Footwear, leather and fur industry - 220 entries found
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Gromadzińska J., et al.
The influence of atmospheric chromium on selenium content and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of tannery workers
The concentration of selenium and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase were determined in the blood of 34 tannery workers who worked in an area containing chromium compounds. Urine concentrations of selenium were also measured. Decreased selenium concentrations in blood and plasma and elevated TBARS concentration in plasma were observed in the tanners compared to a control group. Tanners working in areas of high chromium concentrations had lower concentrations of selenium in blood and urine than did other tanners. The results suggest a specific adaptation of the body to the working environment containing chromium compounds.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1996, Vol.104, No.12, p.1312-1316. Illus. 33 ref.
ITGLWF 7th World Congress - Decisions of Congress
This report of the 7th World Congress of the International Textile, Garment & Leather Workers' Federation (ITGLWF) held in Melbourne (Australia) in April 1996 deals with different aspects of the Action Programme of the Federation and reproduces 14 adopted resolutions on: coordination of and support for trade union development, human and trade union rights, trade and development, women workers, child labour, multinational enterprises and ITGLWF regional structures.
International Textile, Garment & Leather Workers' Federation (ITGLWF), rue J. Stevens 8, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1996. iv, 81p.
Residual electroneurographic modifications in subjects with n-hexane induced polyneuropathy: A follow-up study
This study reports on the neurological examinations of 90 shoe workers diagnosed with polyneuropathy. The examinations were repeated at least one year after cessation of occupational exposure to n-hexane (the subjects were divided into two groups: 63 had the re-examination less than 10 years after cessation of exposure, while 27 had it after more than 10 years). The aetiologic agent of polyneuropathy was thought to be 2,5-hexanedione, a neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane. The follow-up study demonstrated a complete recovery of motor conduction velocity in both groups of subjects. On the other hand, even though there was improvement in other neurological functions (conduction velocity and distal latency of the sensory nerves and distal latency of the ulnar nerve) among the subjects in both groups, there was a statistically significant deterioration in these functions independent of the time that had elapsed since cessation of exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.289-296. 22 ref.
Laraqui C., Belamallem I., Harourate K., Amrani Joutey N., Ben Haymoud N., Verger C., Curtčs J.P.
Study of occupational hazards in the Rabat tanning industry
Etude de risques professionnels dans la tannerie de la ville de Rabat [in French]
A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 male subjects in a Rabat tannery (Morocco) combining an analysis of working conditions, health examination, lung function test, chest X-ray, and biological monitoring (chromium blood and urinary levels and stool parasitological analysis). The study revealed poor working and hygiene conditions, lack of organization in the tanning process, lack of protection and non-compliance with regulations. Dermatosis was very frequent: mycosis 70%, tanner's disease 33.3%, palmar and plantar keratoderma 36.7%, allergic and irritating dermatitis 8.4%. Digestive (abdominal pain, transit problems) was found in 63.3% of the cases, lumbalgias and arthralgias in 3.3%. Occupational accidents were reported by the majority of the tanners. Seven had an abnormally high blood chromium level and two had high urinary level chromium level. The tanners were involved either in tanning or in chromium dyeing. No protection is available in the Rabat tannery. A health service as well as medical and technical prevention ought to be put in place urgently.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.200-204. Illus. 10 ref.
Mancuso G., Reggiani M., Berdondini R.M.
Occupational dermatitis in shoemakers
In a study of occupational dermatitis at five shoe factories in Italy, 246 workers were examined and patch tested using standard and occupational patch test series. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis was 14.6% (36 workers). 20 workers had irritant contact dermatitis, attributed to contact with solvents contained in adhesives and varnishes. 16 workers had allergic contact dermatitis, caused mainly by contact with adhesives, and with rubber and skins. Other skin complaints included hyperkeratosis of the fingertips, and pruritus sine materia. Some jobs were more frequently associated with skin complaints.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.17-22. 19 ref.
Breathnach A.S., Turnbull P.C.B., Eykyn S.J., Twort C.H.C.
A labourer with a spot on his chest
A case study is presented of a casual labourer with a chest lesion which was attributed to a sting or bite during recent work in a ventilation shaft. Despite treatment, the lesion progressed and the patient also developed jaundice and renal impairment. The initial diagnosis was a streptococcal infection but blood cultures later yielded an organism identified as Bacillus anthracis. Enquiries revealed that the labourer had recently worked in a leather firm and had removed his shirt while lifting hides. The rarity of anthrax in the United Kingdom and the misleading occupational history resulted in misdiagnosis.
Lancet, 13 Jan. 1996, vol.347, No.8994, p.96. Illus. 1 ref.
Karačić V., Skender L., Bosner-Cucančić B., Bogadi-Sare A.
Possible genotoxicity in low level benzene exposure
Structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral blood were studied in female workers in the shoe-making industry in Croatia in 1987 and 1992. Occupational exposure to benzene and toluene were determined. Levels of atmospheric benzene and benzene absorption were higher in 1987 (a period of intensified production) than in 1992 (reduced production), but still lower than permissible levels. There was an increase in dicentric chromosomes in both groups compared to a non-exposed control group; higher SCE frequencies were observed in the 1987 group. Genotoxicity may occur in workers exposed to low levels of benzene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.379-388. 30 ref.
Cole B., Foley G.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational health and safety performance overviews, selected industries. Issue No.5 - Clothing and footwear industry
This report highlights potential safety and health problem areas in the Australian clothing and footwear industry. The statistics of injury and disease are based on workers' compensation data and are analyzed by occupation, age group, sex, the nature, bodily location, mechanism and agency of the injury or disease and by time of accident. Data on compensation costs by State and Territory are included. Areas of concern are machine operations, muscular stress during manual handling, falls associated with hazardous indoor traffic areas and noise.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, May 1995. viii, 26p. Illus. 6 ref.
Bruze M., Björkner B., Lepoittevin J.P.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate
A case study of an apprentice cobbler with an occupational allergic contact dermatitis from an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue is reported. Initial patch testing with the cyanoacrylate glue dissolved in acetone using the Finn chamber (aluminium) technique yielded false-negative reactions. Positive test reactions were obtained with the same preparations using the Van der Bend chamber (polypropylene) technique. With petrolatum as the vehicle for the glue, there was no difference between the two techniques. The role of aluminium in the false-negative reactions is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1995, Vol.32, No.3, p.156-159. 10 ref.
Factors in the sociocultural environment of child labourers: A study in a small scale leather goods industry in Calcutta
During a study of the occupational health of child workers in several small leather workshops, investigation was made of the sociocultural factors that made it necessary for the children, aged between 7 and 14 years, to work. The psychosocial effects of the same factors were also investigated. Personal interviews were carried out with a prepared questionnaire, and the findings were compared between the working children and a control group of the same number of non-working children from the neighbourhood, matched for age, sex and religion. The foremost cause of taking up employment by the children was poverty. The overall effects found were deprivation of education, lowering of expectations and a blunting of mental faculties. Prolonged, monotonous work in childhood that precludes education and healthy recreation is harmful to children.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.51, No.12, p.822-825. 7 ref.
Mikoczy Z., Schütz A., Hagmar L.
Cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish leather tanners
Cancer incidence and mortality patterns were assessed for the periods 1958-89 and 1952-89 respectively, in a cohort of 2,026 subjects who had been employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 in three Swedish leather tanneries. Cause-specific standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs) were calculated. A significantly increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas (SIR 4.27; 95% CI 1.39-9.97) was found, based on five cases. An excess (not statistically significant) was also found for multiple myelomas and sinonasal cancer. The increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas adds support to previous findings of an excess mortality in this diagnosis among leather tanners. A plausible cause is exposure to chlorophenols, which had occurred in all three plants. The excess of multiple myelomas may also be associated with exposure to chlorophenol. The association between incidence of cancer and specific chemical exposure should be elucidated in a cohort-based case-referent study.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1994, Vol.51, No.8, p.530-535. 30 ref.
Agnesi R., Valentini F., Dal Vecchio L.
Fall in n-hexane exposure risk in the shoe manufacturing industry
Ridimensionamento del rischio da n-esano nei calzaturifici [in Italian]
In recent years the composition of the glues used in the shoe manufacturing industry in the Riviera del Brenta area (northern Italy) has changed considerably, with a gradual reduction of n-hexane. This fact emerged from a survey of 337 glueing stations in 105 shoe factories where 104 different commercial products containing organic solvents were found. The determining element in the change was the substitution of technical hexane by other refinery products which have a low n-hexane content (<5%). There was a possible health risk due to n-hexane exposure at only about 10% of the glueing stations and in about 8% of commercial products, where mixtures of technical hexane are used. Ethyl acetate, cyclo-hexane, hexane isomers, methyl ethyl ketone, heptane and acetone are among the solvents most frequently used. This change means that assessment of glue composition will be necessary before beginning a health monitoring programme of the exposed population.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.85, No.4, p.309-313. Illus. 11 ref.
Roquelaure Y., Touranchet A., Mandereau L., Fanello S., Hémon D., Penneau-Fontbonne D.
Health status of shoe industry workers
Etat de santé de la population de l'industrie de la chaussure [in French]
The health status of workers in the shoe industry in the Pays de Loire (France) was assessed as well as risk factors. A cross-sectional survey was thus carried out in 26 representative companies (1,964 workers). Data gathering was performed during yearly visits, through a medical examination and a standardized workstation survey carried out by 15 occupational physicians (response rate 90.5%). The surveyed population was young (average age: 35) and predominantly female (67.4%). Pathology essentially involved bone and soft tissue disorders such as lumbago and sciatica, carpal tunnel syndrome and, above all, chronic pain and/or functional difficulties, mainly in the lower back and/or back and/or neck, shoulders and legs. Bone and joint pain were significantly related to sitting, repetitive movements, substantial visual strain and small size of the enterprise. Other pathologies encountered included venous insufficiency, gastralgia and visual fatigue. Exposure to dust (519 workers) was associated with respiratory irritation and nasal obstruction. Exposure to solvents and glues (479 workers) was associated with skin and mucosal irritation, gastralgia, dizziness and sensitivity disorders. The importance of addressing ergonomic issues and of developing technical preventive measures to minimize exposure to dust, glues and solvents is underlined.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.441-447. 21 ref.
Türkel B., Egeli U.
Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in shoe workers exposed long term to benzene
Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was used to compare 58 shoe workers (57 men and one woman) exposed to benzene and 20 subjects selected from the general population not exposed to particular mutagenic or carcinogenic agents (control group). Frequencies of damaged cells, including gaps, breaks, and rearrangements (acentric fragments, deletions, translocations) were scored for both groups. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations (particularly chromatid gaps and breaks) in the exposed group was significantly higher than in the control group. There were no effects of smoking and only breaks were affected by alcohol. Nor was there a significant relation between the working period in the group exposed to benzene and frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Recommended safety measure: lowering of the limit value from 20ppm to 1ppm and improvement of working conditions.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.50-53. 19 ref.
Walker J.T., Bloom T.F., Stern F.B., Okun A.H., Fingerhut M.A., Halperin W.E.
Mortality of workers employed in shoe manufacturing
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1993, Vol.19, No.2, p.89-95. 31 ref. ###
The textiles and clothing industry
Tekstil- og beklćdningsindustri [in Danish]
Volume No.8 of a series of monographs covering occupational safety and health in all sectors of the Danish economy. The occupational safety and health problems in the textiles and clothing industry sector are mainly repetitive work, and exposure to chemical substances, dust and noise. Most of the diseases in this sector are those affecting hearing, the skin, the respiratory system, the brain and the musculoskeletal system.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, 1993. 66p. 33 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
Delbianco M., Olivetti G., De Donato S.R., Ricciotti M., Campana A.
Hand-arm vibration risk and cumulative trauma disorders in the shoe manufacturing industry - A case report
Rischio da vibrazioni al sistema mano-braccio e cumulative trauma disorders nel settore calzaturiero - Descrizione di un caso clinico [in Italian]
Report on the case of a woman working in a shoe factory who had been using vibrating tools for five years. Because of paraesthesia in her left hand, she underwent various diagnostic trials that revealed an initial carpal-tunnel syndrome of the left wrist and a homolateral epicondylitis. Measurement of the vibrations transmitted to the hand from the vibrating tool confirmed the probability of a high risk of exposure for the hand-arm system. Such adverse effects are also known as "cumulative trauma disorders". The importance of further studies aimed at estimating the type and degree of exposure to vibrations in shoe manufacturing workers is stressed.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1993, Vol.84, No.4, p.306-310. Illus. 18 ref.
Fire safety in tanneries
Description of the tanning process as conducted in Indian factories. Much of the process involves wet conditions, so the overall risk of fire should be low. Documentation of the industry is scanty, but there seems to have been no loss of life due to fire or explosion in any tannery in India. However, examination of the fire extinguisher refilling record of one large tannery showed that extinguishers had been used on 30 occasions in two years, so risk is not totally absent. Dust, flammable chemicals, electrical equipment, combustible fuels and welding sparks are particular hazards. Extinguishing equipment and fire safety training are inadequate in many tanneries.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1993, Vol.15, No.2, p.3-7. Illus.
Agnesi R., Dal Vecchio L., Todros A., Sparta S., Valentini F.
Ulnar nerve neuropathy of the elbow in female column sewing machine operators in the shoe manufacturing industry - Case report and follow-up
Neuropatia del nervo ulnare a livello del gomito in addette all'uso di macchine per cucire a colonna - Casistica e follow-up [in Italian]
Case study of 15 young sewing machine operators who developed ulnar nerve neuropathy. The condition was attributed to trauma due to incorrect work posture (resting of the elbows on the work table). Timely treatment, regular medical check-ups and the adoption of correct work posture are recommended as remedial measures.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1993, Vol.84, No.2, p.147-161. Illus. 10 ref.
Serrates-Perez J.N., Mendiola-Anda C.
Musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators in shoemaking
Results of a questionnaire survey among workers in a Mexican shoe factory indicated that low back pain was the most frequent disorder (18.2%) for operators of both flat- and column-type sewing machines. The shoulder was the site of complaint for 14% of the subjects, being three times more frequent among column-machine operators. The back as a whole was mentioned by 14%, and neck pain by 4.9%; in both cases only flat-machine operators were affected. The body regions affected were those expected from the analysis of video recordings and were consistent with those reported for occupations involving similar postures and movements.
Ergonomics, July 1993, Vol.36, No.7, p.793-800. 22 ref.
Oleru U.G., Onyekwere C.
Exposures to polyvinyl chloride, methyl ketone and other chemicals - The pulmonary and non-pulmonary effect
Pulmonary function impairment and neurological disorders, such as headache, insomnia, dizziness and skin irritation, were the symptoms found among workers of a shoe factory in Nigeria. Pulmonary function impairment was most prominent among the workers exposed to polyvinyl chloride. The exposure levels were measured to range from 0.2 to 4.0ppm. The observed neurological disorders occurred most frequently in the group of workers exposed to methyl ethyl ketone and other chemicals.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1922, Vol.63, No.7, p.503-507. 13 ref.
Arduini L., Dalla Foglia M.
Assessment of primary prevention programmes by industrial sector
Il rapporto su un piano di comparto come valutazione di risultato [in Italian]
The adoption of codes of recommended practice (CRP) by industrial management, a fundamental step in ensuring a safer and healthier work environment, is a suitable approach for evaluating primary prevention programmes. This hypothesis was tested in the shoe and leather goods manufacturing industry (55 facilities). An ordinal scale was defined for each variable taken into account by CRP and for other variables related to employers' actions. A score was assigned to every facility with reference to the starting and ending points of the programme. Using these scores, an estimation was made of the degree of variation, in time and among facilities, in adopting CRP.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.120-126. 11 ref.
Perbellini L., Soave C., Cerpelloni M.
Solvent exposure in shoe factories
L'inquinamento da solventi nei calzaturifici [in Italian]
In order to study solvent exposure in shoe factories, 43 kinds of glues and 22 solvent products used in footwear manufacturing were analysed. A gas chromatographic spectrometric method was used to identify the mixtures of solvents contained in glues and their diluents. Acetone, ethylacetate and cyclohexane were the solvents more frequently found in glues. Cyclohexane represented on average about 40% of the solvent mixture. Methyl ethyl ketone, 3-methylpentane and 2-methylpentane were often present in glues (45-52% of the samples), but only in a few cases were they associated with n-hexane. N-hexane and methylcyclopentane were found in 32% of the glue samples. N-hexane represented 47% of the solvents only in one glue. Most of the glues contained less than 10% n-hexane. Other solvents (dichloropropane, toluene, trichloroethane, butyl acetate, iso-butyl acetate and 2,2-dimethylbutane) were found in few glue samples or in low percentages. The 22 solvents used as glue diluents were mainly acetone, ethylacetate, dichloromethane and methyl ethyl ketone. Results suggest that solvent exposure in shoe factories has changed relative to 10 years ago. Biological monitoring of shoe factory workers should measure exposures to the specific solvents found in each factory, especially acetone, cyclohexane, ethylacetate and methyl ethyl ketone.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.115-119. 11 ref.
Solionova L.G., Smulevich V.B., Turbin E.V., Krivosheyeva L.V., Plotnikov J.V.
Carcinogens in rubber production in the Soviet Union
In a preliminary phase of a broad research project on cancer among workers in a rubber footwear plant in Moscow, exposure to several known or potential carcinogens was assessed. There were high dust contents bearing both toxic substances and carcinogens. The highest concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (500-14 400µg) were found on the soot used as a filler, and the maximum N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) level was measured in thiram (150-23 868µg.kg-1). Air samples from the vulcanisation process and the pressing of rubber goods showed BaP levels of up to 1.43µg.m-3. In the work area where polyvinyl chloride was used, the mean vinyl chloride concentration was 0.21 (SE 0.06) mg.m-3. The mean value of the acrylonitrile concentrations in the workroom area was 0.19 (SE 0.07) mg.m-3. Very high levels of DMNA and N-diethylnitrosamine were measured in the preparatory shop in the winter.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.120-123. 17 ref.
Vyskocil A., Popler A., Skutilova I., Ciharova M., Ettlerova E., Lauwerys R.R., Bernard A.M.
Urinary excretion of proteins and enzymes in workers exposed to hydrocarbons in a shoe factory
A study was made of a group of women who had been exposed to petroleum naphtha (time-weighted average exposure 1,619mg/m3), toluene 81mg/m3) and ethylacetate (160mg/m3). Measurements were made of urinary enzyme activity and proteins and compared with those of age-matched controls. The only parameter that was significantly influenced by hydrocarbon exposure was the urinary activity of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Although the health significance of this renal change in unclear, the results are in agreement with previous observations suggesting that long-term moderate exposure to solvents does not entail a significant risk for the development of nephrotoxicity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.63, No.5, p.359-362. Illus. 18 ref.
Helbecque Y., Diancourt J.M., Lefebvre Y., Rives-Lange L., Van der Biest F.
A case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis related to Trichothecium in a fur coat manufacturer
A propos d'un cas d'alvéolite allergique extrinsčque rapporté ŕ Trichothecium chez une mécanicienne en fourrure [in French]
Study of a case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in a fur coat manufacturer, related to the mould Trichothecium roseum. Furrier's lung, a hypersensitivity disease due to inhalation of hair dust, was described in 1970; the antigen is not yet determined. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to moulds in furriers has not been studied much. This other variety of extrinsic allergic alveolitis must also be suspected in the case of respiratory disease in furriers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1991, Vol.52, No.5, p.355-358. 10 ref.
Dimethylformamide and testicular cancer
Letter to the editor. Studies on leather tanners and aircraft maintenance men have associated testicular cancer with exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF). However, DMF lacks mutagenic activity in animals and other studies of industrial populations have shown no causal relation between exposure to DMF and the cancers studied. It is suggested that DMF may simply be acting as a solvent which facilitates absorption through the skin of dissolved carcinogens.
Lancet, 2 Feb. 1991, Vol.337, No.8736, p.306-307. 7 ref.
Recent developments in the leather and footwear industry (Report I); Employment and working conditions and competitiveness in the leather and footwear industry (Report II)
Evolution récente dans l'industrie du cuir et de la chaussure (Rapport I); L'emploi et les conditions de travail et la compétitivité dans l'industrie du cuir et de la chaussure (Rapport II) [in French]
Report I and II prepared by the Sectoral Activities Programme of the International Labour Office (ILO) for the 4th Tripartite Technical Meeting for the Leather and Footwear Industry (1992). Contents of Report I: Recent developments in the industry and section on working conditions and training. Action taken in various countries in the light of conclusions and resolutions adopted at previous meetings. Information on the application of OSH regulations, measures taken to protect workers against harmful substances, control of environmental pollution. Discussion of ILO activities in the industry. Report II: General trends in production and trade; factors affecting international competitiveness; employment trends; conditions of work. A section on workers' health and safety looks at risk assessment and monitoring, process organisation, mechanical and chemical hazards and accidents.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1991. 101p. (I), 205p. (II). Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 17.50 (I), CHF 30.00 (II).
Hazards in the shoe industry
Riesgos en la industria del calzado [in Spanish]
Contents of this videotape: major health hazards in the shoe industry (principally, those affecting the skin); preventive measures and clothing; electric hazards; fires; inhalation of organic fumes originating from adhesives and solvents; machinery hazards; noise.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna, 73 - 28027 Madrid, Spain, ca.1990. Videotape (16min).
Castillón Uribe J.M., Rey Fernández J., Rolín Cano E., Guiral Julián M., Periago Jiménez F., Viguera Rubio J.
Occupational risks in footwear manufacturing - I. Summary of the Report; II. Products used in the footwear manufacturing sector
Riesgos profesionales en la fabricación del calzado - I. Resumen del informe; II. Productos empleados en el sector del calzado [in Spanish]
Part I is a report on a survey of occupational risks in footwear manufacturing carried out by the Spanish National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene during 1988 and the first months of 1989. A representative sample of 6,669 workers in 295 enterprises was chosen. 74% of the enterprises had a staff of less than 26 and only four enterprises employed more than 100 workers. Preventive services (such as medical services, medical examinations, training, information, atmospheric and biological monitoring), building facilities and general equipment were investigated. The most significant safety risks are: machinery and fires. The most significant health risks are: inhalation of organic fumes and noise exposure. Risks are also analysed in terms of work processes and tasks. General preventive measures are presented. Part II examines the different chemical products used in this sector, such as adhesives and solvents, and their toxicological mechanisms and health effects. Statistical tables are also included.
Salud y trabajo, 1990, No.77, p.5-24. Illus.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Azo-dyes based on known or suspected carcinogenic aromatic amines - Identification, uses and manufacturing periods
Azofarbmittel auf der Basis krebserzeugender und -verdächtiger aromatischer Amine - Identifikation, Verwendungsbereiche, Herstellungszeiträume [in German]
All azo dyes based on aromatic amines known or suspected to be carcinogens are compiled. For each listed azo dye, the type of dye such as acid, basic, direct, mordant or solvent dye is stated. The colour index number, the coupling component, trade name, manufacturer, period of manufacture and the industry in which the dye is used (textile, leather good, pulp and paper or other), are indicated.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 338p. Illus. 4 ref. Index. Price: DEM 37.00.
Clonfero E., Venier P., Granella M., Levis A.G.
Mutagenic and carcinogenic risks of leather azo dyes
I coloranti azoici per cuoio: rischio mutageno e cancerogeno [in Italian]
The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic in humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminoazobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1990, Vol.81, No.3, p.222-229. 32 ref.
Clonfero E., Venier P., Granella M., Levis A.G.
Identification of genotoxic compounds used in the leather processing industry
Identificazione di composti genotossici utilizzati nella lavorazione delle pelli [in Italian]
The release of mutagens from 7 carbon black-based leather dyes and from leather samples at various stages of finishing was determined. After vigorous treatment with toluene, 4 commercial dyes yielded mutagenic extracts on Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of microsomal enzymes. Only one of the responsible chemicals was a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The low bioavailability of mutagens contained in carbon black and their low mutagenic activity suggest that the risk associated with the use of these dyes is probably negligible. Ethanol extracts of finished leather were mutagenic in the absence of S9 mix. Analysis of extracts of leather samples at various stages of processing showed that mutagenic activity was detectable after the colouring process. The responsible compound was a nitroazo dye, C.I. Acid Brown 83. 18 commercial tannins containing mainly Cr(III) sulfates were assessed for genotoxicity. Most were contaminated with Cr(VI), a known mugaten and carcinogen, at levels sufficient to include sister chromatid exchanges in mammalian cells.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1990, Vol.81, No.3, p.212-221. 45 ref.
Seniori Costantini A., Merler E., Saracci R.
Epidemiological studies on the occupational cancer risk in the tanning, leather and shoe industries
Studi epidemiologici su rischio cancerogeno ed attivitŕ lavorativa nell'industria della concia, pelletteria e calzatura [in Italian]
A review is made of the epidemiological studies of occupational cancer risks among tannery, leather and shoe industry workers. A risk of nasal cancer associated with exposure to leather dust was confirmed in recent studies. However, a decreasing trend of relative risk has been observed among shoe industry workers. The excess of leukaemia among shoe workers, which was mainly based on the description of numerous cases of acute mycloblastic leukaemia, has also been confirmed by 2 cohorts studies carried out in Italy and the U.K. There are also indications of increases in other cancers (particularly, of the bladder and the lung) among leather and shoe workers. This evidence is unanimous in the studies carried out in Italy but is not supported by the majority of studies performed in other countries. For this reasion, it is considered extremely important to carry out a multicentric study in Italy, paying particular attention to the definition of occupational exposures to carcinogens.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1990, Vol.81, No.3, p.184-211. 75 ref.
Preventive measures in the leather and shoe industries
Iniziative di prevenzione nell'industria calzaturiera e pellettiera [in Italian]
The paper presents the results of a survey of the organisation and implementation of preventive medicine programmes in the shoe and leather industries 10 years after the introduction of the National Health Service in Italy. According to the survey results, there was a marked difference between the resources available in central and northern Italy where, although unevenly, prevention at the workplace has improved, and the regions of southern Italy where the resources were much more limited. The methods used by the Occupational Health Services in the territories under study are described, which are characterised by programmed or planned activities (according to industrial sector) mainly aimed at acquiring better knowledge of the risk factors and their effective elimination.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1990, Vol.81, No.3, p.177-183. 13 ref.
Prevention measures in the tanning industry
Iniziative di prevenzione nell'industria conciaria [in Italian]
The paper presents the results of a survey of preventive measures in the tanning industry 10 years after the introduction of the National Health Service in Italy. The aims and procedures of the National Health Service programmes and the Local Health Units in northern, central and southern Italy are described. A marked difference was observed between the southern and central-northern regions as regards size and quality of the occupational health services and the number of programmed activities aimed at risk assessment and preventive measures.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1990, Vol.81, No.3, p.171-176. 2 ref.
Schumacher M.C., Slattery M.L., West D.W.
Occupation and bladder cancer in Utah
The relationship between bladder cancer and occupation, industries, and occupational exposures in Utah were examined in a population-based, case-control study conducted between 1977 and 1983. Life-long occupational histories were obtained for 417 cases (332 men and 85 women) and 877 controls (685 men and 192 women). Increased risks were detected among men for employment in the leather and textile industries which increased with duration of employment. Among men and women, increased risk was detected among clerical workers. A protective effect was seen among men and women for 10 or more years employment in professional, managerial, and technical occupations. Increased risk for bladder cancer was detected among carpenters who smoked but not among carpenters who never smoked. Interactions between smoking and other industrial or occupational exposures were not demonstrated, and for the most part, smoking did not confound the estimates of the bladder cancer-occupation relationships.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.16, No.1, p.89-102. Bibl.
Occupational Health Programme - Synoptic report on preliminary hazard analysis in tanneries in Jajmau, Kanpur
A report of a preliminary hazard analysis covering different work-stations with respect to identification of hazard, effect of hazard, hazard index, recommended action and likely effects of action.
Regional Labour Institute, Sarvodaya-nagar, Kanpur, India, 1989. 14p.
Ministry of Labour, Government of India
Retrospective investigation of fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning inside the waste sump of ordnance equipment factory, Phoolbagh, Kanpur
Description of an accident that occurred in the tanning department of an ordnance factory causing five deaths. The investigation reveals that practical safety measures had not been taken. The report lists all statutory violations which had led to the accident, such as absence of monitoring of toxic gases at the workplace, absence of an on-site emergency plan, etc. Recommendations are made for the specific measures which should have been taken and which should be applied in the future.
Regional Labour Institute, Sarvodaya nagar, Kanpur, India, 1989. 22p.
Paci E., Buiatti E., Seniori Costantini A., Miligi L., Pucci N., Scarpelli A., Petrioli G., Simonato L., Winkelmann R., Kaldor J.M.
Aplastic anemia, leukemia and other cancer mortality in a cohort of shoe workers exposed to benzene
This report presents the results of a historical cohort study in a shoe manufacturing plant in Florence where cases of aplastic anaemia and leukaemia were reported in the 1960s. A total of 1008 men and 1005 women were considered eligible members of the cohort. For total mortality, comparing the rates of the cohort with the national rates, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 79 for the women and 95 for the men. For the men, excess of risk for aplastic anaemia (SMR 1566) and leukaemia (SMR 400) were observed. The increased risk occurred among workers first employed during the period in which benzene was used, but the expected number of cases in the subsequent period was too small to evaluate whether any reduction in risk had occurred. No increasing pattern with duration of employment was discernible.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.313-318. 15 ref.
Seniori C.A., Paci E., Miligi L., Buiatti E., Martelli C., Lenzi S.
Cancer mortality among workers in the Tuscan tanning industry
The mortality of 2926 male workers at the tanneries in the "leather area" of Tuscany was examined from 1950 to 1983 comparing it with the national mortality. Cancer mortality was of particular concern because of the many chemicals known to be definite or suspected carcinogens used in the tanning cycle, in particular chromate pigments, benzidine based dyes, formaldehyde, and organic solvents. There was no excess of deaths for cancers of all sites but there were slight increases in deaths from cancers of the lung, kidney and pancreas and from leukaemias. Two cases of soft tissue sarcomas were observed (0.09 expected).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1989, Vol.46, No.6, p.384-388. 26 ref.
Randall J.A., Gibson R.S.
Hair chromium as an index of chromium exposure of tannery workers
The use of hair chromium (Cr) concentrations as an index of Cr exposure of tannery workers was investigated. Hair samples were collected from 71 male tannery workers from 4 southern Ontario tanneries and from 53 male controls not exposed to Cr in the workplace. Subjects were matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Hair samples were washed, ashed in a low temperature asher, and analysed by flameless atomic absorption. The median hair Cr concentrations for the tannery workers (551ng/g) was significantly higher (p=0.0001) than for the controls (123ng/g). For the tannery workers, hair Cr concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with serum Cr (r=0.52, p<0.01) and with the preshift and postshift urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (r=0.43, p<0.01; r=0.64, p<0.01, respectively). These data indicate that trivalent Cr absorbed from leather tanning compounds results in raised concentrations of Cr in hair and that hair Cr concentrations may be used as an index of industrial Cr exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.46, No.3, p.171-175. Illus. 26 ref.
Bimbi G., Battista G., Belli S., Berrino F., Comba P.
Nasal cancers and occupational exposures: A case-control study
Studio caso controllo sui tumori nasali e le esposizioni professionali [in Italian]
A case-control study of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nose and sinuses and occupational exposures was conducted in Milan, Italy. Cases were patients admitted in the years 1982-85 at the Head and Neck Oncology Department of the National Institute for the Study and Treatment of Cancer. Controls were subjects admitted in the same years, with diagnoses of malignant tumour of the nasopharynx, thyroid and salivary glands. The occupational history was derived from hospital records. The study included 53 cases and 217 controls. Three cases but not controls had worked in the leather industry; the same finding was observed for the wood industry. A significant increase in risk appeared to be associated to work in other sectors, namely the metal industry (RR: 4.5%; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-14.2), the mining and construction industry (RR: 5.3; 1.9-15.0), the textile industry (RR: 2.9; 1.0-8.6), and agriculture (RR: 3.3; 1.3-8.3).
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.79, No.4, p.280-287. 31 ref.
Aleksandrov V.V., Solncev V.I., Sukonnikov S.E.
Occupational safety and health in the textile and light industries
Ohrana truda v tekstil'noj i legkoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
This book, intended as a reference guide for managers, engineers, technicians and OSH personnel in light industry undertakings, contains basic regulatory, organisational and methodological materials on occupational safety and health in the industries concerned. Covered are the following aspects: organisation of OSH activities; OSH and conditions of work improvement (planning and financing); accident investigation and reporting; workmen's compensation; degree of disability evaluation; employment injury and other work-related health impairment compensation by undertakings (organisations); medical examinations; occupational safety and health for women and minors; other rules, regulations and instructions. In appendix: OSH management and administration diagram; standard method for calculating OSH performance indices; safety rule compliance chart; high OSH performance bonus calculation, etc.
Izdatel'stvo Legkaja promyżlennost' i bytovoe obsluživanie, 1-j Kadażevskij per. 12, 113035 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 400p. Price: SUR 1.50.
Chemical substances in the shoe industry
Kemiske stoffer i skoindustrien [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on hazardous chemicals used in the shoe industry: responsibilities for the workplace environment, occupational hazards associated with this type of work, preventive measures, labelling, chemical safety data sheets, responsibilities of the supplier and safe working methods. Lists of danger symbols, safety codes (R- and S- phrases) and relevant Danish directives, as well as some examples of chemical safety data sheets are appended.
Arbejdsmiljřfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, 1st ed. 1988. 23p. Illus. 7 ref.
Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark
A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer, established in the Danish Cancer Registry, provides employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavaties diagnosed between 1970-84 were analysed to screen for high risk industrial areas in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of the basic metal industries and in industries producing metal containers. Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery; these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables and in farming may point to a common aetiology. The new associations discovered in this study must therefore await further confirmation.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1988, Vol.45, No.5, p.329-335. 38 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Leather finishing and shoe manufacturing machines [Federal Republic of Germany]
Lederverarbeitungs- und Schuhmaschinen [in German]
These safety regulations contain information on leather finishing and shoe manufacturing machines. Sections deal with: danger zones, dust, fire hazards, toxic vapours, hot surfaces, marking, operating elements, pedal switches, precautions for automatic start-up, skiving and sharpening machines, glue spreading machines, stitching machines, hand protection, control systems, special leather and shoe presses, machine operation, prohibited work, periodic inspection. Supplement: rules of implementation.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 20 + 12p.
Puhov S.N., Nikitina I.A., Kondakova M.V., Strel'cov S.V., Zapol'skij Ju.M., Koročkin S.V.
Specific rates of emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere during the production of rubber shoe soles
Udel'nye vybrosy vrednyh veščestv v atmosferu pri proizvodstve reziny dlja niza obuvi [in Russian]
Specific emission rates were calculated on the basis of material balances for each of the 6 operations in sole manufacture; the results are presented in a table. The largest quantity of gaseous pollutants are emitted during vulcanisation (85-95% of the total emissions for the process). Of the 4 types of sole produced, coloured porous rubber gave the largest amounts of gas, black solid rubber the smallest. The average composition of the gaseous emissions was: 1.2% aldehydes, 28% aromatic hydrocarbons (of which 2% styrene), 1.5% amines, 7% naphthenes, 8% normal and iso-paraffins (3-7 carbons), 7.5% normal and iso-olefins, 16% for 8-14-carbon paraffins, 12% for 8-14-carbon olefins, and 20.3% unidentified. An equation was derived for predicting the quantity of emissions from the amounts of natural rubber, blowing agent, regenerated rubber and mineral filler used in the process.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Sep. 1987, No.9, p.18-19.
Kondakova M.V., Strel'cov S.V., Puhov S.N., Zapol'skij Ju. M.
Removing contaminants from the air in recycled rubber sole production
Očistka vozduha ot vrednyh vybrosov v proizvodstve podošvennogo regenerata [in Russian]
Air sampling around the extruders of rubber devulcanisers in several plants showed that the principal contaminants emitted by black regenerated rubber are styrene and plasticiser fumes. Ammonia is emitted only when plasticisers have been used in the rubber. An experimental device with a capacity of 100m3/h for cleaning the air collected by local exhaust systems was constructed and tested. In the device, the air is bubbled through MP-75 oil, then passed through a bed of fluorinated plastic chips and a glass fibre filter. The device reduced plasticiser fume levels by as much as 97.4%.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Sep. 1987, No.9, p.16-18. Illus. 3 ref.
Plastics, leather and footwear - A list of HSC/E and relevant industry publications
This bibliography indicates how to obtain the publications and it provides brief annotations on about 120 publications concerning: dust and fume exposure and control; electrical equipment; transport, storage, and handling, and monitoring of hazardous substances; plant equipment and machinery; general compliance and responsibilities for safety; specialist toxicity reviews. Details are also given on relevant journals, other sources of information, agents, and order forms.
Health and Safety Executive, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1987. 15p.
Walrath J., Decouflé P., Thomas T.L.
Mortality among workers in a shoe manufacturing company
A case-control analysis of patient files at a large cancer treatment facility indicated that several bladder cancer patients had worked at a large shoe manufacturing company in the state of New York, USA. A mortality study was initiated to determine whether there was an unusual cancer risk associated with employment in this facility. Because company records were not available, local newspaper obituaries were used to identify former company employees who died between 1960 and 1979. Proportionate mortality analyses were conducted by using 4,734 death certificates and the general U.S. population for comparison. There were no excess deaths from nasal cancer or bladder cancer, and mortality from leukaemia was slightly lower than expected. Increased relative frequencies of digestive cancers were seen among men and women. There were significant excesses of deaths from multiple myeloma among both men and women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.615-623. 37 ref.
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