Health care services - 1,917 entries found
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Palmstierna T., Nijman H., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Vienna, Austria, 20-21 October 2005. Several papers addressed the safety, health and training of the staff: training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on the effectiveness of training interventions in the management of violence in healthcare; nurses' attitudes on the reasons for patient aggression and its management.
Oud Consultancy, Hakfort 621, 1102 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005. 352p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Büssing A., Glaser J., Höge T
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Evaluation of the TAA workload - Ambulatory care: Manual and materials
Das Belastungsscreening TAA - Ambulante Pflege: Manual und Materialien [in German]
This manual presents two instruments in the form of questionnaires for analyzing and evaluating the physical workload and psychological stress of ambulatory health care workers, together with the prevention measures implemented: Belastungscreening TAA (screening for workload and stress) and its associated module AuG-Schutz (prevention). It then explains how to use these tools to carry out an evaluation and interpret the findings. Because of their user-friendliness, they can also be applied by persons who are not specialized in workload research (management of health services, safety and health or quality control specialists in health care services).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 65p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 11.00.
Büssing A., Glaser J., Höge T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Workload screening in ambulatory care services
Belastungsscreening in der ambulanten Pflege [in German]
This research report describes the tasks and findings of a project aimed at quantifying the prevalence and severity of physical and mental workload among the personnel of ambulatory care services in Germany. A methodology was developed and validated on a sample of 721 employees of 97 ambulatory care services in Bavaria. Findings were compared to those obtained for stationary care services. They highlight important differences between the two types of care with respect to physical and mental workload. Guidelines for work organization in ambulatory care services were developed, aimed at reducing the physical and mental workload in this sector of activity.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 114p. Illus. 88 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.
Preventing needlestick injuries toolkit
Prevención de lesiones por pinchazo de aguja [in Spanish]
Collection of web documents on the prevention of needlestick injuries among health care workers, grouped under the following headings: general information; training materials; case studies, core presentations, short presentations for practice teaching; International Council of Nurses' fact sheets and guidelines; ILO code of practice (COP) on HIV/AIDS and implementing the ILO COP; American Nurses Association's needlestick prevention guide; documents from the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention; surveillance; WHO injection safety materials.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. 44 web documents (PDF format).
http://www.who.int/occupational_health/activities/pnitoolkit/en/index.html [in English]
http://www.who.int/occupational_health/activities/pnitoolkit/es/index.html [in Spanish]
Best practices for hospital-based first receivers of victims from mass casualty incidents involving the release of hazardous substances
Healthcare workers risk occupational exposures to chemical, biological, or radiological materials when a hospital receives contaminated patients, particularly during major accidents. These hospital employees, who may be termed first receivers, work at a site remote from the location where the hazardous substance release occurred. This means that their exposures are limited to the substances transported to the hospital on victims' skin, hair, clothing, or personal effects. In this best practices document, OSHA provides practical information to help hospitals address employee protection and training as part of emergency planning for major accidents involving hazardous substances. By tailoring emergency plans to reflect the reasonably predictable worst-case scenarios under which first receivers might work, the hospital can guide decisions regarding personnel training and PPE selection.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2005. 97p. Illus. 71 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3249.pdf [in English]
Zielińska-Jankiewicz K., Kozajda A., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.
Protection of hospital workers from risks of occupational exposure to biological agents
Ochrona pracowników szpitali przed ryzykiem związanym z ekspozycją na czynniki biologiczne [in Polish]
A questionnaire survey was carried out in 47 hospitals to assess activities aimed at protecting workers from risks associated with exposure to biological agents. Of the recommendations laid down in Directive 2000/54/EC (see CIS 03-1046), the following requirements were those best satisfied by the hospitals under study: provision of collective and personal protective measures; washing and sanitary facilities; separate dinning rooms; recording of accidents involving handling of biological agents. Most shortcomings were observed with regard to: risk assessment; appropriate marking of rooms where biohazard may occur; written procedures for safe handling of biological agents; and implementation of a vaccination programme against hepatitis B.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.5, p.367-373. 24 ref.
Yassi A., Moore D., FitzGerald J.M., Bigelow P., Hon C.Y., Bryce E.
Research gaps in protecting healthcare workers from SARS and other respiratory pathogens: An interdisciplinary, multi-stakeholder, evidence-based approach
The objective of this literature survey was to identify priorities for further research in protecting healthcare workers from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other respiratory pathogens. Factors examined included the basic science of infectious bioaerosols and the efficacy of facial protective equipment, as well as the organizational, environmental and individual factors that influence the success of infection control and occupational health programmes. Focus groups were also held with health care workers in Toronto, Canada. Critical gaps in knowledge were identified and prioritized. Highest priority was given to organizational factors that create a climate of safety. Other priority areas included practical measures to control bioaerosols at the source.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.47, No.1, p.41-50. Illus. 57 ref.
Gheorghiu M.D., Moatty F.
Conditions of work in teams
Les conditions du travail en équipe [in French]
This publication presents the findings of a survey aimed at further validating the responses to an earlier questionnaire survey on cooperation and support relations in health care institutions. Topics addressed: definition of cooperation; effect of changes in working conditions on cooperation; effects of professional level and mediation systems; solidarity and team spirit.
Centre d'études de l'emploi, Le Descartes, 29, Promenade Michel Simon, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex, France, 2005. 291p. 97 ref. Price: EUR 50.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.cee-recherche.fr/fr/doctrav/travail_equipe_43.pdf [in French]
Tang M.B.Y., Leow Y.H., Ng V., Koh D., Goh C.L.
Latex sensitization in healthcare workers in Singapore
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of latex sensitization among healthcare workers in Singapore. It involved 313 healthcare workers, of whom 46.6% were operating theatre staff, and a further 71 unexposed controls. All participants answered a self-administered questionnaire relating to latex exposure and glove-related symptoms. Latex sensitization was determined by skin prick testing to latex and latex-specific IgE detection. Findings are discussed. The prevalence of latex sensitization among healthcare workers was 9.6%. It was concluded that latex sensitization among healthcare workers in Singapore should be considered a significant occupational health risk. Increased screening and awareness of this problem is essential to identify those at risk.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, 2005, Vol.34, p.376-382. 15 ref.
Mitchell C.S., Gershon R.R.M., Lears M.K., Vlahov D., Felknor S., Lubelczyk R.A., Sherman M.F., Comstock G.W.
Risk of tuberculosis in correctional healthcare workers
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for occupational infection with tuberculosis among healthcare workers employed in correctional facilities. It involved a self-administered survey, a clinical interview and tuberculin skin testing. The overall tuberculin skin test point prevalence rate was 17.7%, the reactivity rate was 2.2%, and the annual incidence was 1.3%. After controlling for bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination, only origin of birth remained significantly associated with prevalence of tuberculosis infection. Although the prevalence of tuberculin reactivity was high in this population, the risk factors were predominantly demographic rather than occupational. Nevertheless, continued vigilance to control occupational exposure to this and other respiratory pathogens is warranted, given the potential for future outbreaks of tuberculosis, as well as other known and emerging airborne pathogens.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.47, No.6, p.580-586. 33 ref.
Chia S.E., et al.
Appropriate use of personal protective equipment among healthcare workers in public sector hospitals and primary healthcare clinics during the SARS outbreak in Singapore
Singapore was affected by an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, with 238 probable cases and 33 deaths. The objective of this study was to survey health care workers (HCWs) on the use of personal protective equipment in relation to the risk of SARS. A self-administered questionnaire survey of 14,554 HCWs in nine healthcare settings was carried out in May-July 2003. A total of 10,236 valid questionnaires were returned (70.3% response); of these, 73 doctors, 4404 nurses, and 921 clerical staff were studied. Factors that determine appropriate use of personal protective equipment by HCWs in the face of a major SARS outbreak are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2005, Vol.62, p.473-477. 16 ref.
Walsh L., Turner S., Lines S., Hussey L., Chen Y., Agius R.
The incidence of work-related illness in the UK health and social work sector: The Health and Occupation Reporting network 2002-2003
In the United Kingdom, The Health and Occupation Reporting network (THOR) collects incidence data on work-related illness. This study analyses the most recent data for the health and social work sector, from 2002 to 2003. In this period, 23% of all reported cases in THOR were in health and social work sector employees. Based on United Kingdom Labour Force Survey data, the annual average incidence rates among these workers per 100 000 were 51.2 for mental illness, 35.9 for musculoskeletal disorders and 10.4 for skin disease. The high incidence of mental illness (compared with musculoskeletal and skin disorders) in this employment sector merits further investigation.
Occupational Medicine, June 2005, Vol.55, No.4, p.262-267. Illus. 16 ref.
Lenz M., Groneberg D.A., Schäcke G.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome - SARS - in occupational and environmental medicine
Schweres akutes respiratorisches Syndrom - SARS - in der Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin [in German]
This article presents the chronology of the SARS epidemic and sums up current understanding concerning this disease (diagnosis, treatment and prevention). It covers more specifically the aspects related to occupational medicine. Results of studies on the rate of infection among health care personnel who cared for SARS patients are presented. Persons working in research laboratories handling the SARS coronavirus are also at an increased risk, together with airline crews (contamination by passengers) and persons handling livestock (contamination by infected animals).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Aug. 2005, Vol.55, No.8, p.254-262. 61 ref.
Koh D., Ng V., Leow Y.H., Goh C.L.
A study of natural rubber latex allergens in gloves used by healthcare workers in Singapore
The aims of this study were to quantify the levels of specific allergens in rubber gloves used in Singapore, to determine if these levels were above thresholds that may cause natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy and to compare the levels of these specific allergens in gloves used for different purposes, namely gloves used for examination purposes or for surgical procedures. Forty-nine rubber gloves were obtained from major hospitals and healthcare departments in Singapore and were analysed for their NRL allergen levels. An immunometric assay technique was used to determine the specific allergen levels in the gloves. It was found that NRL allergen levels in the majority of examination gloves used by healthcare workers in Singapore were high enough to cause NRL allergy among sensitized persons. The information can serve as evidence for a possible requirement for manufacturers to produce gloves with low NRL allergen levels and to state the allergen level in gloves in the product information.
British Journal of Dermatology, 2005, Vol.153, p.954-959. 20 ref.
Koh D., et al.
Risk perception and impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on work and personal lives of healthcare workers in Singapore - What can we learn?
This study measured risk perception and impact on personal and work life of health care workers (HCWs) from nine major healthcare institutions during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Singapore using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on 10,511 valid questionnaires (response rate 70%), it was found that although the majority (76%) perceived a great personal risk of falling ill with SARS, most (69.5%) also accepted the risk as part of their job. Clinical staff (doctors and nurses), staff in daily contact with SARS patients and staff from SARS-affected institutions expressed significantly higher levels of anxiety. More than half reported increased work stress (56%) and work load (53%). Many experienced social stigmatization (49%) and ostracism by family members (31%). Most felt that the personal protective measures implemented were effective (96%) and that the policies and protocols were clear (93%) and timely (90%).
Medical Care, July 2005, Vol.43, No.7, p.1-7. 24 ref.
Joint ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS
Mwongozo wa shirika la kazi duniani na shirika la afya duniani [in Swahili]
Youguan aizibing bingdu/aizibing he weisheng fuwu de lianhe daoze [in Chinese]
Chinese and Swahili translations of the document indexed under CIS 06-21. These guidelines aim to promote the sound management of HIV/AIDS in health services. They are intended for governments, employers, workers and others concerned with the delivery of health care. Contents: key principles of the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (see CIS 03-444); legal and policy framework; the health sector as a workplace and the recognition of HIV/AIDS as a workplace issue; occupational safety and health management systems (protection against infectious pathogens, safe work practices, monitoring and evaluation); exposure incident management; treatment and support; education and training; research and development. Includes an overview of international programmes and instruments and 12 fact sheets on control measures designed to protect health workers from exposure to HIV and other infectious pathogens.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xiv, 80p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
Applying radiation safety standards in nuclear medicine
The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, see CIS 96-1472) define the responsibilities of persons involved in the design, running and decommissioning of equipment using ionizing radiation. This report is aimed at regulators and users of radiation sources in nuclear medicine to help them apply the BSS. Regulators will find it useful for reviewing applications for authorization and for the inspection of the equipment. By following the guidance, users of radiation in nuclear medicine are assured of complying with BSS requirements. Contents: principal requirements; safety of radioactive materials, equipment and facilities; medical exposure; public exposure; potential exposure and emergency plans.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2005. 124p. 38 ref . Price: EUR 28.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1207_web.pdf [in English]
Kouassi Y.M., Wognin S.B., N'gbesso R., Yeboue-Kouame Y.B., Tchicaya A.F., Alla D., Bonny J.S.
Study of the compliance with radiation protection rules in hospitals in Abidjan
Etude de l'observance des règles de radioprotection en milieu hospitalier à Abidjan [in French]
This cross-sectional study on the degree of compliance with radiation protection rules was carried out in six health care facilities in the city of Abidjan equipped with X-ray tubes. Overall compliance was poor. 50% of the facilities were not registered with the ionizing radiation protection administration and 83.3% had no competent staff trained in radiation protection. Most workers (97.5%) wore lead aprons and 59.8% wore dosimeters. Other findings are discussed. It is suggested that the lack of compliance with radiation protection principles can be explained by the imprecise and incomplete wording of the Côte d'Ivoire regulations and by the material and logistical problems faced by the staff of the ionizing radiation protection administration when carrying out inspection missions.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep. 2005, Vol.66, No.4, p.369-374. 6 ref.
Persoons R., Dumas L., Stoklov M., Maître A.
Development of a new method for evaluating chemical hazards: Application in hospital laboratories
Développement d'une nouvelle méthode d'évaluation des risques chimiques: application dans les laboratoires hospitaliers [in French]
Regulations concerning chemical hazards and the need to ensure occupational safety and health led a large French university hospital to implement a system for evaluating toxicological occupational hazards in medical laboratories. Chemical hazards were identified and characterized using the risk phrases contained in material safety data sheets and the hazards were ranked in importance using an algorithm. Exposure assessment was carried out by in situ observations for the most hazardous chemicals and risk indices were developed to allow the determination of unacceptable exposure conditions.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep. 2005, Vol.66, No.4, p.326-334. 9 ref.
Ye X., Wong O., Fu H.
World at work: Health hazards among foot massage workers in China
Reflexology or foot massage is increasingly popular in China. Approximately 90% of foot massage workers in large cities are young women aged between 18 and 25, mostly migrant workers from poor inland regions of the country. This article discusses the occupational safety and health aspects of this occupation. Contents: premises; tasks (soaking, cleaning, massaging); health hazards (infections, hazards from exposure to chemicals used in soaking baths and massage oils, musculoskeletal diseases, psychological hazards); recommendations for improving workers' health protection.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2005, Vol.62, No.12, p.902-904. Illus. 11 ref.
Smith D.R., Choe M.A., Jeon M.Y., Chae Y.R., An G.J., Jeong J.S.
Epidemiology of musculoskeletal symptoms among Korean hospital nurses
This study investigated the epidemiology of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among a sample of 330 nurses from a large Korean hospital, by means of a questionnaire survey. The prevalence of MSS at any body site was 93.6%, with symptoms most commonly reported at the shoulder (74.5%), lower back (72.4%), neck (62.7%), lower legs (52.1%) and hand/wrist (46.7%). Logistic regression indicated that nurses who undertook manual handling of patients were 7.2 times as likely to report MSS, while nurses suffering from periodic depression experienced a 3.3 fold MSS risk. Overall, the study suggests that Korean nurses incur a very high MSS burden when compared internationally. A greater commitment is needed to improve physical conditions and psychosocial work issues among nurses in the country.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2005, Vol.11, No.4, p.431-440. 42 ref.
Borritz M., Bültmann U., Rugulies R., Christensen K.B., Villadsen E., Kristensen T.S.
Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors of burnout: Findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA study
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. A total of 1772 workers in various human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyses. Fourteen psychosocial work characteristics and three types of burnout were measured. Linear regression models were used for analysing associations between psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and burnout at baseline and after three years of follow up. Low possibilities for development, high meaning of work, low predictability, high quality of leadership, low role clarity and high role conflicts predicted burnout after three years of follow up after the psychosocial work characteristics were adjusted for each other, potential confounders and burnout level at baseline.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.47, No.10, p.1015-1025. 56 ref.
Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in health care settings
Prevención de la exposición ocupacional a los antineoplásticos y otras medicinas peligrosas en centros de atención médica [in Spanish]
Spanish translation (summarized version) of the document indexed under CIS 05-124. This booklet provides guidance for health care workers and their employers on the prevention of exposure to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 2004. 4p.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-165/pdfs/2004-165.pdf [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/Spanish/niosh/docs/pdfs/2004-165sumsp.pdf [in Spanish]
Cloutier E., David H., Ledoux E., Bourdouxhe M., Teiger C., Gagnon I., Ouellet F.
Importance of work organization in support of the protective strategies of family and social auxiliaries and nurses in home care and support services
Importance de l'organisation du travail comme soutien aux stratégies protectrices des auxiliaires familiales et sociales et des infirmières des services de soins et de maintien à domicile [in French]
This study examined the occupational safety and health conditions of home health care workers and nurses and investigated the role of work organization in the development of protective strategies by both experienced workers and novices. The study included interviews with health care staff and management and analysis of personnel data and data on occupational injuries and sickness absence. The main health hazards recorded were musculoskeletal disorders and psychological problems. Results indicated the existence of several strategies used by these workers to protect their physical and psychological health by reducing the physical, cognitive and emotional workload. A model of work organization is proposed to ensure the protection of home health care staff.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. xii, 261p. Illus. 113 ref. Price: CAD 21.00. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. Some appendices are available only on CD-ROM (included).
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-429.pdf [in French]
Khader Y., Abu-Zaghlan M., Abu-Al Rish I., Burgan S., Amarin Z.
Self-reported allergy to latex gloves among health care workers in Jordan
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of natural rubber latex allergy and its associated factors among 500 health care workers using natural rubber gloves. Of the 420 subjects who responded to a self-administered questionnaire, 57 (13.6%) reported an allergy to latex gloves. The prevalence of allergy to natural rubber gloves was significantly higher for those who had allergy to certain foodstuffs (especially avocado, kiwifruits and chestnuts) or with history of eczema and hay fever. However, the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber gloves was independent of gender, age, job, family history, type of gloves, hours of use per day and number of years on the job.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2005, Vol.53, No.6, p.339-343. Illus. 32 ref.
Lazarov A., Nevo K., Pardo A., Froom P.
Self-reported skin disease in hydrotherapists working in swimming pools
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and characteristics of self-reported skin diseases among hydrotherapists. Questionnaires were addressed to 248 hydrotherapists and 190 (76.6%) responded. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Among respondents (75.8% women and 24.2% men), 44.4% reported the development of a skin disease for the first time after beginning employment at the swimming pool. The most common symptoms included pruritus and erythematous patches affecting mainly the extremities and trunk. Both smoking and increased exposure hours to pool water were independently associated with skin disease, suggesting a dose-response relationship. It is concluded that contact dermatitis should be recognized as an occupational disease in hydrotherapists.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2005, Vol.53, No.6, p.327-331. Illus. 20 ref.
Cara Arenas Ó., Robles Martínez Y.
Moving patients in hospitals
Traslado de pacientes en recintos hospitalarios [in Spanish]
This article describes methods for the safe movement of hospital patients. Topics covered include the job of stretcher-bearer and safe methods of patient transfer within hospital premises; relations between patient and stretcher-bearer; legal, moral and ethical responsibilities; various types of displacement (on foot, in wheelchairs, on stretchers or on beds) and advice for improving patient comfort and easing stretcher-bearer manoeuvres.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2005, No.174, p.38-49. Illus.
Palliser C.R., Firth H.M., Feyer A.M., Paulin S.M.
Musculoskeletal discomfort and work-related stress in New Zealand dentists
This cross-sectional questionnaire survey on stressors, psychological distress and musculoskeletal symptoms was carried out among a random sample of 413 New Zealand dentists. The average age of the dentists was 43 years, with 74% being male. The annual prevalence of symptoms was 63% for both the lower back and the neck and 49% for the shoulders. Older dentists were no more likely to suffer musculoskeletal discomfort than younger dentists. The most cited dentistry-specific stressor was "patients having a medical emergency", while "mental demands" was the most cited general work-related stressor. One-fifth of the dentists scored highly for psychological disturbance, which was very similar to the general population. Dentists with high scores for dentistry-specific work-related stressors were more likely to have evidence of psychological disturbance.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2005, Vol.19, No.4, p.351-359. 49 ref.
Privitera M., Weisman R., Cerulli C., Tu X., Groman A.
Violence towards mental health staff and safety in the work environment
An increasing number of violent episodes towards staff were noted at the psychiatry department of a university hospital. A multidisciplinary committee was formed to address the problem. A workplace violence survey was designed to query staff on their experiences of endangerment, threats and assaults, as well as to collect data on their age, sex, job and years in the field. Of 742 surveys distributed, 380 replies were received (response rate 51%). Forty-three percent of respondents reported being threatened and 25% assaulted. Threats and assaults increased significantly over all the time periods investigated. Work experience was a protective factor, but not a guarantee against violent events. Several practical recommendations derived from the study are proposed.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.55, No.6, p.480-486. 26 ref.
Ghasemkhani M., Jahanpeyma F., Azam K.
Formaldehyde exposure in some educational hospitals of Tehran
Formaldehyde exposure was investigated in pathology laboratories, surgery rooms and endoscopy wards in eight large hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 160 air samples were collected in various environments. It was found that the concentration levels of formaldehyde in pathology laboratories exceeded the recommended AGCIH threshold limit value of 0.3ppm. It is recommended that local exhaust ventilation be installed to minimize workers' exposure to formaldehyde.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.703-707. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-4-13.pdf [in English]
Smith D.R., Leggat P.A., Takahashi K.
Percutaneous exposure incidents among Australian hospital staff
This study investigated all reported percutaneous exposure incidents (PEI) among staff from a large Australian hospital from 2001 to 2003. There were a total of 373 PEI, of which 38.9% were needlestick injuries, 32.7% were cutaneous exposures and 28.4% sharps-related injuries. Nurses were the most commonly affected staff members, (63.5% of the total), followed by doctors (18.8%) and other staff (17.7%). Needlestick injuries were responsible for the majority of nurses' PEI (44.7%) and sharps injuries for those of doctors (44.3%). Overall, the investigation suggests that PEI is a considerable burden for health care workers in Australia.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.323-330. Illus. 20 ref.
Lot F., Miguéres B., Abiteboul D.
Occupational seroconversions through HIV and HCV among health care professionals in France, as of 31 December 2004
Séroconversions professionnelles par le VIH et le VHC chez le personnel de santé en France. Situation au 31 décembre 2004 [in French]
This article provides the results of a survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) contamination in occupational settings carried out by the French Health Monitoring Institute (Institut de veille sanitaire) and the results of a study by GERES (study group on health care workers' exposure to infectious agents) on occupational HCV contamination risk factors. No new cases of occupational HIV contamination were reported among health care personnel between 1997 and 2004 (a total of 13 HIV seroconversions were reported up to 1997). Between 1991 and 2004, 54 cases of hepatitis C conversions were reported among health care personnel. Results of the studies suggest that close to half of the HIV or HCV seroconversions occurring in occupational settings could have been avoided had standard precautions been observed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Sep. 2005, No.103, p.335-346. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20143/$File/TF143.pdf [in French]
Fransman W., Vermeulen R., Kromhout H.
Dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide in hospitals during preparation, nursing and cleaning activities
This study investigated potential and actual levels of dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP) used in oncology treatment in hospitals. Exposure was assessed during various tasks by the collection of samples from protective gloves and protective clothing and from hand, forearm and forehead skin. Results demonstrated that actual dermal exposure to CP is common among oncology nurses working with patients treated with this drug. Pharmacy technicians and cleaning personnel, on the other hand, are only potentially exposed to CP, and protection provided by gloves appears to be sufficient.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.403-412. Illus. 23 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/9e2751k1pl5xnh48bx4g/contributions/q/2/0/6/q2065842242510v7.pdf [in English]
Latza U., Haamann F., Baur X.
Effectiveness of a nationwide interdisciplinary preventive programme for latex allergy
This study describes a nationwide awareness campaign aimed at reducing exposure to powdered high-protein latex gloves among health care workers in Germany and evaluates the effectiveness of the programme. Data on compensation claims for latex-related skin and airway diseases were compared before and after implementation of the programme. A survey on change in glove use was also conducted after implementing the programme. The number of compensation claims for latex-induced skin diseases increased from 664 at the start of the programme in 1996 to 884 in 1998, and then decreased to 567 in 1999 and 204 in 2002. Similar decreases were observed for respiratory diseases. This programme was found to be effective and can be regarded as a model for the reduction of other occupational diseases such as bakers' or isocyanate asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.394-402. Illus. 47 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/lp3ef1rrqr5xxmylwa7w/contributions/j/3/3/1/j3314532m7844317.pdf [in English]
Accorsi A., Morrone B., Domenichini I., Valenti S., Raffi G.B., Violante F.S.
Urinary sevoflurane and hexafluoro-isopropanol as biomarkers of low-level occupational exposure to sevoflurane
This study investigated biological markers of exposure to sevoflurane, an inhalation anaesthetic widely used in day and paediatric surgery. A group of 36 subjects (13 male, 23 female) occupationally exposed to sevoflurane in paediatric operating rooms was studied in a two-week survey. Post-shift urine samples were collected and analysed for unmodified sevoflurane as well as for its main metabolite hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP). The concentration of sevoflurane in respirable air was determined from personal passive samplers analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicate that urinary unmodified sevoflurane seems to be a more sensitive and reliable biomarker of short-term exposure to sevoflurane than urinary HFIP, which appears to be influenced by physiological and individual characteristics.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.369-378. Illus. 34 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/320gxgugul43k6wywq3m/contributions/v/t/8/2/vt824x844668147g.pdf [in English]
Laffon B., Teixeira J.P., Silva S., Loureiro J., Torres J., Pásaro E., Méndez J., Mayan O.
Genotoxic effects in a population of nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, and relationship with genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair enzymes
Concern about the genotoxic risk associated with chronic handling of antineoplastic drugs has increased, and usual safety practices may not avoid exposure. The comet assay and micronuclei (MN) test were performed on 30 oncology nurses and 22 controls. Data obtained showed increased cytogenetic and DNA damage in the exposed group, although statistical significance was only reached in the comet assay. There is evidence that the present handling practices of antineoplastic drugs in some Portuguese hospitals may not prevent exposure. Present data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the studied DNA repair enzymes may influence the individual susceptibility to DNA damage related to chronic handling of antineoplastic drugs.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.48, No.2, p.128-136. Illus. 75 ref.
Gimeno D., Felknor S., Burau K.D., Delclos G.L.
Organisational and occupational risk factors associated with work related injuries among public hospital employees in Costa Rica
To explore the relation between occupational and organizational factors and work-related injuries among public hospital employees in Costa Rica, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among a stratified random sample of 1000 employees from 10 of the 29 public hospitals in the country. Occupational, organizational and socio-demographic variables were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. When evaluated independently, most of the occupational exposures and organizational factors investigated were significantly correlated with an increased injury risk. Exposure to chemical and physical hazards, lack of safety training, and low levels of safety climate and safety practices were identified as the most significant risk factors for work-related injuries.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.62, No.5, p.337-343. 25 ref.
Warming S., Juul-Kristensen B., Ebbehøj N.E., Schibye B.
An observation instrument for the description and evaluation of patient transfer technique
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of an observation instrument for patient transfer. The instrument, which consisted of 23 items, was evaluated on five different patient transfer tasks by four observers. Instrument validity was evaluated by testing whether the instrument could detect a difference between the use of a self-chosen and a recommended transfer technique. Furthermore, calculated compression values at L4-L5 were compared with the weighted score for the different transfer technique situations. Eleven items were reliable, nine items deserved further attention and three items were not reliable. The weighted score was significantly higher for the recommended transfer technique situations and an association between the weighted score and the calculated compression values was observed.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2004, Vol.35, No.6, p.603-614. Illus. 35 ref.
Chessor E., Verhoeven M., Hon C.Y., Teschke K.
Evaluation of a modified scavenging system to reduce occupational exposure to nitrous oxide in labor and delivery rooms
A new scavenging mask was developed for the administration of nitrous oxide to mothers-to-be during labour in order to minimize leakage of the patient's exhaled breath into the room and staff exposure. The scavenging system was designed with an inner mask for gas delivery, an outer mask to capture exhaled breath and a continuous exhaust airflow based on breathing flow rates. It was tested by measuring exposures of 30 nurses and 33 room air concentrations, while patients self-administered nitrous oxide either through the conventional or modified scavenging system. The new scavenging system significantly reduced exposures in the room and to nurses (concentrations of 39.7ppm and 40.2ppm, respectively, compared with 82.2ppm and 69.3ppm, respectively, for the conventional system). Additional modifications to the scavenging system may further reduce nitrous oxide concentrations and improve comfort and usability.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2005, Vol.2, No.6, p.314-322. Illus. 22 ref.
Hagberg S., Ljungkvist G., Andreasson H., Karlsson S., Barregård L.
Exposure to volatile methacrylates in dental personnel
Exposures to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HMMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were determined in five randomly-selected public dental clinics and at a university odontology faculty in Sweden, where whole-day and task-specific short-term measurements were performed. The median 8-h time-weighted averages were 2.5µ/m3 (dentists) and 2.9µ/m3 (dental nurses) for 2-HMMA and 0.8µ/m3 (dentists) and 0.3µ/m3 (dental nurses) for MMA. The maximum short-term exposure levels were 79µ/m3 and 151µ/m3 for 2-HMMA and MMA respectively for both dentists and dental nurses. These observed levels are much lower than for complete denture fabrication. Irritant effects would not be expected in healthy persons at these levels. Nevertheless, occupational respiratory diseases may occur, and improvements in the handling of these chemicals in dentistry are warranted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2005, Vol.2, No.6, p.302-306. Illus. 21 ref.
Trinkoff A.M., Johantgen M., Muntaner C., Le R.
Staffing and worker injury in nursing homes
This study examined the relationship between staffing levels and worker injury rates in 445 nursing homes in three states of the United States (Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) for the year 2000. Workers' compensation data were used to obtain nursing home staffing details and organizational descriptors. Data were subjected to regression analysis to examine the association between worker injury rate and nursing home staffing and organizational characteristics. It was found that total nursing hours per resident day were significantly associated with worker injury rates after adjustment for organizational characteristics. Therefore, policies and resources that increase staffing levels in nursing homes are warranted.
American Journal of Public Health, July 2005, Vol.95, No.7, p.1220-1225. 39 ref.
Schürer N.Y., Klippel U., Schwanitz H.J.
Secondary individual prevention of hand dermatitis in geriatric nurses
The incidence of hand dermatitis in geriatric nurses is increasing in Germany. A prospective controlled study of a secondary individual prevention (SIP) programme for hand dermatitis was conducted, involving information and training on the proper use of gloves and barrier creams. 209 geriatric nurses with a medical history of hand dermatitis completed questionnaires prior to the start of the programme and three months after its conclusion, including 102 who participated in the SIP and 107 controls who were not offered the programme. Upon completion of the study, 59% of SIP participants were free of hand eczema. Questionnaires three months after study completion revealed skin lesions in 53% of participants and 82% of the controls. There was a significant improvement in the epidermal barrier among programme participants. It is concluded that SIP is effective in preventing hand eczema.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.149-157. Illus. 37 ref.
Jones A.Y.M., Lee R.Y.W.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and back injury in ambulance officers
A questionnaire on back pain was addressed to Hong Kong ambulance workers who performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Analysis of the 318 completed questionnaires showed that almost 60% of the respondents complained of always experiencing back pain during CPR, while 36% experienced it sometimes. Only 4.5% had no experience of back discomfort during CPR. 24% respondents suffered back injury, of whom 62% considered the cause of their back injury to be related to CPR delivery. Nearly 50% of respondents reported that it was difficult to maintain balance and concurrently deliver CPR while travelling in the ambulance or when the patient was being transported. Results suggest that there is a need to review the support given to ambulance workers to ensure safe administration of CPR, particularly during ambulance transport.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2005, Vol.78, No.4, p.332-336. 10 ref.
Occupational physicians and personnel with a chronic infection
Betriebsärztinnen/-ärtze und chronisch infiziertes Personal [in German]
Description of measures for preventing the transmission of pathogens by infected health care personnnel to patients and to other employees. The pathogens considered are hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Precautions to be taken include continuous surveillance of infected personnel by an occupational physician, constant reminders of safety guidelines (use of protective gloves and appropriate containers for waste disposal) and notification of injuries to occupational physicians. Following an accident involving exposure to blood, a meeting should be held in the presence of the person concerned, the occupational physician, a virologist and representatives of the works council and the human resources department. The meeting should decide whether the person should continue his/her work or would benefit from transfer to other work. Among newly-infected people, the percentage who develop a chronic infection is from 5 to 10% for hepatitis B, 70% for hepatitis C and 100% for HIV.
Praktische Arbeitsmedizin, July 2005, No.1, p. 9-15. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.bsafb.de/fileadmin/downloads/pa_1_7_2005/pa_1_7_2005_chronisch_infiziertes_personal.pdf [in German]
Pesticides and electronic resources for health care providers
Agricultural workers are at high risk of occupational injuries, including pesticide exposures. There is general agreement that the training of health care providers to recognize and manage such exposures is limited and in need of improvement. This article presents a case report of suspected pesticide exposure among symptomatic agricultural workers followed by a discussion of Internet-based resources for the recognition, management and prevention of pesticide-related illness.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.1, p.45-51. 32 ref.
Nienhaus A., Skudlik C., Seidler A.
Work-related accidents and occupational diseases in veterinarians and their staff
Veterinarians and their staff in Germany file approximately 2000 accident and occupational disease claims each year. This article analyses the claims for the period from 1998 to 2002. The annual incidence rate for accidents in the workplace was 105.4 per 1,000 full-time workers, a rate 2.9-times higher than for general practitioners of human medicine. When only severe accidents resulting in a loss of work time of more than three days are included, the relative risk increases to 9.2. 66% of the reported accidents are due to scratches, bites or kicks from animals. Claims of occupational disease are filed 2.7-times more often by veterinarians and their staff than by general practitioners and their staff. The occupational diseases most often concern the skin (39%), followed by allergic respiratory diseases (30.5%), and infectious diseases (19.1%).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.78, No.3, p.230-238. 45 ref.
Joint ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS
Directives conjointes OIT/OMS sur les services de santé et le VIH/SIDA [in French]
Directrices mixtas OIT/OMS sobre los servicios de salud y el VIH/SIDA [in Spanish]
These guidelines aim to promote the sound management of HIV/AIDS in health services. They are intended for governments, employers, workers and others concerned with the delivery of health care. Contents: key principles of the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (see CIS 03-444); legal and policy framework; the health sector as a workplace and the recognition of HIV/AIDS as a workplace issue; occupational safety and health management systems (protection against infectious pathogens, safe work practices, monitoring and evaluation); exposure incident management; treatment and support; education and training; research and development. Includes an overview of international programmes and instruments and 12 fact sheets on control measures designed to protect health workers from exposure to HIV and other infectious pathogens.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xiv, 80p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/publ/hsgl.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmehs05/guidelines.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmehs05/guidelines.pdf [in French]
The seafarers' medical service
Le service de santé des gens de mer [in French]
Information sheet on the organization of the French national medical service for sailors and other people in maritime occupations. The service is involved in: aptitude tests; medical inspection of ships registered in France; health-related training in French maritime colleges; participation on on-board OSH committees. A special supplement concerns advice on how to avoid infection with avian influenza. Also covered are: history of the service; organization, mission and activities of the service; statistics on maritime accidents.
Direction des affaires maritimes et des gens de mer (DAM), Paris, France, [c2005]. Internet document, several pages.
http://www.mer.gouv.fr/hommes/05_medical/01_ssgm/liste_pages.htm [in French]
Abécassis P., Beaumont N., Gomis C., Incorvaïa A.M., Lafon D., Metin P., Michel A., Pitol-Belin E., Revillet S., Seneque B., Bediot G., Ferry P., Gaillard A., Giroud C.
Evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards among home care workers
Evaluation et prévention des risques chez les aides à domicile [in French]
This special feature on the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards among home care workers covers the following topics: profile of the occupation, characteristics of workers and work organization; tasks involved in home care work; potential hazards (mental workload, physical hazards, risk of infection); recommendations for risk reduction. Appendices include two guides for occupational physicians.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.102, p.161-189. 20 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/4D2CCD5110196F0DC12570340036D888/$FILE/tc102.pdf [in French]
Duchaine C., Dutil S., Mériaux A., de Latrémoille M.C., Leduc A., Lazure L., Barbeau J.
Characterization of bioaerosols in dental surgeries
Caractérisation des bioaérosols en cabinets dentaires [in French]
The use of high-speed instruments such as turbines, ultrasonic descalers and air-water spray guns results in significant concentrations of bioaerosols being emitted into dental surgery environments. This study examined bioaerosol production and the composition and dispersion of these aerosols into the environment. It was found that under certain conditions, dental surgery staff and patients may be exposed to microorganisms present in the air, particularly bacteria from the mouth and from the water units. Repeated exposure of personnel suggests that there is a probable risk of contact between bacteria-containing aerosols and the respiratory system. With minimal ventilation, stopping treatments for two hours appears sufficient for the bioaerosol concentration to return to the level measured before treatment. The effectiveness of wearing a mask as a tool for exposure prevention remains to be determined.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. iv, 46p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-407.pdf [in French]
Pechter E., Davis L.K., Tumpowsky C., Flattery J., Harrison R., Reinisch F., Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Schill D.P., Valiante D., Filios M.
Work-related asthma among health care workers: Surveillance data from California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey, 1993-1997
In this study on work-related asthma (WRA), cases were identified using physician reports and hospital discharge data in four states. Structured interviews were used to confirm cases and collect data on occupations and exposures associated with WRA. It was found that health care workers accounted for 16% of the 1879 confirmed WRA cases, but only 8% of the states' workforce. Cases were primarily nurses employed in hospitals. The most commonly reported exposures were to cleaning products, latex, and poor air quality. It is concluded that health care providers need to recognize the risk of WRA, since early diagnosis decreases the morbidity associated with the disease. Careful product purchasing and facility maintenance would decrease the risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.47, No.3, p.265-275. 89 ref.
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