Health care services - 1,917 entries found
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Gamberale F., Svensson G., Andersson B.
Effect of anaesthetic gases on psychomotor functions in anaesthesist nurses
Narkosgasers effekt på psykomotoriska funktioner hos narkossköterskor [in Swedish]
20 anaesthetic nurses and 20 control nurses working in intensive care units were tested for reaction time and perceptual speed at the beginning and at the end of a work day. While the anaesthetic nurses were exposed to anaesthetic gases in their daily work, the control nurses worked in rooms in which they were not exposed to anaesthetics. No measurable impairment in reaction time and perceptual speed was detected in anaesthetic nurses as compared with the control group. However, intraindividual variation in one of the reaction time tests was found to be greater for anaesthetic nurses than for the control group at the end of the work day, but not 16 h after cessation of the exposure.
Arbete och hälsa - vetenskaplig skriftserie, 1973:5, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, S-100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1973, 13p. 14 ref. Price: Swe-cr.6.OO.
Andronache E., Cucu M., Robitu T.
Studies on the use of coliform bacteria as indicators of microbic contamination of hospital air
Cercetări privind folosirea bacteriilor coliforme ca indicatori de contaminare microbiană a aerului din spital [in Romanian]
Results of tests made between Oct. 1969 and May 1970 in a Bucharest hospital, using air samples. The criteria were the total number of germs per m3 at 37°C, the number of haemolytic staphylococci, the number of alpha and beta haemolytic streptococci and the number of coliform germs. The latter seem to be the most accurate indicators of the contamination of air by bacteria and of infection hazards. The presence of these bacteria in air should be considered a warning signal as regards hospital sanitary conditions. The analysis technique is simple and, apart from standard equipment, does not require more than a differential medium for the coliform bacteria.
Igiena, July 1973, Vol.22, No.7, p.385-392. 4 ref.
Moffa J.P., Guckes A.D., Okawa M.T., Lilly G.E.
An evaluation of non-precious alloys for use with porcelain veneers - Part II: Industrial safety and biocompatibility.
An air-sampling survey was conducted to determine whether or not the use of beryllium-containing non-precious alloys constitutes a dental occupational hazard. The biocompatibility of certain non-precious alloys was also assessed by means of animal implants. Results show that with proper local exhaust ventilation, non-precious beryllium containing alloys may be used safely in dental laboratories. The biocompatibility study demonstrates that several non-precious alloys produce a mild histological response not significantly different from that produced by the control gold-based alloy and less than that produced by zinc oxide and engenol cement and silicate cement.
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Oct. 1973, Vol.30, No.4, Part 1, p.432-441. Illus. 9 ref.
Weiss M., Guiard J., Planché C., Guilleret C.
Viral hepatitis - A complication of extracorporeal blood circulation endangering hospital teams
L'hépatite virale - Une complication des circulations extra-corporelles qui n'épargne pas l'équipe de soins. [in French]
Description of 2 self-observed cases of viral hepatitis due to occupation, which occurred among the staff of an open-heart surgery unit (1 surgeon and 1 heart-lung machine technician contracted viral hepatitis with positive Australia or HB antigen test). The article examines the practical problems which arise from the points of view of forensic medicine, prophylaxis and statistics. Preventive measures should be oriented mainly towards systematic discovery of donors of contaminated blood and patients who are carriers of the HB virus or Australian antigen (patients about to undergo open-heart surgery, kidney transplant or haemodialysis); this is indispensable for the patient as well as for the hospital team. The statistical data quoted show a very high incidence of hepatitis among nursing and technical staff of specialised hospital services: 14 positive reactions and 12 cases of icterus among 190 persons examined during 1 year in a hospital, and 9 cases out of 52 persons during the same year in the laboratory of a hospital pharmacy.
Nouvelle presse médicale, 26 May 1973, Vol.2, No.21, p.1437-1441. 30 ref.
Notification No.2/1973 concerning protection against hepatitis infection
Meddelelse nr.2/1973 om retningslinier for beskyttelse mod hepatitissmitte (leverbetændelse) [in Danish]
These directives, intended for hospitals and laboratories which analyse human blood and other biologic substances, call for strict observance of hygienic rules. Direct contact with blood, urine, faeces, etc. must be avoided. Pipetting by direct mouth aspiration is prohibited. Washing hands before and after taking samples is compulsory. Gloves should be used whenever possible.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 15 Feb. 1973. 2p. Gratis.
Occupational safety and health reference book for health service workers
Spravočnik po ohrane truda rabotnikov zdravoohranenija [in Russian]
Compilation of USSR legislation and standards concerning the following subjects: general aspects of occupational safety and health; employment of women and young persons; supply of milk and therapeutic or prophylactic diet; supply of work clothing and protective clothing; safety and health engineering; workmens' compensation.
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, Moskva, USSR, 2nd edition, 1972. 360p. Illus. Price: Rbl.1.57.
Mercury hazard (pre-hydrargyrism) in dental practice
Le risque mercuriel (pré-hydrargyrisme) en pratique dentaire. [in French]
Thesis for the doctorate in dental surgery. After describing his own case, the author briefly reviews the history of occupational mercury poisoning, especially among dentists. The toxicology of mercury in occupational health is discussed: threshold limit values, ways of entering the body, processes of elimination, clinical signs and exposed occupations. The section devoted to dental work covers sources of mercury vapours in dental surgeries (amalgams), monitoring of mercury vapours, urinary mercury rates among dentists, and the ratio urinary excretion/Hg vapour concentration in inhaled air, and points out how real the mercury hazard is. This hazard can produce a state of pre-hydrargyrism without clinical signs, which calls for preventive measures: improvement of techniques for the preparation and handling of amalgams, monitoring of air pollution, more effective hygiene measures and periodic surveillance of dental personnel exposed. Tables giving the results of monitoring carried out by the author are appended.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de chirurgie dentaire, Paris, France, 1972. 102p. 52 ref.
Department of Health and Social Security, London.
Code of practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use.
This revised code applies to the use of ionising radiations arising from all forms of medical and dental practice and from allied research on human subjects. Individual sections are devoted to: scope; general measures for radiological protection; protective clothing; storage and movement of radioactive substances; disposal of radioactive waste, etc. Appendices contain information on responsibility for safety arrangements, maximum permissible dosages, body burdens, TLV's, derived working limits for surface contamination, markings, tube and source housings, requirements for dose control of high energy X-rays and electrons, transportation, radiation and contamination monitoring instruments, etc. A detailed subject index is appended.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London, S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1972. 138 p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: £0.60.
Radiotelemetric heart-rate studies, electrocardiograms and skin temperature in surgical gynaecologists
Radiotelemetrische Untersuchungen von Herzschlagfrequenz, Elektrokardiogramm und Hauttemperatur bei operativ tätigen Gynäkologen [in German]
Studies on the effect of surgical work and the occurrence of special psychovegetative stress on various parameters in gynaecologists showed that heart rate was 20/min higher than during ward work. Electrocardiography gave no evidence of stress-induced coronary irrigation deficiency. Skin temperature showed a tendency to rise during surgical work. In view of the incidence and level of heart-rate increase, the authors conclude on the occurrence of increased psycho-vegetative stress during surgical work.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, June 1972, Vol.7, No.6, p.168-173.
Safety guide for health care institutions
Published jointly by the American Hospital Association and the National Safety Council, this manual has been prepared to assist hospital personnel in recognising and eliminating potential hazards to both personnel and patients. Subjects covered include: safety motivation and education; accident records; employee safety; safety inspections; fire prevention and fire fighting; special departmental problems. The manual is supplemented by a list of safety organisations in the USA.
American Hospital Association, 840 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1972. 238p. Illus. 255 ref.
Central Pathology Committee, Department of Health and Social Security and Welsh Office, London and Cardiff
Safety in the post-mortem room
This handbook deals with safety precautions to be observed by personnel in the post-mortem room. Subjects covered are risk of infections, smallpox cases, first for samll cuts and wounds, safe use of instruments, uses and hazards of chemicals, ionising radiation and isotope hazards, and safet practices for dealing with radioactive corpses.
Department of Health and Social Security, Alexander Fleming House, Elephant and Castle, London SE1 6BY, United Kingdom, May 1972. 18p. 3 ref. Gratis.
Safety in the use of electromedical equipment on humans
Sicherheitsfragen bei der Anwendung elektromedizinischer Geräte am Menschen [in German]
The increasing use of electromedical equipment in hospitals and medical practice has considerably increased electrical hazards in this field. The author deals first with the phenomena and physiological reactions produced by a current passing through the human body. He refers to experimental studies on men and animals. A detailed description is given of electrical hazards in hospitals and laboratories and a distinction is made between "macroshock" and "microshock". General and specific safety measures for electromedical equipment are given and a safety checklist is presented which should be used for new installations, before each use, and during examinations or operations.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 16 Sep. 1972, Vol.63, No.19, p.1081-1092. Illus. 14 ref.
Castagna R., Sarandrea M., Venier A.
Experimental survey of dental X-ray equipment
Indagine sperimentale su apparecchi di radiologia dentaria [in Italian]
Results of a series of tests carried out in Italy to ascertain the degree of safety of dental X-ray apparatus and any radiation hazards involved. The Röpak investigation method was followed, using a special photographic emulsion which, exposed when the apparatus to be tested is being operated in a specific manner, enables the radiation to be determined quantitatively and qualitatively any protection and shielding defects in the equipment to be detected. The exposed plates were examined in the laboratory of the Monte Porzio Catone Study and Investigation Centre of the National Accident Prevention Institute (ENPI). Recommendations were drawn up, on the basis of the investigation, for better use of this equipment. The investigation also showed the urgent need for Italian regulations concerning the design, construction, maintenance and use of this equipment, with standard specifications comparable with those of the other EEC countries.
Securitas, July 1972, Vol.57, No.7, p.585-592. Illus. 6 ref.
Exposure of dental workers to mercury
The work environment and operating procedures of 23 dentists and their assistants were surveyed with a view to identifying hazards associated with the preparation of mercury amalgams. The methods used and the results obtained are discussed (airborne mercury vapour, airborne particulate matter, mercury deposited on the hands, urine analysis). The greatest potential hazard results from contamination of the hands when working with mercury metal or fresh amalgam. Respirable dust was also significant. The study revealed the almost complete ignorance of most dental assistants and many dentists that mercury can be harmful, and the absence of precautions in most instances. A list of hygienic measures is proposed in an appendix.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1972, Vol.33, No.7, p.492-502. 19 ref.
The nurse in an ionizing-radiation therapy centre
L'infirmière soignante dans un centre de traitement par rayons ionisants [in French]
The 30 nurses in a radiotherapy centre were subject to 3 types of exposure: X-rays, sealed sources, unsealed sources. The hazards may be related to the ionizing radiation directly (external, skin or internal contamination) or indirectly (psychological disorders), or related to the workplace (claustration, excessively high temperature, visual fatigue). The selection examination includes a detailed medical history, a clinical examination (vision, mouth, respiratory system, blood, liver, kidney, genital system, skin, bones) and a thorough psychological study. Strict medical supervision is backed up by technical supervision: a hazard record covering exposure times, use of personal scintillation or film-badge dosimeters, checks on source leakage and monitoring of areas of maximum exposure. The value of these measures has been demonstrated over a 5-year period.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th quarter 1971, No.44, p.23-29.
Hand exposure in the medical use of radionuclides
Expozice rukou pracovníků při aplikaci radionuklidů v lékařství [in Czech]
Finger exposure in workers holding a syringe containing radionuclide solution was both calculated and measured using ionisation chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters and film dosimeters. In an extreme case in which a physician carries out 25 brain scintigraphs (99mTc), 10 lung scintigraphs (131J), and 10 liver scintigraphs (198Au) per week, the dose received still does not exceed the Czechoslovak maximum permissible finger dose (4.5rem). The weekly finger dose in the author's medical department was estimated at between 0.5 and 1.5R.
Jaderná energie, May 1971, Vol.17, No.5, p.164-168. Illus. 12 ref.
Ronot P., Détry R., Bourret J.
Introduction to the ergonomics of medical-care staff
Introduction à l'ergonomie de l'équipe soignante [in French]
A study based on the general principles of ergonomics, and interviews with physicians, nurses and cinesitherapists, covering work procedures (lifting and carrying of heavy objects and patients, patient care, household-work postures and movements, distances covered on foot, work premises and areas, information techniques and routes), work environment (noise, lighting, microclimate, rooms and furniture, psychological climate), work tempo, and installations and equipment. The ergonomic principles involved in improving working conditions are outlined. A preventive-medicine practitioner should be involved in research in this field; reference is made to various experiments already carried out.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1971, Vol.32, No.12, p.749-785. 26 bibl.
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