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Koehoorn M., Demers P.A., Hertzman C., Village J., Kennedy S.M.
Work organization and musculoskeletal injuries among a cohort of health care workers
This study investigated the relationship between work-organization factors (job control, job demands and workload) and the risk of lower-body musculoskeletal injury among health care workers. A four-year, retrospective cohort study of 3769 heath care workers was carried out at a hospital in the Canadian province of British Columbia. A job-exposure matrix was constructed for the work-organization factors from survey and administrative data. Musculoskeletal injuries resulting in workers' compensation claims were ascertained from the injury database of the hospital's occupational health and safety department. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Results indicate that work-organization characteristics (job control and workload) were associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries resulting in a compensation claim. These associations remained after the effects of demographic and biomechanical factors were taken into consideration.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.32, No.4, p.285-293. 34 ref.
Rytkönen E., Sorainen E., Leino-Arjas P., Solovieva S.
Hand-arm vibration exposure of dentists
The vibration of 22 dental handpieces was measured with an accelerometer during normal work. The weighted vibration and the total acceleration of high frequency vibration in the frequency range of 1.6-10kHz were analysed. Non-contact vibrations were also measured during idling with a portable digital vibrometer, and the findings compared with those of the accelerometer. A group of 295 female dentists aged 45-63 years responded to a questionnaire on working conditions, lifestyle, and state of health. It was found that the daily vibration exposure of dentists was below the exposure action value of the Vibration Directive of European Union (CIS 02-24). However a long work history in dental filling and root treatment as well as high body mass index seem to be associated with frequent finger symptoms perceived as vibration-related by the dentists.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.521-527. Illus. 19 ref.
LaMontagne A.D., Radi S., Elder D.S., Abramson M.J., Sim M.
Primary prevention of latex related sensitisation and occupational asthma: A systematic review
Eight primary prevention intervention studies on natural rubber latex (NRL) published since 1990 were identified and reviewed. Substitution of powdered latex gloves with low protein powder-free NRL gloves or latex-free gloves was found to greatly reduce NRL aeroallergens, NRL sensitization and NRL-asthma in healthcare workers. This substitution promises benefits to workers' health, and cost and human resource savings for employers. This message should be broadly disseminated beyond the hospital sector to include other healthcare settings (such as aged care facilities) as well as food service and other industries where latex gloves might be used.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.359-364. 22 ref.
Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vinet A., Vézina M., Abdous B., Gaudet M.
Effectiveness of a participative intervention on psychosocial work factors to prevent mental health problems in a hospital setting
This article describes the evaluation of a workplace intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors (psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and effort-reward imbalance) and mental health problems among care providers of a Quebec hospital. Participants were interviewed by phone before and one year after the intervention. One year after the intervention, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors in the experimental group, whereas no such reduction was found in the control group. Results suggest positive effects of the intervention. See CIS 07-1235 for details of the development and implementation phases of the study.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.335-342. 34 ref.
Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vinet A., Vézina M., Lower A.
Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital
This article describes the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors and their mental health effects among 500 care providers in a Quebec hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed and showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a reference population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR)=2.27), low social support from supervisors and co-workers (PR=1.35), low reward (PR=2.92), and effort-reward imbalance (PR=2.65). Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions. It was decided to target interventions towards team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organization, training, communication, and ergonomics. See CIS 07-1236 for an assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.326-334. 40 ref.
Vaccination in the workplace
Les vaccinations en milieu de travail [in French]
The prevention of biological hazards in the workplace is required by French labour laws. Depending on the hazards identified, preventive measures may include personal and collective protection (hygiene measures, technical measures, personal protective equipment), as well as vaccination. This article summarizes French regulations concerning vaccination in the workplace. Vaccination against hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza and polio are mandatory for persons working in health care, while immunization against typhoid is required for persons working in medical laboratories.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2006, No.668, p.47-49. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/archivests/archivests.nsf/(alldocparref)/TS668page47_1/$file/TS668page47.pdf?openelement [in French]
Roussel O., Guibala A., Belhadj-Tahar H., Sadeg N.
Exposure to cytostatic drugs - Toxicological risk in hospital settings
Exposition aux cytostatiques - Risque toxicologique en milieu hospitalier [in French]
This study examines the toxic hazard linked to the exposure of health care personnel to cytostatic drugs in hospitals. The urinary presence of various cytostatic drugs was determined for three categories of staff of a large hospital in the Paris region: physicians and their assistants; nurses and assistant nurses; unexposed controls. Urinary and blood antiradical defence capacities were also determined. Two contaminations were observed in the nurse and assistant nurse category, but their cause is unclear. Other findings are discussed. An appendix includes the prevention protocol implemented in the hospital.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2006, No.108, p.461-478. Illus. 35 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20153/$File/TF153.pdf [in French]
Transfer assist devices for safer handling of patients - A guide for selection and safe use
This guide is aimed at health care professionals to assist them evaluate and select the appropriate transfer assist devices for use in their care environment. Contents: reasons for using transfer assist devices; infection control; risk assessment; best practices when using different types of transfer assist devices: draw and slider sheets, transfer belts, slide/transfer boards, turning discs.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2006. iii, 16p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/transfer_assist_devices.pdf [in English]
Patient handling in small facilities: A companion guide to handle with care
This handbook illustrates how small facilities in the heath care sector can apply the ergonomics requirements of British Columbia's occupational safety and health regulations in their individual facility. It provides guidance on the process of identifying, assessing and controlling risks of musculoskeletal diseases for workers involved in patient handling.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2006. 28p. Illus.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/patient_handling_small_facilities.pdf [in English]
Preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders in sonography
Sonographers are at risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as inflammation of the tendons (tendonitis) or tendon sheaths (tenosynovitis), bursitis, muscle strains, and pathology of the nerves in the upper extremities, neck, and back. This information sheet includes a short summary of the findings of a NIOSH study on the main risk factors of musculoskeletal diseases among these workers, together with recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, work practices, scheduling and training.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2006. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions/2006-148/pdfs/2006-148.pdf [in English]
Ungers L.J., Vendrely T.G.
Comparison of sampling and analytical methods used during the preparation of methyl methacrylate bone cements
Surgeons, surgical nurses, and other operating room staff are exposed to airborne concentrations of methyl methacrylate during the preparation of orthopaedic bone cement. This study compares the reliability of sampling and analysis methods used to measure methyl methacrylate in this work environment. It is concluded that assessments using photo-acoustic infrared spectrometry and solid sorbent, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection may be relied on, but the detector tube method underreports actual exposures. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2006, Vol.3, No.1, p.351-357. Illus. 10 ref.
Fritschi L., Day L., Shirangi A., Robertson I., Lucas M., Vizard A.
Injury in Australian veterinarians
The aim of this cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 2800 Australian veterinarians was to identify the prevalence of injuries sustained by these workers and the groups most at risk for different types of injury. Subjects were asked whether they had ever had a significant work-related injury, a less serious acute work injury in the last 12 months, a work-related chronic musculoskeletal problem or dog or cat bites. The prevalence of injuries by gender, practice type and decade of graduation were reported and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the risk of each type of injury. Findings show that injuries are common and serious in the profession, with large animal practitioners at highest risk.
Occupational Medicine, May 2006, Vol.56, No.3, p.199-203. 17 ref.
Health care institutions and hazard evaluation: A complex process
Etablissements de santé et évaluation des risques: une procédure complexe [in French]
This article comments on the legal requirement for evaluating the safety and health hazards faced by workers in health care institutions. Mandatory since 2001 in France, these evaluations involve several difficulties given the complex nature of the work environment. Contents: legal aspects and the requirement to compile a single hazard evaluation document; hazards; complexity of the evaluation; analysis required prior to compiling the single document. Includes an example of a hazard evaluation sheet and brief statistics of occupational accidents and diseases in health care institutions.
Revue Technique Apave, Jan.-Mar. 2006, No.313, p.45-47. Illus.
Cloutier E., Bourdouxhe M., Ledoux E., David H., Gagnon I., Ouellet F.
Descriptive study of private agency nurses' employment, working and health and safety conditions in the context of a labour shortage
Etude descriptive des conditions d'emploi, de travail et de santé et de sécurité du travail des infirmières d'agence privée dans un contexte de pénurie de main-d'œuvre [in French]
This study as well as a previous study (R-346, see CIS 03-1256) show that local community service centres (LCSCs) in Quebec have to deal with an increasing demand for services with insufficient manpower. They therefore make more use of the services of private homecare agencies. This study analyzed the working and safety and health conditions of nurses from agencies collaborating with one of the previously studied LCSCs. The report describes the main characteristics of two agencies and the nurses who are employed in them, together with the constraints that they face, their occupational safety and health conditions and their career and health paths. There are also comparisons between the occupational safety and health conditions of agency nurses and of nurses from the LCSCs studied. Finally, leads for further research are provided.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. xii, 258p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 20.00 (main report); 2006. vi, 41p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: CAD 7.42 (summary). Downloadable versions (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-475.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RR-475.pdf [in French]
Karpowicz J., Gryz K.
Health risk assessment of occupational exposure to a magnetic field from magnetic resonance imaging devices
Health care personnel who operate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices are exposed to magnetic fields at levels depending both on the type of the magnet and on the ergonomic design of the MRI device. This article presents methods used for measuring and assessing workers' exposure. It also discusses the results of inspection measurements carried out next to several MRI devices. The variability of workers' exposure supports the need for monitoring occupational exposure. International exposure assessment standards and guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the European Commission and Poland are compared.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.155-167. Illus. 19 ref.
Theilmeier A., et al.
Lumbar load of health-care workers during patient transfer activities - Characteristic values to support occupational-disease evaluations
Belastung der Lendenwirbelsäule von Pflegepersonen bei Patiententransfers - Kennwerte zur Nutzung in Berufskrankheiten-Feststellungsverfahren [in German]
Different patient-transfer tasks were performed by two experienced teachers of health-care personnel in an experimental setting. The teachers were familiar with conventional and ergonomic methods of carrying out patient transfer activities such as lifting patients into and out of a bathtub. Their body postures and movements during patient transfer activities were determined with the help of video recorders and optoelectronic data capturing systems. The action forces applied during the various tasks were measured with specially developed devices. From the collected data the lumbar loads were determined by biomechanical-model calculations. The obtained characteristic values of lumbar loads caused by patient transfer tasks are presented for use in the evaluation of the occupational origin of disc-related diseases of the lumbar spine.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.228-251. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Katagiri H., Suzuki T., Aizawa Y., Kadowaki T.
Indoor glutaraldehyde levels in the endoscope disinfecting room and subjective symptoms among workers
This study measured glutaraldehyde (GA) levels in the work environment during the disinfection of endoscopes and also investigated the subjective symptoms of the workers engaged in that work. Eight rooms for cleaning and disinfecting endoscopy equipment were surveyed at six hospitals in the Tokyo and Kanagawa area. The geometric mean environmental GA levels in the eight rooms were 1.3 to 19.6ppb. The personal exposure levels at the time of replacing the antiseptic solution containing GA in two of the disinfecting rooms were 94.2 and 84.9ppb. Subjective symptoms such as ophthalmic, nasal, respiratory and pharyngeal symptoms and nausea were more prevalent among workers than controls as evidenced from the questionnaire survey.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.225-229. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_2_225.pdf [in English]
Miller A., Engst C., Tate R.B., Yassi A.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of portable lifts in a new long-term care facility
Researchers and health and safety practitioners have long advocated replacing manual patient handling techniques with ceiling lifts in long-term care. However most of these studies have only evaluated the impact of fixed ceiling lifts on extended care residents where the ratio of ceiling lifts to resident beds is one to one. This study assesses the effectiveness of portable ceiling lifts in a new multi-level care facility on risk of patient handling injuries where the ratio of ceiling lifts to resident beds is one to six. Results indicated that staff perceived that they were at significantly less risk of injury when using ceiling lifts compared to manual methods. Seventy-five percent of staff preferred to use the ceiling lifts over any other method for lifting and transferring residents. Compensation costs due to patient handling decreased in the intervention facility, while there was a 241 % increase in the comparison facility.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2006, Vol.37, No.3, p.377-385. Illus. 46 ref.
Marcos P., Seitz T., Bubb H., Wichert A., Feussner H.
Computer simulation for ergonomic improvements in laparoscopic surgery
The aim of this study was to reduce the stress and strain of medical staff during laparoscopic operations and, simultaneously, to increase the safety and efficiency of an integrated operation room (OR) by an ergonomic redesign. The study involved a computer simulation approach using free modelling of the OR and 3D human models. After defining ergonomically ideal postures, optimal solutions for key elements of an ergonomic design of the OR (position and height of the image displays, height of the OR table and the Mayo stand) could be evaluated with special regard to the different individual body size of each member of the team. These data should be useful for the development of team adapted, ergonomic integrated OR suites.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2006, Vol.37, No.3, p.251-258. Illus. 14 ref.
Smith D.R., Wei N., Zhang Y.J., Wang R.S.
Musculoskeletal complaints and psychosocial risk factors among physicians in mainland China
The aim of this study was to investigate musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) among a cross-section of physicians in China. A total of 361 doctors were surveyed, with MSC categories focusing on the neck, shoulder, upper back and lower back regions. The 12-month MSC period-prevalence at any region was 67.5%. Complaints were most commonly reported at the lower back (43.7%), followed by the neck (42.3%), shoulder (37.8%) and upper back (29%). Female gender was associated with an increased likelihood of MSC at any region (odds ratio, OR 3.05). Working in the internal medicine department was associated with an increased likelihood of MSC at the neck (OR 1.85), shoulder (OR 2.06), upper back (OR 2.19) and any region (OR 2.85). Psychosocial risk factors were also identified as follows: too much overtime (OR 2.04-2.65), high mental pressure (OR 2.28), inadequate work support (OR 3.62) and inadequate work discussion (OR 3.07).
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 2006, Vol.36, No.6, p.599-603.13 ref.
Risk of biological accidents among workers of a health administration region
Riesgo biológico accidental entre trabajadores de un área sanitaria [in Spanish]
This article presents the findings of a survey carried out between 1999 and 2003 in the Spanish health administration region of Puertollano on the incidence of biological accidents. It involved 742 workers (533 women and 209 men). 188 cases of accidental exposure to biological agents were notified during the study period, corresponding to a rate of 5.1 cases per 100 workers. Accidental exposure was the most frequent among nursing staff. Findings are discussed.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 3rd Quarter 2006, Vol.13, No.49, p.13-16. Illus.
The single document in hospitals
Document unique à l'hôpital [in French]
This article describes the implementation of an approach to the evaluation of safety and health hazards in a large teaching hospital in France as required by law. Topics addressed: project preparation and planning; pilot-scale hazard evaluation involving several units; extending the hazard evaluation to all 50 units; highlighting the hazards requiring corrective actions.
Face au risque, Sep. 2006, No.425, p.15-16. Illus.
Landtblom A.M., Tondel M., Hjalmarsson P., Flodin U., Axelson O.
The risk for multiple sclerosis in female nurse anaesthetists: A register based study
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Female nurse anaesthetists, other female nurses and female teachers were identified and retrieved from the 1985 census in Sweden and linked with the disability pension registers and with data on hospital care between 1985 and 2000. The cumulative incidence rate of MS was found to be increased in female nurse anaesthetists in relation to other nurses (statistically not significant) and teachers (statistically significant). These findings give some support to previous findings of an increased risk for MS in nurse anaesthetists.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2006, Vol.63, No.6, p.387-389. Illus. 32 ref.
Shah S.F., Bener A., Al-Kaabi S., Al Khal A.L., Samson S.
The epidemiology of needle stick injuries among health care workers in a newly developed country
The main objective of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of needle-stick injuries (NSI) occurring during 2001 among health care workers (HCWs) of a hospital group in Qatar. Of the 1274 HCWs who were approached to participate in this study, 1022 workers responded to a questionnaire that included variables on age, socio-demographic data and immunization history (response rate 80.2%). Findings are discussed. The study revealed a NSI prevalence of 21%, with the risk of blood borne virus transmission.
Safety Science, June 2006, Vol.44, No.5, p.387-394. 25 ref.
Weisshaar E., Radulescu M., Bock M., Albrecht U., Diepgen T.L.
Educational and dermatological aspects of secondary individual prevention in healthcare workers
This article describes a skin protection programme for healthcare workers (HCWs). The 504 participants were HCWs suffering from skin diseases suspected to be caused by occupational factors. Training mainly focused on the texture and functioning of the skin, general aspects of occupational skin diseases (OSDs), general information concerning skin protection and instructions about the correct use of skin cleansing and skin protection products. Participants were also examined by a dermatologist and a precise history of their skin diseases was obtained. Participants rated the programme as good to excellent. Similar training programmes should be offered to employees of other occupations with an increased risk for OSD.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.254-260. Illus. 17 ref.
Jackson C.A., Wilson D.A.
World at work: Hospital pharmacy clean-rooms
This review article discusses the potential hazards of working in hospital pharmacy clean rooms and the corresponding protective measures. Contents: tasks of the job; hazards of the job (toxicological and musculoskeletal hazards, heat stress, dehydration and urinary tract infections, social isolation, shift work); preventive measures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.63, No.1, p.68-70. Illus. 14 ref.
Ergonomic intervention studies among health care personnel
Etudes d'intervention ergonomique chez les soignants [in French]
This article provides a review of a seminar held in Saint-Maurice, France, in March 2005 on ergonomic intervention studies aimed at reducing occupational musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among health care personnel. Topics addressed: methodological aspects of the design of ergonomic studies on MSDs; why the frequency of MSDs among health care personnel is high, and possible role of ergonomic interventions; brief overview of ergonomic intervention studies among health care personnel carried out in St Louis, United States, including in particular the adoption of patient lifting equipment.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.187-194. 5 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20148/$File/TF148.pdf [in French]
Smith D.R., Wei N., Zhang Y.J., Wang R.S.
Needlestick and sharps injuries among a cross-section of physicians in mainland China
This study describes the prevalence, distribution and risk factors of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) among a cross-section of Chinese physicians. Data was obtained by an anonymous, self-reporting survey administered to all 361 physicians at a university teaching hospital. The response rate was 79%. Among them, 64% had experienced an NSI in the previous 12 months, 50% of which involved contaminated devices. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between NSI and working in the intensive care unit (adjusted odds ratio 5.3). Future measures should consider the unique cultural beliefs of Chinese people and its effect on preventive behaviours.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.49, No.3, p.169-174. Illus. 14 ref.
Smith D.R., Mihashi M., Adachi Y., Koga H., Ishitake T.
A detailed analysis of musculoskeletal disorder risk factors among Japanese nurses
A Japanese language version of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was administered to 1,162 nurses from a large teaching hospital. The response rate was 73%. The 12-month period prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) was 85.5%. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and having children were shown to be significant risk factors, with adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.87, 2.45 and 2.53, respectively. Workplace risk factors included manually handling patients (OR 2.07 to 11.97) and undertaking physically laborious work (OR 2.09 to 2.76). Nurses reporting pre menstrual tension were 1.66 and 1.94 times more likely to suffer from lower and upper back MSDs, respectively. High mental pressure was also identified as a significant risk factor for MSD of the neck (OR 1.53) and shoulder (OR 2.07). It is concluded that remediation strategies that focus only on manual handling are not sufficient. More emphasis needs to be placed on job satisfaction, work organization, and occupational stress.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.2, p.195-200. 16 ref.
Ramsay J., Denny F., Szirotnyak K., Thomas J., Corneliuson E., Paxton K.L.
Identifying nursing hazards in the emergency department: A new approach to nursing job hazard analysis
The objective of this study was to identify gaps in safety education both for registered nurses working in emergency departments and for nursing students. A literature review was performed to summarize the nature and scope of occupational nursing hazards. Potential safety risk factors from 29 hospitals across the USA were listed and evaluated by an expert panel of occupational health nurses. An expert panel also evaluated the degree to which nursing accreditation standards were integrated with OSHA's list of known emergency department hazards, and the degree to which current emergency department nursing position descriptions incorporated hazard recognition and control strategies. It was found that neither accreditation standards nor position descriptions adequately integrated common occupational hazard recognition and control strategies. An approach aimed at addressing these issues is proposed.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.1, p.63-74. 29 ref.
Evaluation of an intervention comprising a no lifting policy in Australian hospitals
The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate the use of transfer equipment, the number of injuries, pain symptoms and absence from work among nurses after the intervention of a "no lifting policy" at a hospital, compared with nurses at two control hospitals. A comprehensive questionnaire was used for data collection. Results show that at the hospital where the policy had been introduced, the nurses used the transfer equipment regularly. They had significantly fewer back injuries, pain symptoms and absence from work due to musculoskeletal disorders compared with nurses at the control hospitals. The study showed strong evidence for supporting the implementation of a no lifting policy.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2006, Vol.37, No.2, p.141-148. 52 ref.
Gallet A.M., Sasso M.O.
Prevention of occupational hazards. Methodological guide for public sector health and social services institutions
Prévenir les risques professionnels. Guide méthodologique à destination des établissements du secteur public sanitaire et social [in French]
This guide to the prevention of occupational hazards in public sector health and social services institutions proposes several methodological points of reference together with examples of types of occupational safety and health projects that may be considered for implementation. Topics covered: specifics of hospital environments that need to be taken into account when implementing the project; preparation of the approach; examples of projects already undertaken in health care institutions; example of a project implementation procedure.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Sep. 2006. 36p. 42 ref.
http://www.anact.fr/pls/portal/docs/1/12302.PDF [in French]
Occupational safety and health in action: Retirement homes
La prévention en action. Les maisons de retraite [in French]
The purpose of this booklet is to offer guidance for the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards in retirement homes for the elderly. It is aimed at the heads of institutions as well as at workers and their representatives. It addresses the five steps of the prevention approach: preparation; hazard evaluation; definition of the action plan; implementation of the action plan; evaluation of the approach. Appendices include the main French laws and regulations, together with examples of a hazard evaluation checklist and a preventive action programme.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Sep. 2006. 36p. Illus. 22 ref.
http://www.anact.fr/pls/portal/docs/1/19046.PDF [in French]
Occupational safety and health in action: Health and social care institutions
La prévention en action: les structures d'hébergement, secteur sanitaire et social [in French]
The purpose of this booklet is to offer guidance for the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards in health and social care institutions. It is aimed at the heads of institutions as well as at workers and their representatives. It addresses the five steps of the prevention approach: preparation; hazard evaluation; definition of the action plan; implementation of the action plan; evaluation of the approach. Appendices include an example of a hazard evaluation checklist, the main French laws and regulations and an example of a hazard evaluation form.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Sep. 2006. 36p. Illus. 22 ref.
http://www.anact.fr/pls/portal/docs/1/19052.PDF [in French]
Bondéelle A., Delmotte H., Gauron C.
Radioactive hospital waste - Radiation under control
Déchets hospitaliers radioactifs - Rayonnements sous contrôle [in French]
This collection of articles describes current practices and regulatory provisions in France governing the disposal of hospital radioactive waste. Topics addressed: regulatory trends; role of the competent person; flowchart of a hospital radioactive waste management system (sorting, storage, elimination) for liquid and solid wastes generated by health care activities contaminated by radioactive substances; training and information; glossary.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2006, No.664, p.21-29. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/archivests/archivests.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS664page20_1/$File/TS664page20.pdf?OpenElement [in French]
Patient transfers and health care workers' backs
Le transfert des patients, le dos des soignants... [in French]
Nursing is a physically strenuous activity. Transferring patients within hospitals or other health care institutions consists of heavy work that can be aggravated by stress or neuropsychic pressures. This article summarizes the findings of various studies aimed at characterizing the physical workload of nursing staff in health care institutions in Belgium. Topics addressed: definition of physical workload; description of the task of transferring and transporting patients; equipment (beds, wheelchairs); lifting aids; factors that play a role in the pushing effort (wheels, ramps).
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2006, No.4, p.4-8. Illus. 6 ref.
Debbabi F., Bouajina E., Rammeh N., Saad I., Mrizak N.
Low back pain risk factors among hospital staff
Facteurs de risque de lombalgie chez le personnel hospitalier [in French]
The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study the prevalence and occupational and non-occupational risk factors of low back pain among nurses. Participants consisted of a randomized sample of 250 nurses (129 women, 121 men) selected among the nursing staff of two hospitals in Tunisia. Data on symptoms and various occupational and non-occupational factors were collected by means of questionnaires. The prevalence of low back pain in the 12 months preceding the survey was 37.6% among women and 43.6% among men. By applying statistical analysis to compare subjects with and without low back pain, it was possible to highlight some risk factors, in particular work schedule, length of commuting journey and movements carried out on the job. On the other hand, there were no differences in low back pain prevalence related to postures adopted while working or patient handling.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Feb. 2006, Vol.67, No.1, p.14-18. 18 ref.
Medicine and ionizing radiation: Information sheets for facilitating hazard evaluation in nuclear medicine
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiches d'aide à l'analyse des risques en médecine nucléaire [in French]
This set of six information sheets for facilitating hazard analysis in the field of nuclear medicine was compiled by a multidisciplinary committee comprising various institutions and experts, following a survey on radiation protection conducted in the Ile-de-France region. The sheets address the following topics: relevant legislation; in vivo diagnosis other than by means of positron emission tomography; in vivo diagnosis using fluorine 18 positron emission tomography; outpatient iodine 131 therapy; in-hospital iodine 131 therapy; follow-up of nuclear medicine patients.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.105, p.7-48. Illus.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20106/$File/TC106.pdf [in French]
Avian influenza, including influenza A (H5N1), in humans: WHO interim infection control guideline for health care facilities
This publication provides guidance on the prevention of infections among health care personnel in contact with patients who are suspected or confirmed bearers of the avian flu virus. It is aimed at health specialists and all persons in governments and administrations faced with the avian flu problem. It consists of three parts. The first part summarizes WHO recommendations with respect to infection prevention and personal protective equipment and the second part details the precautions to be taken to prevent infections. Appendices include general information on avian flu, its routes of transmission, respiratory protection, confinement units, the use of disinfectants and prophylaxis.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, updated Apr. 2006. PDF document. iii, 54p. Illus. 67 ref.
http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/EA6D9DF3-688D-4316-91DF-5553E7B1DBCD/0/InfectionControlAIinhumansWHOInterimGuidelinesfor2b_0628.pdf [in English]
Applying radiation safety standards in radiotherapy
The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) establish requirements for persons responsible for designing, running and decommissioning activities involving ionizing radiation. This report is intended as a guide to both regulators and users of radiation sources in radiotherapy in applying the BSS. Contents: background, objective and scope; principal requirements of the BSS; safety of sources; occupational exposure; medical exposure; public exposure; potential exposure, mitigation and emergency plans; safety in the transport of radioactive materials. Appendices include checklists, dose limits, emergency procedures and case studies.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2006. 120p. Illus. 60 ref. Price: EUR 28.00. Downloadable version free of charge
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1205_web.pdf [in English]
Löffler H., Bruckner T., Diepgen T., Effendy I.
Primary prevention in health care employees: A prospective intervention study in a 3-year training period
Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. This study investigates the efficiency of a special training program among health care apprentices. 521 apprentices from 14 nursing schools in Germany were randomly divided into an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and a control group without any further teaching. In the intervention group, a significantly better hand skin condition was observed at the end of the three-year training period than in the control group, with the prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% and 89.3% respectively. The controls had an odds ratio of 4.8 for developing any skin changes on the hands after three years. Other findings are discussed. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2006, Vol.54, No.4, p.202-209. 50 ref.
Cherniack M., et al.
Nerve conduction and sensorineural function in dental hygienists using high frequency ultrasound handpieces
Oscillatory vibration from industrial power tools poses a well-recognized risk of peripheral nerve injury. There have been reports of elevated vibrotactile perception thresholds (VPT) among dentists, dental technicians, and dental hygienists, using rotary devices and ultrasonics. Elevated VPTs are an indicator of small fibre nerve or mechanoreceptor injury. This cross-sectional study of 94 experienced dental hygienists was conducted to assess peripheral nerve function and clinical signs and symptoms. Testing included measurement of VPTs for three different categories of mechanoreceptors, sensory nerve conduction tests with fractionated digit and palmar segments, and measurement of calibrated pinch force. A high level of paraesthesia was observed among dental hygienists. This and other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2006, Vol.49, No.5, p.313-326. 43 ref.
Cloutier E., David H., Ledoux E., Bourdouxhe M., Teiger C., Gagonon I., Ouellet F.
Importance of work organization as support for the protective strategies of FSAs and nurses in home care and support services
Importance de l'organisation du travail comme soutien aux stratégies protectrices des AFS et des infirmières des services de soins et de maintien à domicile [in French]
The aging of the population and the reorganization of the health care sector have resulted in a major expansion of the home care sector. It is in this context that this report analyses the occupational safety and health conditions of family and social auxiliaries (FSA) and nurses. Somewhat older and dealing with diverse and not extensively documented risk factors, home care personnel have developed protective strategies that are supported by organizational factors. The report summarizes the role of work organization in facilitating the development of protective strategies by experienced workers and novices, mainly in high-risk work situations. It proposes a model of work organization that ensures the protection of home health care staff
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iii, 36p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: CAD 6.36. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RR-453.pdf [in French]
Berthelette D., Leduc N., Bilodeau H., Durand M.J., Faye C., Loignon C., Lagacé M.C.
Analysis of a training program for the primary prevention of back pain among health care staff in Quebec hospitals
Analyse d'un programme de formation visant la prévention primaire des maux de dos chez le personnel soignant des centres hospitaliers du Québec [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the Safe Patient-Transfer Programme (SPTP), established since 1985 in Quebec's health care institutions to prevent back pain in care-giving personnel. It involved a literature survey and questionnaire of over 400 SPTP trainers. The objective of the first phase was to describe the programme's underlying theory, to document its implementation, and to inventory other musculoskeletal injury prevention interventions implemented in these institutions. These aspects were then used to define the expected effects of the programme, to create a reliable measuring tool, to identify the links between these effects and the training given in the workplace and to estimate the relationship between the programme's costs and benefits. Despite wide differences between institutions in the degree of SPTP implementation, it is concluded that the programme is effective.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. x, 260p. Illus. 77 ref. Price: CAD 17.83. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-452.pdf [in French]
Chartier A.M., Joron P.
Guide to the inspection of a dentistry practice
Guide de visite du cabinet dentaire [in French]
This guide for occupational physicians on the inspection of dental assistants' workplaces is based on an inventory of the physical, chemical, infectious, postural and psychological hazards faced by these workers. It takes the form of a checklist of questions for evaluating the various hazards. These inspections will allow occupational physicians to reach an agreement with the employer on the appropriate medical supervision for dental assistants and will help employers put together a hazard evaluation document.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.1, p.17-24. 9 ref.
Collins J.W., Nelson A., Sublet V.
Safe lifting and movement of nursing home residents
This guide is intended for nursing home owners, administrators, nurse managers, safety and health professionals and workers who are interested in establishing a safe resident lifting program. Contents: the challenge of lifting residents in nursing homes; benefits, cost and effectiveness of a safe lifting programme; frequently asked questions about safe resident lifting, handling and movement programmes.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Feb. 2006. vi, 20p. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-117/pdfs/2006-117.pdf [in English]
10 Health questions about the new EU neighbours
This guide provides basic data on safety and health systems in ten Eastern European countries. Includes data on population dynamics, life expectancy, common diseases, main health risks, health sector administration, provision of health care, reforms during the 1990s and data on occupational accidents and diseases where available.
World Health Organization, WHO Press, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. ix, 248p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: CHF 40.00 (CHF 28.00 in developing countries).
http://www.euro.who.int/document/e88202.pdf [in English]
Hernández Calleja A.
Precautions for infection control in health care settings
Precauciones para el control de las infecciones en centros sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note focuses on the use of isolation for preventing the spread of infectious diseases in health care settings. Contents: means of transmission of infectious diseases; historical development of isolation procedures; universal precautions; precautions during isolation (standard precautions, avoiding disease transmission by air, by droplets or by direct contact).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 8p. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.mtas.es//insht/ntp/ntp_700.htm [in Spanish]
Health care workers in the face of violence
Les soignants face à la violence [in French]
Contents of this practical guide aimed at health care workers exposed to violence: violence situations in hospital settings; when faced with aggressive and violent behaviour, better understand to better respond; violence at the place of work, an occupational hazard for health care personnel; prevention strategies; preparedness for facing critical situations; recognizing early signs of violence; general intervention principles; containing verbal aggression; responding to physical aggression; controlling highly agitated or violent patients; post-crisis management; post-crisis support for victims of aggression.
Editions Lamarre, 1, avenue Eugène-et-Armand-Peugeot, 92500 Rueil-Malmaison, France, 2005. xiii, 165p. Illus. 61 ref. Index.
International Council of Nurses, Public Services International, World Health Organization, International Labour Office
Framework Guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector - The training manual
This training manual on guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector is primarily targeted at workplace situations but is also suitable for being used in awareness-raising contexts. It is intended for a wide range of operators in the health sector, including health personnel, members of professional associations, trade unionists, administrators, managers, trainers, decision makers and practitioners in general. Contents: preliminary remarks for the facilitator; introduction; awareness and understanding; rights and responsibilities, choosing the best approach: recognizing and addressing factors leading to workplace violence; intervention; monitoring and evaluation; conclusion.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. viii, 122p. Illus. + CD-ROM.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---safework/documents/instructionalmaterial/wcms_108542.pdf [in English]
Palmstierna T., Nijman H., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Vienna, Austria, 20-21 October 2005. Several papers addressed the safety, health and training of the staff: training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on the effectiveness of training interventions in the management of violence in healthcare; nurses' attitudes on the reasons for patient aggression and its management.
Oud Consultancy, Hakfort 621, 1102 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005. 352p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
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