Footwear, leather and fur industry - 220 entries found
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Who foots the bill? Decent work for homeworkers in the leather footwear industry
Homeworkers in the leather footwear industry experience extremely poor working conditions. As companies engage in a "race to the bottom" to reduce costs, homeworkers face health problems, have no access to social security and not enough money to support their families. This booklet highlights the situation and problems of homeworkers in this industry and gives information for people who want to work in solidarity with them to defend their rights.
Homeworkers Worldwide (hww), 30-38 Dock Street, Leeds LS10 1JF, United Kingdom, no date. 23p. Illus. 11 ref.
Zhang L., Ye F.L., Chen T., Mei Y., Song S.Z.
Trans, trans-muconic acid as a biomarker of occupational exposure to high-level benzene in China
The work aimed to study the potential correlation between high-level benzene exposures and urinary benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) among Chinese shoe industry workers. Individual benzene-exposed levels were determined by gas chromatography analysis; urinary metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The concentration of benzene ranged from 2.57 to 146.11 mg/m3. The correlation between benzene and t,t-MA was significantly higher than that of SPMA at the postshift. It is concluded that t,t-MA is a more specific biomarker than SPMA at high-level benzene exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1194-1198. Illus. 41 ref.
Trans_trans-muconic_acid_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Safety solutions for leather and footwear machines
This booklet in English summarizes the contents of the "Safety guide for footwear industry machinery and equipment - Minimum requirements for protection" (see ISN 112260) and presents the safety features of eight types of machines used in the leather and footwear sector.
Abrameq, rua Lucas de Oliveira, 49, sala 304, Centro, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2010, 9p. Illus.
Safety_solutions_for_leather_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Safety guide for footwear industry machinery and equipment - Minimum requirements for protection
Cartilha de segurança em máquinas e equipamentos para calçados - Requisitos mínimos de proteção [in Portuguese]
This safety guide presents the minimum protection requirements for footwear industry machinery and equipment. It contains a collection of more than 50 safety information sheets concerning machinery and equipment used in this sector, grouped under three headings: cutting, sewing and assembly.
Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Máquinas e Equipamentos para os Setores do Couro, Calçados e Afins (ABRAMEQ), Rua Lucas de Oliveira, 49, Sala 304, Centro, 93510-110 Novo Hamburgo, Brazil, 2010, 84p. Illus. 18 ref.
Cartilha_de_segurança_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Portuguese]
González-Yebra A.L., Kornhauser C., Barbosa-Sabanero G., Pérez-Luque E.L., Wrobel K.
Exposure to organic solvents and cytogenetic damage in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa from shoe workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of solvents used in shoemaking. Thirty-four exposed Mexican shoe workers and 34 unexposed control subjects, paired by age and sex, were compared. Occupational exposure was determined by personal monitoring followed by gas chromatography. Exfoliated buccal cells of each subject were used to determine the incidence of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. Solvents detected were acetone, ethyl acetate, butanone and toluene. The incidence of nuclear abnormalities was significantly higher in the exposed group. A positive relationship was found between the incidence of micronuclei and workplace toluene concentrations. The micronucleus test is proposed as a low cost biomarker of genotoxicity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.373-380. Illus. 34 ref.
Shoe repair and multi-service operators
Opérateur(trice) en cordonnerie et multiservices [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet on occupational medicine applied to the job of operators of multi-service shops (shoe repair, key cutting, engraving, rubber stamp production, etc.): definition of the job; general characteristics of the occupation; technical and organizational characteristics of the occupation; nuisances and constraints; hazard evaluation methods; health effects and occupational medicine; occupational safety and health; medical supervision; regulations; work and health.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2008, Vol.48, No.4, 2p. Insert.
Todd L.A., Mottus K., Mihlan G.J.
A survey of airborne and skin exposures to chemicals in footwear and equipment factories in Thailand
This research reports on an exposure evaluation study at four footwear factories and two equipment factories in Thailand. Workers in these factories were exposed through inhalation and dermal contact to a large number of organic vapors from solvents and adhesives that were applied by hand. In addition, these workers were exposed to highly toxic isocyanates primarily through the dermal route. A total of 286 personal air samples were obtained at the four footwear factories, where 64 samples were also collected from working and tool surfaces. Between 8% and 21% of the workers sampled in each footwear factory were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals from solvents and adhesives. Up to 100% of the workers performing specific job tasks were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals. Between 39% and 69% of the surface samples were positive for unreacted isocyanates. Many of the real-time measurements obtained in the equipment factories exceeded occupational exposure limits. Personal protective equipment and engineering controls were inadequate in all of the factories.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.169-181. Illus. 35 ref.
Sallmén M., Neto M., Mayan O.N.
Reduced fertility among shoe manufacturing workers
To investigate whether fertility is reduced among female shoe manufacturing workers exposed to solvents, a retrospective study was conducted on time to pregnancy (TTP) among 250 Portuguese shoe manufacturing women workers exposed to solvents and 250 unexposed women working in other sectors. Data on TTP and related factors were collected by means of interviews, and exposure assessment was based on workplace atmosphere sampling. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Exposure to solvents was associated with reduced fertility. Overall, the findings provide further evidence that exposure to solvents is hazardous for female reproduction. The observed association may be related to any of the following solvents commonly used in shoe manufacturing: n-hexane and hexane isomers, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.65, No.8, p.518-524. 38 ref.
Brown G.D., O'Rourke D.
Lean manufacturing comes to China: A case study of its impact on workplace health and safety
Lean manufacturing, which establishes small production teams of workers, who complete an entire product from raw material processing through final assembly and shipment, increases health and safety hazards by mixing previously separated exposures to various chemicals (with possible additive and cumulative effects) and noise. The intensification of work leads to greater ergonomic and stress-related adverse health effects, as well as increased safety hazards. However, the standard industrial hygiene approach of anticipation, recognition, evaluation and hazard control remains applicable to lean operations. This article presents the findings of a study aimed at evaluating the impact of lean manufacturing in a sports shoe factory in China employing 13,000 workers.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2007, Vol.13, p.249-257. Illus. 19 ref.
Lean_manufacturing_comes_to_China_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Mortality of workers employed in shoe manufacturing: An update
This study investigated the mortality of a cohort 7828 workers employed one month or more between 1940 and 1979 at one of two shoe manufacturing plants where a 1982 study revealed increased lung cancer mortality. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1999. An excess of lung cancer deaths persisted with additional years of follow-up (standardized mortality ratio SMR=1.36). There was no indication of a positive trend between lung cancer risk and duration of employment. Mortality from leukaemia was not significantly elevated in the updated analysis. It is concluded that there is a possible association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to chronic, low-levels of toluene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.535-546. 60 ref.
Iaia T.E., et al.
A cohort mortality study of leather tanners in Tuscany, Italy
Work in leather tanning may involve exposure to a wide range of chemicals, including carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. This cohort study investigated the mortality of leather tanners in Tuscany, Italy. The cohort consisted of 4874 workers (4,150 men and 724 women) currently or previously employed in one of the 92 tanneries of the region. Men showed increases for cancer of the endocrine glands, blood diseases, mental disorders, violence and accidents. Mortality from myeloid leukaemia was increased in both men and women. The study confirms previous observations among tanners of increased mortality from lung, bladder and pancreatic cancer. Noteworthy are the increased mortality from myeloid leukaemia together with the new findings of an increased mortality from endocrine gland tumours, blood diseases, and psychiatric disorders which should however be considered with caution because of the small number of cases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.452-459. 57 ref.
González-Yebra A.L., Kornhauser C., Wrobel K., Pérez-Luque E.L., Barbosa G.
Occupational exposure to toluene and its possible causative role in renal damage development in shoe workers
Many shoe workers in Leon, Mexico, are in continuous contact with toluene-based glues. The objective of this case-control study involving 50 toluene-exposed shoe workers and 25 control subjects was to evaluate the relationship between toluenel exposure and renal damage. Urinary o-cresol excretion was used as a measure of toluene exposure. Urinary albumin excretion and N-acetyl-Β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) enzymatic activity were tested to assess renal dysfunction. Urinary o-cresol levels were higher in exposed subjects. Albumin excretion was similar in the exposed and control groups. NAG enzymatic activity was greater in the exposed group compared to the control group (3.5 U/g vs 1.9 U/g creatinine). An inverse relationship was found between schooling years and the NAG enzymatic activity for the two studied groups. The findings support the hypothesis that toluene may be a factor associated with the presence of renal damage in exposed shoe workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.259-264. Illus. 27 ref.
Pereira Santos M., Sebben V.C., Farenzena P.R., Dexheimer C.F., Pereira Santos C., Steffen V.M.
Exposure to chemical agents and noise in the leather industry
Exposição a agentes químicos e ruído em indústria de couro [in Portuguese]
This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and the occupational exposition to noise and toluene. Seventy-three tannery workers were divided into three groups: exposed to noise, exposed to noise and chemicals and unexposed. Data on the workers' clinical and occupational histories were obtained by means of questionnaires. Exposure to toluene was evaluated by environmental and biological monitoring. Noise level and audiometric tests were also conducted. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Findings are discussed. The hearing losses found in the noise group and noise and chemical agents group were significant when compared to the control group.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.111, p.51-56. 17 ref.
Handling and transport of hides in tanneries and taweries
Manutention, manipulation et transfert des peaux dans les tanneries-mégisseries [in French]
This recommendation describes the hazards associated with the handling of hides in the leather industry and outlines preventive measures: design of workstations and plant layout; use of suitable lifting methods and appliances; clean floor surfaces and communication ways; correct use of hooks for hanging hides; precautions against biological hazards. Replaces CIS 82-1459.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Oct. 2005. 2p.
http://secure.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/media/R419.pdf [in French]
Mikoczy Z., Hagmar L.
Cancer incidence in the Swedish leather tanning industry: Updated findings 1958-99
A cohort of 2027 workers (of which 482 were women) employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 at one of three Swedish leather tanneries was established. Depending on the plant, the start of observation varied between 1958 and 1966. Data on incident cancer cases up to 1999 were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Cause-specific expected cancer incidence was calculated for 1958-99 based on calendar year, sex, and five-year age group for the counties where the plants had been located. Altogether 56,022 person-years at risk were generated. A total of 351 incident cancer cases were observed compared to 302 expected, which resulted in an increased standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.16. An enhanced risk for prostate cancer was observed (SIR 1.44), mainly attributable to the later part of the observation period (1990-99). Other findings were not significant.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2005, Vol.62, No.7, p.461-464. 28 ref.
Uitti J., Nordman H., Halmepuro L., Savolainen J.
IgG4 response to fur animal allergens among fur workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether IgG4 antibodies to allergens in urine extracts from fur animals were associated with positive prick tests to the same allergens and with the occurrence of respiratory symptoms among fur workers. IgG4 antibodies to mink and silver fox urine were analysed in fur farmers and three referent groups from the plastics industry. The fur workers had higher IgG4 values than other groups and also had urinary IgG4 antibodies more frequently than the other groups. Among the exposed subjects, IgG4 antibodies correlated with positive skin prick tests to the same allergens and were associated with symptoms among the exposed workers. Results indicate that IgG4 antibodies are a good indicator of exposure to these allergens in fur workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.71-74. 18 ref.
Antincendio [in Italian]
Prévention des risques d'incendie [in French]
Prevención de incendios [in Spanish]
Contents of this safety training presentation on preventing fire hazards in the textile, garment and leather industries, aimed at workers in developing countries: introduction (description of fire and its effects, effects of combustion); extinguishing substances and systems; main components of fire extinguishers; use of fire extinguishers and hose reels; hazard identification; fire-fighting measures; evacuation; emergency procedures; personal protection; rules for safety (signalling anomalies, periodical controls, escape routes, storage of flammable materials, electrical systems, smoking ban, information and training of personnel, waste disposal, inspection of premises).
International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation, 8 rue Joseph Stevens, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004. CD-ROM containing PowerPoint presentations.
Bertrand O., Ulrich G., Rivière G., Gressier V., Berr C., Petiet G.
Ethmoid adenocarcinoma in a patient manufacturing orthopaedic shoe soles made of cork - Considerations based on a case
Carcinome de l'ethmoïde chez un patient fabricant des semelles de chaussures orthopédiques en liège - A propos d'un cas [in French]
Ethmoid adenocarcinoma is recognized as a professional disease in wood workers, especially those in contact with fine hardwood dust. The main carcinogenic agent responsible is represented by the tannins contained in various wood species. This is also the case for cork, which can contain up to 6% of tannins. Considering that 40,000 French workers are currently exposed to cork dust, it is recommended that the same medical supervision procedures as those in place in the woodworking sector should be adopted. This article describes a case of muco-secretant adenocarcinoma infiltrating the right nasal cavity in a 57 year-old patient who manufactured orthopaedic shoes. From 1965 to 2001, the worker handled leather, rubber, adhesives and cork without effective protection against cork dust. The occupational nature of the disease was recognized.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 2004, Vol.65, No.1, p.25-29. 19 ref.
Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA12-386.pdf [in French]
Associazione Ambiente e Lavoro
Women's health and safety: Hazards in the textile, garment and leather industry
Hygiène et sécurité des femmes: risques dans l'industrie du textile, de l'habillement et du cuir [in French]
Seguridad e higiene de la mujer: riesgos en la industria textil, confección y cuero [in Spanish]
This manual, originally prepared by the Italian Working Environment Association, is aimed at the prevention of OSH problems among women in the garment and related industries. Contents: the textile sector; the garment sector; the leather goods and footwear sector; summary of major safety and health issues affecting women in these sectors; list of potentially harmful chemicals, with an indication of major risks associated with them.
International Textile, Garment & Leather Workers' Federation (ITGLWF), 8 rue Joseph Stevens, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, [c2004]. 34p. Illus. Free copy.
Reparación de calzado [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in shoe repair and the principal prevention measures in the industry is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: machines, equipment and tools; materials and fittings; falls on the level; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; psychosocial and organizational factors; other risk factors; legislation; method for risk assessment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 53p. Illus. Price: EUR 3.40.
http://www.mtas.es/insht/practice/gap_030.pdf [in Spanish]
International Labour Office
Improving safety, health and the working environment in the informal footwear sector: PATRIS operator's manual (Participatory Action Training for Informal Sector Operators)
This training manual focuses on workplace hazards, preventive measures, and day-to-day management practices relevant to informal shoe workshops. The emphasis is on practical, low-cost and locally identified measures to improve working conditions and workplaces. Also published in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia).
ILO Country Office for Indonesia, Menara Thamrin, Level 22, Jalan M.H. Thamrin, Kav. 3, Jakarta 10250, Indonesia, 2003. iii, 36p. Illus. 6 ref.
PATRIS_operator's_manual.pdf [in English]
PATRIS_operator's_manual.pdf [in Indonesian]
Qu Q., Cohen B.S., Shore R., Chen L.C., Li G., Jin X., Melikian A.A., Yin S., Yan H., Xu B., Li Y., Mu R., Zhang X., Li K.
Benzene exposure measurement in shoe and glue manufacturing: A study to validate biomarkers
The aim of this study was to determine whether selected biological markers of exposure to benzene are reliable and sensitive enough to detect low-level exposures. Recruitment of 130 exposed subjects was based on personal exposure measurements collected for three to four weeks prior to collection of biological samples. Personal exposure to benzene was monitored between 1997 and 1998 and results were correlated with the concentrations of two urinary benzene metabolites, trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. Results indicated that S-phenylmercapturic acid appears to be a good biomarker for detecting and evaluating benzene exposure at concentrations less than 0.25ppm.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2003, Vol.18, No.12, p.988-998. Illus. 9 ref.
Veyalkin I.V., Milyutin A.A.
Proportionate cancer mortality among workers in the Belarussian tanning industry
This study evaluated proportionate cancer mortality among workers employed in a tanning plant in Minsk, Belarus. The study involved 768 workers who were employed for at least six months, who were hired after January 1, 1953 and who died before December 31, 2000. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated using the population of Minsk as reference. Among women employed in the tannery, there was a significant excess of pancreatic cancer (eight deaths, 2.56 expected, PMR=3.13). Six of the eight pancreatic cancer deaths occurred among women occupied in dyeing-stuffing workshops (1.64 expected, PMR=3.67), all among workers hired between 1962 and 1984 (1.06 expected, PMR=6.54). Among women, there were also suggested increases of corpus and cervix uteri cancers, melanoma and kidney cancers. For men, insignificant increases in PMR of oral cavity-pharynx and pancreatic cancers were observed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.44, No.6, p.637-642. 33 ref.
Vézina N., Stock S., Simard M., St-Jacques Y., Marchand A., Bilodeau P.P., Boucher M., Zaabat S., Campi A.
Musculoskeletal diseases and modular work organization at a boot manufacturing plant - Phase 2: Study of the implementation of the recommendations
Problèmes musculo-squelettiques et organisation modulaire du travail dans une usine de fabrication de bottes - Phase 2: Etude de l'implantation des recommandations [in French]
An earlier study on musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) and just-in-time working practices at a boot manufacturing plant had resulted in a series of recommendations for improving working conditions. The purpose of the present study was to review the implementation process for the 78 ergonomic and work organization changes that were selected. Data were collected by means of questionnaires sent out periodically. These data enabled the factors favouring the implementation or otherwise of the recommendations to be identified, and allowed the research team to focus its practical support efforts. This participatory ergonomic intervention resulted in a decrease in MSD symptoms and in improvements in working conditions.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. xi, 196p. Illus. 75 ref. Price: CAD 10.70.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-345.pdf [in French]
Mortality among chrome leather tannery workers: An update
Employees engaged in the tanning and finishing of leather are potentially exposed to numerous carcinogens. A previous mortality study (see CIS 88-1552) among 9352 workers from two chrome tanneries was updated with the addition of 11 years of work history follow-up and 1153 new deaths. Ninety-two different causes of death were analysed. Death rates both nationally and from the states in which the tanneries were located were used to calculate cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). The mortality risks from all causes and from all cancers were lower than expected for the combined cohort. Analysing the two tanneries separately, causes of death from cancer of the lung, pancreas, bladder, kidney, testes, nasal cavity, lymphoma or soft-tissue sarcoma were not significantly elevated. An exception was lung cancer at one tannery when state death rates were used (SMR = 130). Analysing by duration of employment, no significant trend in any cause of death at either tannery was revealed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2003, Vol.44, No.2, p.197-206. 30 ref.
Training course on occupational safety and health (OSH) and hazardous child labour in the informal sector shoe-manufacturing
Binder containing materials distributed to the participants of a training course on hazardous child labour in the informal sector shoe manufacturing held in Bandung, Indonesia, 14-17 October 2002. Organized jointly by the ILO and the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), its objective was to raise awareness in occupational safety and health issues. Contents: programme and objectives of the training course (schedule, course description, exercises and participant evaluation); hazardous child work in the footwear industry; hazard identification; participatory action training in the informal sector; work improvement in small enterprises; workplace visits; additional sources of information.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. Approx. 200p. Binder containing various course materials.
Abdel-Shafy H.I., Hegemann W., Schenk H., Wilke A.
Decreasing the level of heavy metals by aerobic treatment of tannery wastewater
In this study, the efficiency of an aerobic process for the treatment of tannery wastewater as well as the level of heavy metals throughout this process were investigated. The level of chromium in the produced sludge and the treated wastewater was evaluated. The adsorption isotherm of the "free metal sludge" for chromium was also studied. The study was carried out in a continuously controlled pilot plant system. Results show that the aerobic treatment reduced the chemical oxygen demands (COD) of the wastewater. Heavy metals were concentrated mostly in the sludge. Chromium was eliminated in the wastewater by 46.3%. The levels of the other metals were also reduced with a range of elimination from 19% for zinc to 58.3% for manganese. Nevertheless, the concentrations of chromium both in treated wastewater and sludge exceeded the permissible level. It is recommended that further treatment be applied to decrease chromium to the permissible level.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2002, Vol.8, No.4, p.298-309. Illus. 20 ref.
The children in footwear making in Biñan, Laguna (booklet); Hope for the children of Biñan: A community wakes up to protect the younger generation (video recording)
The purpose of this study was to determine the health status of child workers in Biñan, located in a region of the Philippines having many small footwear manufacturing enterprises, as well as to document and record their working conditions and the hazards to which they are exposed. It is a contribution to the implementation of ILO Convention 182 on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor. Teams from the Occupational Safety and Health Center visited 14 pre-selected workplaces in the area, and a medical team interviewed and examined 93 working children. A variety of health hazards were observed. On physical examination, 30% of children examined were found to have enlarged lymph nodes, usually indicating ongoing bacterial or viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. The research team recommended that the owners and managers of these enterprises be given instruction on basic occupational safety and health. Training modules were developed, based on the research findings.
Occupational Safety And Health Center, North Ave. cor. Agham Road Diliman, 1104 Quezon City, Philippines, [c2002]. 13p. + video recording (VHS format).
Occupational safety and health manual - The shoe industry
Manual de segurança e saúde no trabalho - Indústria calçadista [in Portuguese]
Aimed at employers in the shoe industry, this manual contains practical guidance for conducting an evaluation of the risks arising from work procedures and implementing appropriate preventive measures. It also presents a programme on the prevention of hazards in occupational settings as well as the results of a study on environmental hygiene carried out in 17 enterprises. Safety and health regulations applicable to this industry are commented.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI), Departamento Regional de São Paulo, CEP 01311-923, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2002. 298p. Illus. 45 ref.
Takala J., Kalhoulé T.
Equipe multidisciplinaire pour l'Afrique centrale
Occupational hazards in eleven African countries (summary of monographs)
Les risques professionnels dans onze pays africains (Résumés des monographies) [in French]
This document consists of a summary of a series of eleven monographs on occupational hazards and their prevention in various sectors of activity in Africa, namely: cotton growing in Chad; cotton industry in Mali; textile industry in Burkina Faso; forestry in Cote d'Ivoire; rubber plantations in Cameroon; growing and processing of sugarcane in Senegal; rice growing and processing in Madagascar; oil and soap manufacture in Togo; chemical industry in Benin; hide and leather craft and industry in Niger; ports in Congo. The topics studied were chosen to highlight the possible impact of occupational safety and health on the country's economy and development.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 90p.
Ferreira M.J., Melo J.L., Neves A., Stokler C.
The shoemaking industry - Occupational safety and health manual
Indústria do calçado - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual presents an analysis of hazards in the shoe industry, as well as the necessary prevention measures. The various steps involved in shoe manufacture are described (cutting, sewing, mounting and finishing), and the hazards (mechanical, electrical, chemical and thermal, respirable dust, noise, fire, lighting) are evaluated in terms of their effects on exposed workers. Preventive measures (training and information, signalling, personal protective equipment, collective protection) are specified, together with the role of safety and health services. A glossary and applicable legislation are appended.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, June 2001. 119p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: EUR 6.23.
Labour practices in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries
Les pratiques de travail dans les industries de la chaussure, du cuir, des textiles et de l'habillement [in French]
Las prácticas laborales de las industrias del calzado, el cuero, los textiles y el vestido [in Spanish]
In November 1998, the Governing Body of the International Labour Office decided to organize a tripartite meeting on labour practices in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries. It invited 20 countries to participate in a meeting aimed at exchanging views on labour practices in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries, using this report prepared by the Office as the basis for its discussions. The Meeting, which took place in Geneva in October 2000, adopted conclusions that included proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level, and by the ILO.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 119p. Illus. Price: CHF 20.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf [in English]
Homeworkers - Towards improving their working conditions in the textile, clothing and footwear industries
Home work is growing in importance in the textile, clothing and footwear (TCF) industries. A first part of this report gives a broad outline of the conditions of work among home workers in these industries, highlighting their problems. Contents: globalization of home work; definition of home work in the TCF industries; regional trends in industrialized counties; role of home work in subcontracting schemes; recent trends in OECD countries, in Latin America and in Asia; statistical data; competitive advantages of home work; socio-economic profile of home workers; advantages of home work for the worker; remuneration; hours of work and insecurity of employment. A second part of the report reviews national and multilateral efforts aimed at promoting equality of treatment and improving working conditions of home workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. ix, 312p.
Nijem K., Kristensen P., Al-Khatib A., Rabbá J., Takrori F., Bjertness E.
Prevalence of self-reported health complaints among shoe workers of small workshop exposed to organic solvents in Hebron City, West Bank: A cross-sectional survey
To estimate the prevalence of neurological disorders and mucous membrane irritation complaints among workers of shoe workshops, a group of 103 male workers from 30 workshops in Hebron City, exposed to organic solvents for more than one year were studied in 1996-1997. Data on neurological and mucous irritation symptoms were obtained by questionnaire. The overall prevalence of painful tingling of limbs was high (40%) and was significantly associated with long term exposure to organic solvents in gluing tasks (PR 2.8). Breathing difficulty showed a moderate non-significant association with long term exposure in cleaning tasks (PR 1.9), while sore eyes also, showed a moderate, non-significant association with exposure to organic solvents for 25-72 months in the gluing tasks. Long term exposure to n-hexane could be the main cause of polyneuropathy, possibly made worse by the absence of effective ventilation systems and personal protective equipment.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.206-216. 29 ref.
Sanz-Gallén P., Ribas Deix O., Nogué Xarau S.
Main toxicological hazards in the ceramic, glass, wood and tanning and fur industries
Principales riesgos toxicológicos de las industrias: cerámica, del vidrio, madera, y curtido y peletería [in Spanish]
The main hazards facing various industries are reviewed. In the brick and tile industry, components of clays and varnishes and kiln emissions give rise in particular to lung diseases, dermatitis and lead or arsenic poisoning. Health hazards in the glass industry include silicosis, asbestosis, burns and acute lung oedema, lung or nasal cavity cancer, contact dermatitis and poisoning (from lead, other metals and arsenic). In woodworking, wood dust, wood preservatives, varnishes and resins can give rise to contact dermatitis, respiratory diseases whether allergic or not, conjunctivitis and rhinitis, and lung, nasal cavity or scrotum cancers. In the tanning and fur industries, the hazards result primarily from exposure to mineral, vegetal or synthetic tannins which can give rise to contact dermatitis, perforation of the nasal septum, respiratory diseases or neoplasms of the nasal cavities, the lungs and the bladder.
Prevención, July-Sep. 2000, No.153, p.40-47. Illus. 12 ref.
Jöckel K.H., Pohlabeln H., Bolm-Audorff U., Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Wichmann H.E.
Lung cancer risk of workers in shoe manufacture and repair
A total of 4,184 people with primary lung cancer and 4,253 controls, matched for sex, age and region of residence were interviewed in Germany with respect to their occupational and smoking history. Individuals who had worked in shoe manufacturing or repair for at least half a year were identified. Based on 76 cases and 42 controls having worked in shoe manufacture or repair, a significant risk was noted (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.89). After adjustment for smoking, this risk was lowered to 1.69. The smoking-adjusted OR among men was 1.50 and 2.91 among women. Regression modelling showed a positive dose-effect relationship between duration of exposure in shoe manufacture and repair and lung cancer risk. The OR for 30 years of exposure varied between 1.98 and 2.24. The study shows an increased lung cancer risk for shoemakers and workers in shoe manufacturing, doubling after being 30 years in these occupations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.575-580. 20 ref.
Morales Suárez-Varela M.M., Esteve de Quesada M.J., Polanco Villalba B., Llopis González A.
Study of the evaluation of risk factors among tanning industry workers in the province of Valencia
Estudio de la valoración de los factores de riesgo de los trabajadores de la industria del curtido de la provincia de Valencia [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors to which tannery workers in the province of Valencia, Spain, are exposed. The main risk factors observed were noise, vibrations, ambient humidity, dust, vapours and gases. During the study period (1993-1995), a 2.5% increase in occupational accidents was recorded. Injuries consisted mainly of fissures or fractures in 1993 and musculoskeletal disorders from 1994 onwards. Significant differences were found by age group, the incidence of occupational diseases being the highest for workers aged above 45 years. Overall, the study shows an increased incidence of osteoarticular disorders among workers assigned to washing and finishing, or involved in several levels of production, an increased incidence of stress among workers assigned to washing and finishing, hearing loss among tanning workers and eczema among finishing workers or workers assigned to various levels of production.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1999, Vol.XLVI, No.180, p.25-35. 18 ref.
Tomei F., Giuntoli P., Biagi M., Baccolo T.P., Tomao E., Rosati M.V.
Liver damage among shoe repairers
33 shoe repairers working in supermarkets using glues containing potentially hepatotoxic solvents were identified and compared to a control group of 61 non-exposed workers. Participants completed a questionnaire designed to identify risk factors and non-occupational confounding factors for hepatotoxicity. Common laboratory tests were conducted to check whether they were useful markers of hepatotoxicity caused by exposure to solvents, and to select tests for screening campaigns. Exposed workers had a higher prevalence of elevated mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), conjugated bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and a ratio of ALT to AST greater than 1, with a mean of 1.5. Findings suggest that there is the possibility of liver involvement among even asymptomatic shoe repairers, and that periodic liver screening may be useful; furthermore use of these tests (especially the ratio of ALT to AST) for craftsmen who are exposed to solvents is advisable even when environmental monitoring indicates levels below the threshold limit values.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.36, No.5, p.541-547. Illus. 32 ref.
Perico A., Cassinelli C., Brugnone F., Bavazzano P., Perbellini L.
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to cyclohexane by urinary 1,2- and 1,4-cyclohexanediol determination
Individual exposure to cyclohexane was evaluated in 156 workers employed in shoe and leather factories by measurement of 1,2-cyclohexanediol (1,2-DIOL) and 1,4-DIOL in urine during the working week. Individual exposure to cyclohexane ranged from 7 to 617mg/m3. Urinary concentrations of 1,2-DIOL were 3.1, 7.6, 13.2 and 6.3mg/g creatinine on Monday (pre- and post-shift), Thursday (post-shift) and Friday (pre-shift), respectively. Corresponding values recorded for 1,4- DIOL were 2.8, 5.1, 7.8 and 3.7mg/g creatinine. A significant correlation was found between environmental exposure to cyclohexane and post-shift urinary 1,2-DIOL and 1,4-DIOL on Monday. Data for Thursday and Friday showed only a poor correlation to exposure. Both metabolites have a urinary half-life of close to 18h and accumulate during the week. Comparison between data obtained from a PBPK model and those found in workers suggests that 1,2-DIOL and 1,4-DIOL are suitable for the biological monitoring of industrial exposure to cyclohexane. Topics: adhesives; cyclohexane; determination in air; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; leather goods industry; shift work; shoe industry; urinary metabolites; urine monitoring.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1999, Vol.72, No.2, p.115-120. Illus. 18 ref.
Ayadi M., Martin P.
Pulpitis of the fingers from a shoe glue containing 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT)
Topics: 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one; adhesives; case study; fingers; irritants; natural rubber; shoe industry; skin allergies; skin microtrauma; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1999, Vol.40, No.2, p.115-116. 16 ref.
Garcia A.M., Fletcher T.
Maternal occupation in the leather industry and selected congenital malformations
Cases and controls were selected from eight public hospitals in Spain. Cases were located from the hospital discharge records, including children born and diagnosed in some of the selected hospitals during their first year of life. Controls were selected from births without congenital defects in the same hospitals and dates of the cases. Both parents of selected children were interviewed (mainly by phone) and information about potential confounding variables and occupational history during the three years before the birth was collected in structured questionnaires. A total of 261 cases and the same number of controls were included in the study. Adjusted odds ratios (ORB) were estimated for maternal occupation in the leather industry in the period between three months before the conception and the birth of the child, and each selected group of congenital malformations: nervous system defects, cardiac defects of closure, oral clefts, epispadia or hypospaslia, and multiple anomalies. These data are compatible with an increased risk for oral clefts in the offspring of women working in the leather industry.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.284-286. 8 ref.
The thread of life: Hazards in the textile, garment and leather industry
Le fil de la vie: les risques dans l'industrie textile, de l'habillement et du cuir [in French]
El hilo de la vida. Riesgos en las industrias textil, del vestido y de la piel [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical hazards; child labour; clothing industry; electricity; leather and fur industries; leather goods industry; mechanical hazards; physical hazards; safety films; textile industry; textile machines and processes; videotape; women.
International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation, 8 rue Joseph Stevens, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1998. VHS videotape (length = 35 min). ###
Uitti J., Nordman H., Halmepuro L., Savolainen J.
Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and allergy to fur animals among fur farmers and fur garment workers
Rhinitis symptoms and eye complaints were significantly more common among fur garment workers than among a control group unexposed to fur. Symptom prevalence did not differ significantly between fur farmers and controls. Smoking explained the lower forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second of the fur garment workers. The prevalence of positive skin tests did not differ significantly between theexposed groups and the controls. Skin tests showed cross-reactivity between antibodies to fur and domestic animal allergens. Fur garment workers have an excess of rhinitis and eye symptoms which primarily appear to be nonimmunologic. Topics: allergens; allergies; animals; asthma; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; fur industry; furs; hypersensitivity; livestock rearing; maximal expiratory flow; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; rhinitis; smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.6, p.428-434. 18 ref.
Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Doko-Jelinic J., Bradic V.
Respiratory function in shoe manufacturing workers
Topics: aerosols; air sampling; asthma; benzene; chronic bronchitis; Croatia; dyspnoea; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; length of exposure; migraine; organic solvents; pulmonary function; respirable dust; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; rhinitis; shoe industry; sinusitis; ventilatory capacity; women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1997, Vol.31, No.1, p.50-55. 25 ref.
Bogadi-Šare A., et al.
Genotoxic effects in workers exposed to benzene: With special reference to exposure markers and confounding factors
Cytogenetic tests were carried out on the lymphocytes of 49 female shoemakers exposed to benzene and toluene. Levels of benzene and toluene in the workers' blood and levels of phenol in urine were also measured. Chromosome aberration analysis revealed a significant increase in dicentric incidence in the exposed workers with respect to a control group. While significant correlation between cytogenetic test results and exposure biomarkers was not established, correlation between cytogenetic test results and data on confounding factors (age, alcohol consumption) was marked. The influence of confounding factors should be considered when estimating individual genotoxicity risk related to low level benzene exposure.
Industrial Health, July 1997, Vol.35, No.3, p.367-373. 31 ref.
Strategies and methods to promote occupational health in low-income countries: Industrial counselling in tanneries in India
This thesis discusses occupational health promotion among workers in low-income countries, with special reference to tannery workers in India. Topics covered: labour conditions in low-income countries; evaluation of the policies and activities of international agencies and non-governmental organizations in the field of occupational health; occupational health policies in India; assessment of exposure to chemical agents and ergonomic stressors in tanneries; respiratory disorders, skin complaints and low-back problems among tannery workers; health programmes and industrial counselling. Summary in Dutch.
Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1997. vii, 149p. Illus. 155 ref.
Koch P., Nickolaus G., Geier J.
Contact allergies in the tanning, leather and footwear industries - A five-year analysis based on data collected by the information service of the dermatological clinics' association
Kontaktallergien bei Lederherstellern, Lederverarbeitern und in der Schuhindustrie - Fünf-Jahres-Analyse auf der Grundlage von Daten des Informationsverbundes Dermatologischer Kliniken [in German]
Topics: allergens; dyes; epidemiologic study; Germany; leather and fur industries; preservatives; sensitization; shoe industry; skin allergies; tanning agents; tanning industry.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Nov.-Dec. 1996, Vol.44, No.6, p.257-262. Illus. 30 ref.
Roel J.M., Sánchez J.M., Quintanilla T., Marhuenda D., Prieto M.J., Cardona A.
Prevention of the risk of n-hexane polyneuropathy in the shoe industry
Prevención de riesgo de polineuropatía por n-hexano en la industria del calzado [in Spanish]
Topics: hexane; diseases of nervous system; exposure evaluation; implementation of control measures; leather goods industry; medical supervision; plant health supervision; shoe industry.
Salud y trabajo, 1996, No.118, p.33-39. Illus. 27 ref.
García García F.
Health hazards detected in the tanning industry
Riesgos higiénicos detectados en la industria de curtidos [in Spanish]
Topics: ammonium hydroxide; sulfur dioxide; hydrogen sulfide; chromium and compounds; exposure evaluation; harmful substances; health hazards; hides; leather; occupational health survey; risk factors; Spain; tanning industry; tanning.
Salud y trabajo, 1996, No.118, p.15-23. Illus.
Gromadzińska J., et al.
The influence of atmospheric chromium on selenium content and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of tannery workers
The concentration of selenium and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase were determined in the blood of 34 tannery workers who worked in an area containing chromium compounds. Urine concentrations of selenium were also measured. Decreased selenium concentrations in blood and plasma and elevated TBARS concentration in plasma were observed in the tanners compared to a control group. Tanners working in areas of high chromium concentrations had lower concentrations of selenium in blood and urine than did other tanners. The results suggest a specific adaptation of the body to the working environment containing chromium compounds.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1996, Vol.104, No.12, p.1312-1316. Illus. 33 ref.
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