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  • Heterocyclic compounds

1975

CIS 76-766 Endosulfan.
Endosulfan. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and unintended effects on crops and livestock; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, mixers and applicators, personal protective equipment); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.15, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 12p. 7 ref.

CIS 76-444 Beutner W.
Safety measures to be taken in the construction and operation of natural gas odorising plant
Mesures de sécurité à prendre pour la construction et l'exploitation des installations d'odorisation du gaz naturel. [en francés]
Translation of: Sicherheitsmassnahmen bei Errichtung und Betrieb von Erdgas-Odorierungsanlagen. Heft 17, Moderne Unfallverhütung, Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973, p.71-74. 5 ref. Tetrahydrothiophene and ethyl mercaptan are readily flammable organic odorisers which present solvent properties. They have an irritant action on the skin, they are toxic, and they contain up to 0.1% benzene by volume. Main characteristics of these products relating to safety; general safety measures; fire and explosion protection; toxicity and protective measures. Natural gas with the addition of an odorising agent is dangerous on account of its asphyxiant effects, and not on account of the presence of such products. The hazards associated with the handling of the latter should not however be underrated.
Traduction INRS 44 B-75, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1975. 12p. 5 ref.

CIS 75-1669 Feetam C.L., Leach R.H., Meynell M.J.
Lack of a clinically important interaction between warfarin and ascorbic acid.
The effect of high doses of ascorbic acid on anticoagulant control with warfarin sodium was investigated in 19 patient volunteers (11 men, 8 women, aged 40-82 years, average 61 years). Total plasma warfarin concentrations and prothrombin times were measured before, during, and after 7-day periods, when doses of 3, 5, and 10g ascorbic acid were taken daily with warfarin sodium. No clinically significant antagonism of the hypoprothrombinaemic action of warfarin occurs even when the doses of ascorbic acid taken concurrently are very high, although a fall in total plasma warfarin (2-40%, mean 17.5%) was observed.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Mar. 1975, Vol.31, No.3, p.544-547. 8 ref.

CIS 75-1069 Beatty P.W., Lembach K.J., Holscher M.A., Neal R.A.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on mammalian cells in tissue cultures.
A study was made of this substance, a contaminant of the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5 T), to ascertain whether its toxic effect in mammals is due to inhibition of mitosis. In contrast with the results using plant endosperm cells, statistical analysis of growth rates and morphological studies using electron microscopy revealed no significant difference in growth patterns and no ultrastructural changes in the control or TCDD-treated cell lines studied.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb.1975, Vol.131, No.2, p.309-312. 4 ref.

CIS 75-1103 Tane S., Muromoto M., Eiko K., Ushigome S.
Ocular injury by paraquat (herbicide) - Report of a case
Kyoroyoku-setsushyoku-gata joso-zai Paraquat no tobiiri ni yoru me-shyogai no chiryo-rei [en japonés]
Report of a case of eye injury in a 66-year-old man due to accidental splashing of a herbicide solution containing 24% paraquat. The lesions produced were chemosis, corneal erosion and extensive formation of a conjunctival pseudomembrane. These corneal and conjunctival lesions persisted for about 16 weeks. Since the solution was almost neutral (pH 6.7), the mechanism of this harmful effect is somewhat unclear. Histological examination showed the conjunctiva to be composed of a totally eroded and partly ulcerated epithelial layer and subepithelial tissue with marked oedema and inflammatory cell reaction predominantly of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Foci of dense lymphoid infiltration were prominent. The surface was covered by a thick fibrin and inflammatory exudate. Blood capillaries were proliferated and dilated. The inflammation appeared to be of toxic and/or possibly of allergic origin.
St. Marianna Medical Journal, Sep. 1974, Vol.2, No.3, p.274-278. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 75-806 Gehlbach S.H., Perry L.D., Williams W.A., Freeman J.I., Langone J.J., Peta L.V., Van Vunakis H.
Nicotine absorption by workers harvesting green tobacco.
The authors monitored urinary cotinine (the major metabolite of nicotine) in 43 workers at 4 tobacco farms in North Carolina (USA). None of the workers smoked or chewed tobacco. They further collected samples of dew (nicotine content found: 33-84µg/ml) and of the moisture from the wet shirts of 2 pickers (58-98µg/ml). Green-tobacco sickness (symptoms include nausea, vomiting, dizziness and prostration) occurred in 3 pickers during the study. The mean urinary cotinine level in pickers was 89µg/100mg creatinine, compared with 22.5µg for stringers (who tie the tobacco leaves on poles in the barn for curing), 11.4µg for tractor drivers and 3.5µg for non-exposed controls. Pickers are the occupational group most susceptible to tobacco sickness, being contaminated by the dew on green tobacco leaves, which dissolves nicotine. Stringers and tractor drivers are less exposed, while absorption is less in pickers who wear protective raincoats.
Lancet, 1 Mar. 1975, Vol.1, No.7905, p.478-480. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 75-737 Oliver R.M.
Toxic effects of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo 1,4 dioxin in laboratory workers.
An account of the effects of transient minimal exposure of 3 young scientists to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-1,4-dioxin (dioxin). 2 developed chloracne about 8 weeks after exposure; 2 manifested delayed symptoms including personality changes and hirsutism 2 years after exposure. All had raised serum cholesterol but no other biochemical disturbance. Neither porphyrinuria nor liver damage was demonstrated. The evidence suggests that dioxin is a highly toxic chemical, that intoxication may occur in the absence of abnormal liver function tests, urinary prophyrins or chloracne and that there may be profound long-term effects.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1975, Vol.32, No.1, p49-53. 18 ref.

1974

CIS 75-1923 Desoille H., Truffert L., Philbert M., Girard-Wallon C., Ripault J.
Experimental study of synergy in the simultaneous use of piperonyl butoxide and aliphatic chlorofluorohydrocarbons - 1. Piperonyl butoxide, trichlorotrifluoroethane (F 113)
Etude expérimentale de la synergie lors de l'utilisation simultanée du pipéronylbutoxyde et de certains hydrocarbures aliphatiques chlorofluorés - 1. Pipéronylbutoxyde, trichlorotrifluoroéthane (F 113). [en francés]
As a sequel to experimental work in the USA on the toxicity of aliphatic chlorofluorohydrocarbons in association with piperonyl butoxide, a pyrethrum synergist, the authors carried out 4 series of experiments in rats and mice to determine any shift in LD50, in sensitivity to trichlorotrifluorethane, or in carcinogenicity. The results obtained (weight charts, haematology, anatomical pathology) did not reveal any increased cellular toxicity or delayed carcinogenic action due to the simultaneous use of trichlorotrifluoroethane together with piperonyl butoxide. In these experiments the practical conditions in which the substances are used were borne in mind, and the authors stress the complexity of the real composition of commercial piperonyl butoxide and possible alterations it may undergo.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1975, Vol.36, No.1-2, p.5-18. Illus.

CIS 75-1617 Smith L.L., Wright A., Wyatt I., Rose M.S.
Effective treatment for paraquat poisoning in rats and its relevance to treatment of paraquat poisoning in man.
The relationships between gastrointestinal paraquat content and plasma and lung concentrations after oral administration of paraquat were studied in rats. On the basis of the findings a treatment was devised to prevent absorption of paraquat from the gut into the plasma and its accumulation in the lung. It consists of a stomach wash followed by 4 administrations of bentonite and purgatives. The relevance of this treatment to paraquat poisoning in man is discussed in view of the finding that slices of human lung accumulate paraquat in the same way as those of rat lung.
British Medical Journal, 7 Dec. 1974, p.569-571. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 75-1059 Bahrmann E., Paun D.
Scientific proof of the harmful effects of active and passive inhalation of tobacco smoke
Zur wissenschaftlichen Begründung des Tabakschadens durch aktives und passives Zigarettenrauchen [en alemán]
Analysis of medical statistics proves beyond doubt the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. This article examines the toxicological aspects and allergic and psychic factors involved in the action of tobacco smoke. In passive inhalation of other people's cigarette smoke the effects are potentiated by allergy to any one of the various tobacco-smoke constituents. A chapter is devoted to the damage caused by tobacco smoking, considered from the occupational health point of view, with special reference to the standards laid down in the German Democratic Republic for maintaining fresh air conditions in the workplace. Medical and legal grounds for prohibiting cigarette smoking during working hours.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, Oct. 1974, Vol.29, No.43, p.2017-2022. 16 ref.

CIS 75-767 Roujeau J., Noguès C., Leclerc J.P.
Paraquat poisoning - anatomical, clinical and experimental study
Intoxication par le paraquat - Etude anatomo-clinique et expérimentale. [en francés]
This article recalls the clinical aspects of paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) poisoning, referring to 2 observed cases in which the ultrastructure of the lung tissue was studied. The authors describe an experimental study, in which paraquat was administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection, enabling the authors to detect initial lesions which cannot be observed in man: interstitial oedema associated with endothelial and epithelial cell changes in the alveolar lining preceding the sclerogenous development. The authors discuss the mode of action of paraquat, particularly on the pulmonary surfactant, referring to the particular characteristics of the pulmonary ultrastructure observed by them.
Revue française des maladies respiratoires, 1974, Vol.2, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 75-618 Bruce M.I.
Borane-tetrahydrofuran.
The author of this letter to the editor reports the spontaneous explosion of a glass bottle containing 900g of a 1M solution of the borane-tetrahydrofuran complex in tetrahydrofuran. The bottle was shattered into small fragments. The sample had been shipped to Australia from England at temperatures below 15°C, and the bottle was unopened and had stood undisturbed for 2 weeks. A reply follows by a manufacturer of the reagent, Aldrich-Boranes, Inc., who were aware of the problem (1 reference is quoted). The firm urges that the reagent be stored at 0°C and the bottle first opened behind a safety shield.
Chemical and Engineering News, 14 Oct. 1974, Vol.52, No.41, p.3.

CIS 75-507 Smith P., Heath D.
Paraquat lung: a reappraisal.
Poisoning by paraquat commonly leads to the development of pulmonary fibrosis often described as being interstitial in nature and regarded by many as an example of fibrosing alveolitis. However, the experimental evidence from rats, together with observations on 4 human cases presented here, suggest that the basic pathological change in the human lung due to paraquat poisoning is a diffuse, cellular intra-alveolar fibrosis and not fibrosing alveolitis. It is shown to be associated with pulmonary vascular pathology. In assessing the histopathology of the lung in paraquat poisoning, a history of oxygen therapy must be taken into account as prolonged exposure to this gas may in itself induce pulmonary fibrosis.
Thorax, Nov. 1974, Vol.29, No.6, p.643-653. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 75-155 Pavlenko G.I., Osina S.A., Voroncov R.S.
Respiratory toxicity of triphthazine in animal experiments
Ingalacionnoe vozdejstvie triftazina v uslovijah ėksperimenta na životnyh [en ruso]
The drug triphthazine is a piperazine derivative of phenothiazine. Studies in albino rats have shown that inhalation of 1.5mg/m3 of triphthazine has an effect on the central nervous system. Chronic exposure of the animals to 0.06mg/m3 produces loss of bodyweight, elevated rectal temperature, a fall in leucocyte and erythrocyte levels, slowing of the respiratory rate and a considerable increase in diuresis. On the basis of the results obtained, the authors recommend the adoption of a threshold limit value of 0.01mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.27-30. 5 ref.

CIS 74-1954 Zaeva G.N., Ordynskaja N.N., Dubinina L.I., Osipenko N.I., Ivanov V.N.
Establishing a maximum allowable concentration for pyrrolidine in the atmosphere of work premises
Obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii pirrolidina v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Results of animal research (acute, subacute and chronic exposures) aimed at determining the toxicity and gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of pyrrolidine. This substance is easily absorbed through the skin. A threshold limit value of 0.1mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1974, No.2, p.29-32. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 74-2004 Copland G.M., Kolín A., Shulman H.S.
Fatal pulmonary intra-alveolar fibrosis after paraquat ingestion.
A report of a fatal case of paraquat poisoning with some unusual histological features. The clinical course was of renal toxicity followed by progressive respiratory failure. Extensive intra-alveolar avascular fibrosis was found at autopsy in all lung sections examined, with no interstitial fibrosis, indicating that the original damage was not strong enough to injure the more deeply situated capillary endothelium and basal membrance. A list of paraquat-containing herbicides is given.
New England Journal of Medicine, 8 Aug. 1974, Vol.291, No.6, p.290-292. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 74-2069 Mundy R.L., Hall L.M., Teague R.S.
Pyrazole as an antidote for ethylene glycol poisoning.
Pyrazole, a potent alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, given intraperitoneally to mice in a single dose of 300mg/kg, increased significantly the LD50 of orally-administered ethylene glycol. It appears to act like ethanol in preventing conversion of glycol to more toxic metabolites. Although pyrazole is a toxic chemical and may cause damage in several organs in experimental animals, the compound has been used in experimental studies in man; its use on a one-time basis in life-threatening poisoning might be an acceptable risk.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 1974, Vol.28, No.2, p.320-322. 12 ref.

1973

CIS 75-428 Schwetz B.A., Norris J.M., Sparschu G.L., Rowe V.K., Gehring P.J., Emerson J.L., Gerbig C.G.
Toxicology of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.
Experiments were carried out using various animal species to evaluate the toxicity of some chlorinated dibenzodioxins. The compounds used were: 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7-DCDD); 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD); 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD); hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HCDD); and octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD). Tests were conducted to estimate acute lethality, acnegenic activity, teratogenicity, embryotoxicity and eye irritative effects. Some gross pathological and histopathological examinations were performed. The results show that: 2,3,7,8-TCDD has an unusually high toxicity; 2,7-DCDD and OCDD have a low toxicity; HCDD is highly toxic but less toxic than 2,3,7,8-TCDD; isomers of the same dibenzo-p-dioxin vary in toxicological properties, making it important to identify them specifically.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Research Triangle Park, USA, Sep. 1973, Experimental issue No.5, p.87-99. 17 ref.

CIS 75-427 Perspective on chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.
This issue is comprised of papers presented at a conference convened by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences at Research Triangle Park, USA (2-3 Apr. 1973). Subjects dealt with include: methods of detection; chemical processes involved in formation, bioaccumulation and degradation; toxicity; pharmacological effects; distribution and fate in man's environment. A special bibliography is appended.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Research Triangle Park, USA, Sep. 1973, Experimental issue No.5, p.3-313. Illus. 752 ref.

CIS 74-1967 Beutner W.
Safety measures in the construction and operation of natural-gas stenching plants
Sicherheitsmassnahmen bei Errichtung und Betrieb von Erdgas-Odorierungsanlagen [en alemán]
Tetrahydrothiophene and ethanethiol are highly flammable organic stenching compounds with solvent properties. They are irritant to the skin, toxic and contain up to 0.1% benzene in volume. Main characteristics of these substances from the health and safety point of view; general safety measures; explosion and fire safety; toxicity and protective measures. Natural gas to which stenching agents have been added is hazardous because of its asphyxiating effects, and not because of the presence of these agents. It is important, however, not to underestimate the hazards attached to the handling of these substances.
Heft 17, Moderne Unfallverhütung, Vulkan-Verlag, Haus der Technik, 43 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973, p.71-74. 5 ref.

CIS 74-858 Korbitz B.C.
Possible improved technique of skin patch testing.
A successful patch test to quinine was obtained in a patient with quinine-induced thrombocytopenic purpura by an occlusive patch test method which is described. The technique may have application in patch testing for other suspected contact or sensitising allergens.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1973, Vol.27, No.6, p.409-411. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 74-148 Runne U., Gartmann H.
Vesicular lesion of the male genitalia due to an aminoalkyl compound (halogenated alkylamine)
Bullöse Dermatitis des männlichen Genitale durch Aminoalkylverbindung (Halogenalkylamin) [en alemán]
A 30-year old laboratory assistant accidentally dropped and broke a glass flask filled with piperidine ethylchloride; about 14 hours later, a severe vesicular lesion (dermatitis bullosa) appeared in the genital region. Findings, treatment and subsequent development of the lesion are described. According to the experience of various manufacturers, piperidine has properties similar to those of mustard gas, on account of its chemical composition. Wearing of special rubber gloves or protective clothing is recommended. Affected parts must immediately be thoroughly swabbed after contact. A bath with synthetic detergent is recommended.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Feb. 1973, Vol.21, No.1, p.6-11. Ilus. 9 ref.

1972

CIS 72-2751 Neiser J., Mašek V.
Determination of pyridine and its homologues at the workplace
Bestimmung des Pyridins und seiner Homologe in Arbeitsstätten [en alemán]
Data on pyridine toxicity are followed by a review of analytical methods for pyridine bases (titrimetry, spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, a.c. oscillographic polarography, spectroscopy). Studies in various plants led to the selection of a titrimetric method using perchloric acid and a phtometric method employing chloramine T, potassium cyanide and barbituric acid. The first method is simpler but entails solution of the bases; the second is more rapid and is sufficiently accurate.
Gesundheits-Ingenieur, June 1972, Vol.93, No.6, p.183-185. 6 ref.

CIS 73-1378 Griffiths J.E.
Acute inhalation and dermal application screening studies of 2,4,6-trifluoro-sym-triazine and 2,4,6-tris (trifluoromethyl)-sym-triazine
Screening tests for acute inhalation (rats) and dermal toxicity (rabbits) were carried out to evaluate the potential toxicity of 2,4,6-trifluoro-sym-triazine - (FCN)3, commonly known as cyanuric fluoride - and 2,4,6-tris (trifluoromethyl)-sym-triazine - (CF3CN)3 or TTT. The results are presented and discussed. Acute inhalation and acute percutaneous tests with cyanuric fluoride both revealed a high level of toxicity (estimated at LC50=3ppm and LD50=100µL/kg of body weight, respectively). The corresponding values for TTT were LC50=1400ppm and LD50>1000µL/kg. Cyanuric fluoride is particularly insidious: it passes through all layers of the skin and has the property of swelling rubber, so that rubber gloves do not afford adequate protection. Human response, however, cannot be predicted objectively from these tests.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.382-388. 7 ref.

1971

CIS 89-1799 Pyridine
Pirydyna [en polonés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 5mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.

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