the study and the comparability of information between the cases and referents suggest the lack of any major bias in the results. Triazine-related risk remained consistent when the analysis was restricted to farmers and when the exposure to other herbicides and to other types of cultivation were considered. Unexposed farmers had the same risk as unexposed non farmers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.47-53. 20 ref.
Dicloroisocianurato de sodio; dicloroisocianurato de potasio
Dichloroisocyanurate de sodium; dichloroisocyanurate de potassium [en francés]
Ficha toxicológica. Actualización de la ficha referenciada en CIS 87-128. Sinónimos: sal sódica de 1,3-dicloro-1-triozina-2,44,6-trione; sal potásica de 1,3-dicloro-1-triazina-2,4,6-triona. Toxicidad: irritación de ojos, de la piel húmeda y del tracto superior respiratorio; broncoespasmo. Número CEE y códigos de etiquetado obligatorios: nº613-030-00-x; Xn,O, R8, R22, R31, R36/37, S8, S26, S41. En CIS 02-1407 se analiza la colección completa de fichas toxicológicas en formato CD-ROM.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 8 ref.
Avakjan L.G., Babajan Ė.A., Egiazarjan A.R., Kafjan V.B., Markarjan K.L., Martiirosjan A.S., Nazaretjan R.A., Sar'jan A.V.
Toxicity of 3(5)-methylpyrazole, 1-carbamoyl-3(5)-methylpyrazole and its derivatives
Toksičnost' 3(5)-metilpirazola, 1-karbamoil-3(5)-metilpirazola i ego proizvodnyh [en ruso]
Contents: identity; physical and chemical properties; exposure limits (TSEL); toxicity; precautions. Three oligomers of hexylcarbamoyl methylpyrazole were not indexable: hexamethylenedicarbamoyl-N-bis (3-methylpyrazole), 1,3,5-methylpyrazolatocarbamoyl hexamethyleneisocyanurate and 1,3,5-tris(6-methylpyrazolacarbamoylhexamethylene-bis-uretidinedionohexyl) isocyanurate.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1988, No.9, p.51-52.
Paustovskaja V.V., Torbin V.F., Ohota I.N., Onikienko F.A., Morgunova Ja.I.
Dimorpholinephenylmethane and benzilidenecyclohexylamine toxicity
Toksičnost' dimorfolinfenilmetana i benzilidenciklogeksilamina [en ruso]
Contents: formulae; physical and chemical properties; uses; toxicity; precautions; photometric method of determination of the substances in air (detection limit: 5µg) TSEL for dimorpholinephenylmethane (aerosol) is 10mg/m3 for workplace air, TSEL for benzilidenecyclohexylamine (aerosol+vapour) is 10mg/m3 for workplace air. The skin and the eyes should be protected during work with these compounds.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1988, No.9, p.50-51.
Kostrodymov N.N., Lifljand L.M.
Hygienic significance of air pollution with tobacco dust
Gigieničeskoe značenie zagrjaznenija vozdušnoj sredy tabačnoj pyl'ju [en ruso]
This literature survey presents in concise form data on tobacco production at home and abroad, chemical composition of tobacco and health effects of tobacco dust on experimental animals and tobacco industry workers. Nicotine, pesticide residues and flavourants seem to be the main health hazards in the industry. Experimental data on animals are consistent with field observations on humans. Female tobacco workers often suffer late toxaemia of pregnancy, abnormal pregnancy interruptions and weakness in labour. Infants born to exposed mothers more frequently show signs of asphyxia and congenital anomalies at birth than those of control women. Tobacco workers suffer allergic disorders in the form of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, hepatitis and asthma. Occupational exposure to tobacco dust also affects the cardiovascular system (strong palpitation, heartache, dyspnoea). Arterial hypertension, hypotension, S-A bradycardia, tachycardia and arrhythmia have also been observed. The data call for further probing of the biological effects of tobacco dust, hygienic evaluations of tobacco manufacturing undertakings' environmental conditions and working out of measures for controlling atmospheric pollution by these undertakings.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1988, No.7, p.60-62. 39 ref.
How hazardous are accidents with polychlorinated biphenyls?
Wie gefährlich sind Clophen-Unfälle wirklich? [en alemán]
Structure and composition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used in transformers and capacitors are discussed. Thermal decomposition of PCBs during transformer fires leads to formation of harmful dioxins and furans between 500 and 800°C in the presence of oxygen. A table outlines safety measures to be taken at various stages of transformer damage.
Sicher ist Sicher, 1988, Vol.39, No.7/8, p.357-360. Illus.
Leung H.W., Murray F.J., Paustenbach D.J.
A proposed occupational exposure limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Wastes containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have been detected at many hazardous waste sites which in recent years have been in the processs of remediation. Concerns about worker exposure to TCDD-contaminated soil (dust) during remediation of hazardous waste sites have produced a need for an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for TCDD. The animal toxicology data and human experience with TCDD are reviewed, and an occupational exposure limit for TCDD is proposed. The data indicate than an 8-hr time-weighted average limit of 2ng/m3 is appropriate, and the associated risk would be consistent with other carcinogens at their corresponding OELs. A preliminary OEL of 0.2ng/m3 (200pg/m3) is recommended, however, in light of other sources of exposure because of TCDD's ubiquitousness in the environment, its unclear mechanism of action, and its rather long biological half-life in humans. This limit provides an ample margin of safety to prevent chloracne following repeated, acute exposure, and it addresses those chronic effects of TCDD observed in animal studies as well as those observed after accidental human exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1988, Vol.49, No.9, p.466-474. 74 ref.
Jennings A.M., Wild G., Ward J.D., Milford Ward A.
Immunological abornalities 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Eighteen workers were reviewed 17yrs after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin). Clinical assessment showed that they were in good health. A study of several biochemical and immunological parameters in these subjets and in 15 carefully matched controls showed no difference in serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes between the two groups. Antinuclear antibodies and immune complexes were detected significantly more frequently in the peripheral blood of workers exposed to dioxin. There was no significant difference in the number of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and helper and suppressor T cell counts in peripheral blood, but the number of natural killer cells identified by the monoclonal antibody Leu-7 was significantly higher in workers exposed to dioxin.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.45, No.10, p.701-704. 38 ref.
Dioxins and fire damage
Dioxine und Brandschäden [en alemán]
The substances known to form dioxins under the influence of heat (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls or phenols) and the conditions under which they give off dioxins are reviewed. The protection afforded by the acceptable daily intake for adults of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin of 1 to 10pg/kg body weight is discussed. High-powered vacuum cleaners with activated coal filters are considered efficient in removing dioxin-containing soot after fires.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, 1988, Vol.37, No.3, p.122-128. Illus. 19 ref.
Waernbaum G., Vahemann R.
Sampling and analysis of hexamethylenetetramine in air
Provtagning och analys av hexametylentetramin i luft [en sueco]
Report on a new method for the determination of the concentration of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in air. The detection limit was 0.1µg per sample. Air was sampled by passage through distilled water, and free formaldehyde was removed by thin layer chromatography. Samples were scraped from the thin-layer plates, extracted with water and treated with chromotropic acid. HMTA was finally determined by UV spectrophotometry. The stability of HMTA in water was found to be acceptable with a storage period of one week.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 12p. 3 ref.
Safety measures in odorisation plants
Sicherheitstechnik in Odorieranlagen [en alemán]
Tetrahydrothiophene (THT) is used for odorisation of natural and liquefied fuel gases. Described safety measures address the protective clothing to be worn when handling THT as well as the explosion and fire prevention measures (e.g. prohibition of smoking, warning signs, fire extinguishers, use of explosion-proof electrical equipment) for transport and storage of THT.
Betrifft Sicherheit, Informationen der Berufsgenossenschaft der Gas- und Wasserwerke, 1988, Special issue, p.8-10. Illus.
Pyy L., Sorsa M., Hakala E.
Ambient monitoring of cyclophosphamide in manufacture and hospitals
Cyclophosphamide (CP), one of the most commonly used cytostatic drugs, is a human carcinogen. In this study, CP was a model compound for the identification of potential exposure situations in the various phases of its manufacture and hospital use. Ambient air samples were taken in the various phases and analysed for CP. A low detection limit (0.05µg/m3 for a 1m3 sample volume) was obtained for CP by the mass spectrometric method developed for this study. The detection limit was 1µg/m3 with high performance liquid chromatography. The correlation between the 2 methods was good. The highest potential exposure situations were found during specific operations at the end of the manufacturing process. During these operations the airborne CP concentrations may rise as high as several hundred µg/m3, and the workers must use supplied air respirators, gloves and protective clothing. For the measurements in hospital use, air samples were taken from flow hoods. During normal working practices, no measurable amounts of CP could be observed. A filter from a flow hood, however, contained CP in measurable quantities, showing that occasional spilling may occur.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1988, Vol.49, No.6, p.314-317. Illus. 6 ref.
The ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in foods and medicinal herbs results in acute and chronic effects in man, affecting mainly the liver. PAs may be carcinogenic in man. PAs studied in this document: echimidine, heliotrine, indicine-N-oxide, jacobine, lasiocarpine, monocrotaline, petasitenine, retrorsine, senecionine, symphytine, trichodesmine and incanine.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. 345p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 34.00.
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): PEL (8h) = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; irritation of eyes and skin; dependence; cardiac arrhythimia; neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral systems).
Noticias de seguridad, 1988, Vol.50, No.12, 4p. insert.
Les pyralènes [en francés]
Contents of this information note: exposure to polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs); entry into the body and metabolism of PCBs; properties of impurities and pyrolysis products of PCBs (dioxins and furans); toxicity of dioxins and furans; regulations and exposure limits in France; technical and medical preventive measures.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1988, 2p. 6 ref.
Coumafène [en francés]
Ficha toxicológica. Actualización de la ficha referenciada en CIS 86-1030. Sinónimos: warfarina; 4-hidroxi-3-(3-oxo-1-fenilbutil) cumarina. Toxicidad aguda: hemorragias de aparición tardía. Toxicidad crónica: efectos en la síntesis de factores de coagulación con resultado de riesgos hemorrágicos; efectos teratógenos. Límites de exposición (Francia): TWA = 0,1 mg/m3. En CIS 02-1407 se analiza la colección completa de fichas toxicológicas en formato CD-ROM.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. 27 ref.
Hexaméthylène tétramine [en francés]
Ficha toxicológica. Actualización de la ficha referenciada en CIS 83-709. Sinónimo: metenamina, examina, HMTA, HMT. Toxicidad aguda: moderada irritación de piel y ojos; trastornos digestivos; hematuria. Toxicidad crónica: eczema; disnea asmática. En CIS 01-201 se analiza la colección completa de fichas toxicológicas en formato CD-ROM.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, Francia, ed.rev., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 3p. 11 ref.
4-(3-Phénylpropyl)pyridine [en francés]
Ficha toxicológica. Actualización de la ficha referenciada en CIS 81-446. Toxicidad: no se conocen casos de intoxicación humana. Los ensayos con animales han demostrado una acción moderadamente irritante para la piel y ligeramente irritante para los ojos. La colección completa de fichas toxicológicas en formato CD-ROM se analiza en CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, Francia, ed.rev., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 2p. 9 ref.
2,6-Diméthylpyridine [en francés]
Ficha toxicológica. Sinónimo: 2,6-lutidina. Toxicidad: mayor toxicidad que la piridina. Los ensayos con animales indican que la 2,6-dimetilpiridina debería considerarse como un moderado irritante para la piel, los ojos y las mucosas, y que podría tener efectos sobre el sistema nervioso (acción depresiva y narcótica) y provocar afecciones renales y hepáticas. La colección completa de fichas toxicológicas en formato CD-ROM se analiza en CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, Francia, CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 3p. 16 ref.
Pyridine [en francés]
Ficha internacional de seguridad química. Sinónimo: acina. Toxicidad: enfermedades y quemaduras cutáneas; alergias cutáneas; fotosensibilización; dolor de cabeza; vértigo; anorexia; náuseas; daño renal y hepático. Límite de exposición (Francia): TWA= 15 mg/m3 (5 ppm); valor máximo = 30 mg/m3 (10 ppm). Colección completa de fichas en CD-ROM analizada en CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, Francia, CD-ROM CD 613, mayo 2000. 4p. 19 ref.
Parikh J.R., Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H., Panchal G.M.
Blood histamine levels in cotton-dust exposed workers in a textile mill of Ahmedabad
Blood histamine levels were measured by the bioassay of histamine (on an isolated strip of guinea pig ileum) in workers exposed to cotton dust in a textile mill in Ahmedabad. Byssinotic subjects showed very high levels of blood histamine as compared to non-byssinotic and control subjects. The blood histamine levels were not well correlated to the dust concentrations or duration of exposure but rather to the day of the week (i.e. first, second, third, etc., after weekend break) on which the samples were collected. The blood histamine levels were high on the first day of the work week, when byssinotics complain most of their symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.4, p.439-443. 19 ref.
Manenko A.K., Kravec-Bekker A.K., Ivanova O.P., Sahnovskaja N.N., Drobjaz'ko V.P.
Comparative assessment of the toxicological characteristics of some derivatives of oxazolone (phosalone)
Sravnitel'naja ocenka toksičnosti i haraktera dejstvija na organizm nekotoryh proizvodnyh oksazolona (fozalona) [en ruso]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological characteristics of phosalone and its precursors showed a decrease in their toxicity in the following order: benzoxazolone, 6-chlorobenzoxazolone, chloromethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolone, hydroxy methyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolinone. A MAC was established for benzoxazolone (1mg/m3). A Tentative Safe Exposure Level of 2mg/m3 was established for 6-chlorobenzoxazolone and chloromethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolone. A MAC of 3mg/m3 was recommended for hydroxymethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolinone.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.36-38. Illus. 3 ref.
Kuz'minov B.P., Kokot V.R.
Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika metilovogo ėfira 2-benzimidazolil-karbaminovoj kisloty [en ruso]
In animal experiments, methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate (MBC) showed teratogenic and gonadotoxic effects. Its threshold of action was 33.9mg/m3. MBC is not absorbed by the skin. Its effects are strongly cumulative. The results of the studies permitted the establishment of a MAC for MBC in workplace air (0.1mg/m3) on the basis of its gonadotoxic action.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1987, No.3, p.58-60. Illus. 24 ref.
Dire D.J., Wilkinson J.A.
Acute exposure to rhodamine B
First report of the effects of inhalation of rhodamine B, a red dye used in cosmetics and as a leak detector for motor fuel. 17 patients were exposed to aerosolised rhodamine B in a maintenance shop. The mean duration of exposure was 26min. 16 of the patients complained of acute symptoms: burning of the eyes, excessive tearing, nasal burning, nasal itching, pain or tightness in the chest, runny nose, cough, dyspnoea, burning of the throat, itch or burning of the skin, chest burning, headache and nausea (in decreasing order of frequency). The symptoms of all the patients resolved within 24h (in less than 4h in 63% of the cases). There was no evidence of serious sequelae.
Clinical Toxicology, 1987, Vol.25, No.7, p.603-607. 3 ref.
Boeniger M.F., Choudhary G., Foley G.D.
Determination of airborne triethylenediamine and 2,2'-oxybis (N,N-dimethyl)ethylamine in the workplace
Sample pairs of air in polyurethane foam manufacturing facilities were collected by using a Thermosorb/A tube and also an acid-filled impinger. Amounts of the amines were determined by gas chromatography. No nitrogen-containing compounds were found using the Thermosorb/A samplers, but the acid impinger produced detectable results. The impinger can be used as a complement to other methods; this method was not validated.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Nov. 1987, Vol.2, No.6, p.218-221. 19 ref.
Ott G.M., Olson R.A., Cook R.R., Bond G.G.
Cohort mortality study of chemical workers with potential exposure to the higher chlorinated dioxins
This cohort study evaluated mortality patterns (1940 through 1982) of 2,192 chemical workers who, having engaged in the manufacture of products containing higher chlorinated phenols and their derivatives, had potential occupational exposures to chlorinated dioxins. Relative to the US white male mortality experience, there were no statistically significant deviations from the expected for the following categories: all causes; total malignant neoplasms; specific malignancies of particular interest (stomach cancer, liver cancer, connective and other soft-tissue cancer, the lymphomas, nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer). For the cirrhosis of the liver category, internal comparisons demonstrated increasing trends associated with duration of employment in the chlorophenol production and finishing areas, but available evidence suggests that this finding was related to alcohol abuse. The study does not support a causal association between chronic human disease as measured by mortality and exposures to the higher chlorinated phenols, derivative products, or their unwanted contaminants, the chlorinated dioxins.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1987, Vol.29, No.5, p.422-429. 34 ref.
Lisi P., Caraffini S., Assalve D.
Irritation and sensitization potential of pesticides
A pesticide series of 36 substances was patch tested in 652 subjects to establish the optimal test concentration and the frequency of irritant and allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to fungicides were found in 46 thiophthalimides (captan, folpet and difolatan) were the most common. Irritant and allergic reactions to other pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, etc.) were rare. Sensitivity to pesticides was significant in patients who work, or have worked, on the land. Cross sensitivity to bis-dithiocarbamates or thiophthalimides is possible.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1987, Vol.17, No.4, p.212-218. 25 ref.
Dally S., Thomas G.
Phenyoxyacetic acid herbicides and human cancer
Herbicides dérivés de l'acide phénoxyacétique et cancers humains [en francés]
This note reviews the information presently available on these products: case-control studies of soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkins lymphomas; cohort studies of subjects occupationally exposed to phenoxy herbicides, workers in phenoxy herbicide production, persons accidentally exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and farmers (mortality in different groups); animal experiments with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). It remains difficult to evaluate the hazards presented by these products.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1987, No.29, p.3-7. 46 ref.
Valsecchi R., Cassina P., Cainelli T.
Contact toxic epidermal necrolysis
Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening disorder in which epidermal necrolysis results in extensive shedding of the skin, producing the appearance of scalding. This note describes 2 cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis due to contact with the third intermediate in the manufacture of the antihelminthic drug tetramisole. The compound is a 1,2-disubstituted thiazole.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1987, Vol.16, No.5, p.277. 4 ref.
Solving hazardous waste problems: learning from dioxins
The topics of the 31 papers in this symposium (13-18 Apr. 1986, New York, USA) included: perspectives on hazardous wwaste problems related to dioxins; global distribution of dioxins and dibenzofurans; national study in the USA; animal toxicity studies and recommendations for humans; effects of dioxins; risk assessment of exposure (environmental chemistry, destruction, physical constants, mobility, bioavailability from contaminated soils); risk evaluation (epidemiology, human breast milk levels, uncertainties in risk assessment, potential human health hazards); risk management: social factors (in Missouri, in the Federal Republic of Germany, in military sites); risk management: technology (mapping of contamination, analytical support, air monitoring, surface cleaning, removal from waste water, pyrolysis, photochemical methods, radiofrequency heating, biodegradation, chemical degradation).
American Chemical Society, Book and Journals Division, 1155 16th Street, N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, USA, 1987. 397p. Illus. Bibl. Indexes. Price: USD 95.95.
Contact sensitivity to lichens and compositae in Frullania dermatitis
Forty-eight patients with allergic contact dermatitis from Frullania were patch tested with a lichen mix, compositae (flowering plants) and lichen acids. Twenty-seven were senstitive to Frullania and lichens. Parmelia caperata and Parmelia reticulata were positive in all, and in a descending order of positivity, Pseudovernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, Usnea spp, Ramalina lusitanica d-Usnic and evernic acids and atranorin were the main responsible allergens.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1987, Vol.16, No.2, p.84-86. 13 ref.
Risk of isothiazolinones
Two case studies of workers accidentally exposed to concentrated biocides containing isothiazolinones used as biocides in water cooling towers or air conditioing plants. Skin irritation was the main effect of the exposure.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1987, Vol.37, No.1, p.30-31. Illus. 4 ref.
Krimidiini [en finlandés]
Irritates skin and mucous membranes. Ingestion leads to strong spasms, nausea, thirst and diarrhoea. Not cumulative. Used in rat poison. Mandatory European labelling: XN, R22, S2, S13, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Feb. 1987. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Cain W.S., Leaderer B.P., Cannon L., Tosun T., Ismail H.
Odorization of inert gas for occupational safety: Psychophysical considerations
This study, performed under conditions of directed attention, examined pyridine and cis-3-hexen-1-ol for possible odorisation of argon. Detection thresholds for pyridine and cis-3-hexen-1-ol in argon were 106ppb and 19ppb, respectively. Practice over 4 days yielded modest improvement in the detection of both odorants. For cis-3-hexen-1-ol, smokers had marginally lower thresholds than non-smokers and older participants had slightly higher thresholds than younger participants. Sex, smoking status and age had no reliable influence on threshold for pyridine. This indicated desirable perceptual stability for pyridine. Supra-threshold measurements also gave strong relative endorsement to pyridine. Calculations indicated that 3-10ppm (vol/vol) pyridine should suffice to warn of an argon build-up of any severity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1987, Vol.48, No.1, p.47-55. Illus. 15 ref.
Wang J.D., Li W.E., Hu F.C., Hu K.H.
Occupational risk and the development of premalignant skin lesions among paraquat manufacturers
The prevalence rate and possible aetiological factors of the lesions were studied. A total of 228 workers in 28 factories were interviewed and examined. Sixty-nine cases of hyperpigmented macules and 17 of hyperkeratosis were found; Bowenoid changes were noted in biopsies of the latter lesions. Of the workers who had ever been in bipyridine centrifugation, crystallisation, or packaging and/or administration, 80%, 67%, and 3% developed lesions, respectively. There was a significant trend for workers to develop hyperpigmented macules and hyperkeratosis the longer they had been exposed to centrifugation or crystallisation, or both, independent of age and the duration of exposure to sunlight. Sunlight seems to be a necessary cofactor. The aetiological agent may be produced during the high-temperature sodium process of bipyridine synthesis, and may be bipyridine isomer(s).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.44, No.3, p.196-200. Illus. 11 ref.
Pis'ko G.T., Tovstenko A.I., Gupalo Ju. M., Beljanina T.V.
Toxicological characteristics and hygienic regulation of sodium 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinate in workplace air
Toksikologičeskie svojstva i gigieničeskaja reglamentacija natrievoj soli 4-amino-3,5,6-trihlorpikolinovoj kisloty v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
On intragastric administration of the title compound (SATCHPA), the LD50 for rats was 4000mg/kg, for mice 1350mg/kg (hazard class 3). It shows slight cumulative effects (accumulation coefficient >5), not produce irritant or resorptive effects and is not an allergen. Concentrations of 107.5, 24.2 and 3.5mg/m3 were studied in chronic experiments: 24.2mg/m3 was close to the threshold limit and 3.5mg/m3 was inactive. Recommended MAC of SATCHPA aerosol in the workplace air: 5mg/m3. SATCHPA is an intermediate in the manufacture of the herbicide picloram.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1986, No.9, p.43-44. 10 ref.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC); USSR State Committee for Science and Technology (GKNT); USSR Commission for UNEP
Chemical safety information sheet. Rodenticide. Exposure limit: MAC=0.01mg/m3. Toxicity: blood coagulation disorders; irritation and sensitisation of mucous membranes. Warfarin is absorbed through the skin.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1986. 11p. 24 ref.
Blood nicotine levels and lung function tests as a function of smoking habits among office workers in Ankara
Ankara'da çeşitli kurumlarda çalişanlarin sigara içme durumuna göre kan nikotin seviyeleri ve akciğer fonksiyon testleri [en turco]
This survey (with an inserted English-language summary) of 322 office workers (71 smokers) showed that while blood nicotine levels were correlated with individual smoking history and/or passive exposure to tobacco smoke, there was no relationship between the results of lung function measurements on one hand and smoking habits or history and blood nicotine levels on the other, except when blood nitotine levels were very high (>1.5mg/kg). The latter finding does not agree with findings elsewhere, possibly because of the high incidence of respiratory infection and the high levels of air pollution in Ankara at the time of the survey.
İSGÜM, PK: 393 Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey, 1986. 24p. Illus.
Rapoport Ž. Ž., Šestovickij V.A., Rogovaja D.F., Rubanovič V.M.
State of the adrenoceptor system of patients with platinosis
Sostojanie adrenoreceptornyh sistem u bol'nyh platinozom [en ruso]
Dose pharmacologic tests with selective adrenomimetics were used to estimate the extent of imbalance of the adrenergic systems of 80 patients with platinosis. An imbalance of the adrenergic system was observed in patients with platinum-induced bronchial asthma: α-adrenoceptor activity grows and β2-adrenoceptor activity declines as the disease progresses. Combined administration of histaglobin and intal reduced the degree of adrenergic imbalance. The method indicated can be used both to estimate the degree of platinosis and as a measure of the efficacy of treatment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1986, No.6, p.8-12. 8 ref.
Hirose T., Hikosaka N.
Health hazard of paraquat sprayers (2nd Report) - Mass survey of paraquat sprayers
Parakōto sampu sagyōsha no kenkō shōgai (dai 2 hō) - sampu sagyōsha no ekigaku chōsa [en japonés]
The subjects of this study were non-smoking female farmers, aged 40-59 years, who were selected at random from women's sections of agricultural co-operatives. The investigation included pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas analysis, blood and urine tests, X-ray examinations, and interviews about health and the conditions under which agricultural chemicals are used. Paraquat is still used in large quantities, but there are a lot of farmers who do not know very well how to dilute Paraquat and use protection against agricultural chemicals. Values of maximum expiratory flow at 25% vital capacity were lower for the paraquat sprayers than for the subjects who had not been exposed to paraquat.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, Nov. 1986, Vol.35, No.4, p.803-809. Illus. 8 ref.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Some naturally occurring and synthetic food components, furocoumarins and ultraviolet radiation
These monographs cover the occurrence or production, use, physical and chemical properties, biological data relevant to carcinogenic risk, data summary and references for the substances. Included are: naturally occurring toxins (bracken fern, citrinin, patulin, rugulosin); food additives (benzyl acetate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, potassium bromate); amino acid pyrolysis products in food (imidazoles, indoles, quinolines, quinoxalines); furocoumarins (angelicins, psoralens); ultraviolet radiation.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1986. Vol.40, 444p. Illus. Bibl. Appendix. Index. Price: SF.65.00.
Pedrosa R.C., Midio A.F.
Toxilogical aspects of human exposure to Paraquat
Aspectos toxicológicos da exposição humana ao Paraquat [en portugués]
Literature survey. Contents: chemical structure, chemical and physical properties, principal preparation methods, paths of entry into the organism, toxico-kinetics, pathological and biochemical changes due to this herbicide, mechanism of toxic action, clinical manifestations of poisoning, treatment, dangerous interactions, LD50 values in various experimental animals, maximum residue concentrations allowed in different food-stuffs by Brazilian law.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1986, Vol.14, No.53, p.33-41. Illus. 80 ref.
Rebandel P., Rudzki E.
Dermatitis from quinazoline oxide
Dermatitis from 2-chloromethyl-4-phenyl-6-chloroquinazoline-3-oxide ("quinazoline oxide") an intermediate product in the preparation of chlorodiazepoxide, is described in 29 workers at a pharmaceutical plant. All were patch-test positive to quinazoline oxide (1%) and six to 0.5%. In most patients, the face was earlier and more severely involved than the hands. Some were sensitised even if they did not have much contact with it, doing such work as washing the clothing of other workers, or working at a distance of 100m from the production line building.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1986, Vol.15, No.2, p.63-65. 1 ref.
Chemical safety information sheet. Very flammable. Risk of explosion of vapour/air mixtures is very high. The main effect of exposure is irritation of the eyes, skin and the upper respiratory tract. Exposure limits: ACGIH (USA, 1986) TWA limit = 590mg/m3; FRG, MAK = 590mg/m3; USSR, MAC = 100mg/m3.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna, No.73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 7p. Bibl.
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