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Printing, photography and photocopying industry - 330 entries found

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1999

CIS 01-135 Tumerelle E.
Occupational allergic diseases caused by polyfunctional aziridines: A case report
Allergies professionnelles liées aux aziridines polyfonctionnelles - Revue de la littérature, à propos d'un cas [in French]
Polyfunctional aziridines (PFA) are a new class of occupational allergens, causing rare conditions. A case of occupational dermatosis induced by a PFA hardener of an acrylic resin used as glue in a textile screen-printing firm is reported. Skin tests were unable to identify the responsible allergen positively. PFAs are likely to provoke allergic contact dermatitis, occupational asthma and even a combination of both. One case of urticaria with a positive prick test has been reported. The responsible allergens are the PFAs themselves, and in some cases, the polyfunctional acrylates used in their production and other hardening constituents. There remains a degree of uncertainty about the immunological or irritative nature of these affections. Because of the growing use of water-based acrylics, polyurethanes and polyvinyl acetates requiring the use of PFA hardeners, users must be rigorously protected. PFA-induced eczema, rhinitis and asthma should also be added to the list of occupational diseases in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.36-41. 14 ref.

CIS 00-957
Health and Safety Executive
Handling the news: Advice for employers on manual handling of bundles
Manual handling of newspaper and magazine bundles can cause strains or serious injuries over time. This guidance is intended for persons involved in the production, distribution and sale of newspapers and magazines. It contains practical advice on compliance with the 1992 Manual Handling Regulations (see CIS 93-36) of the United Kingdom, in particular with respect to assessing the risks to employees. Topics covered include: maximum admissible loads; work posture; loading and unloading of vehicles; trolley and roll cages; roller tables and conveyors; protective gloves; lumbar belts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. 19p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 00-956
Health and Safety Executive
Handling the news: Advice for newsagents and employees on safe handling of bundles
Manual handling of newspaper and magazine bundles can cause strains or serious injuries over time. This guidance is intended for newsagents and their employees who manually handle bundles of newspapers and magazines, for example while palletizing, loading and unloading delivery vehicles or picking-up bundles at wholesale premises. It contains general practical information on manual handling, the use of trolleys, night work, pregnant women and young workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. 8p. 5 ref.

CIS 00-1073 Plenge-Bönig A., Karmaus W.
Exposure to toluene in the printing industry is associated with subfecundity in women but not in men
In a cross-sectional study, a sample of 150 male and 90 female printing industry workers were interviewed retrospectively on reproductive experience with a modified version of the European study of infertility and subfecundity questionnaire. Male workers who had been exposed to different concentrations of toluene and their partners did not show a reduction in fecundity. In women fecundity was reduced. After considering possible biases, low daily exposure to toluene in women seems to be associated with reduced fecundity. This result is in accordance with other findings for organic solvents and supports both the hypotheses that they could affect hormonal regulation and that organic solvents increase early foetal losses, which in turn contributes to lower frequency of unprotected intercourse.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.56, No.7, p.443-448. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 99-884 Marconi P.M.B., Campagna G., Fabri G., Schiavino D.
Allergic contact dermatitis from colour developers used in automated photographic processing
Topics: case study; developers; eczema; photographic chemicals; photography; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1999, Vol.40, No.2, p.109. 6 ref.

1998

CIS 00-1650 Grosjean R., Ackermans H., de Ridder M., de Meester M.
Determination of free silica in a set of toners
A recent publication suggests a link between occupational exposure to toners (e.g. in a photo-copying shop) and a pneumoconiosis-type of disease. A set of toners used for printing or photo-copying was analysed to identify the presence of crystalline silica. The results of this survey indicate that the use of the analysed toners does not represent a risk of silicosis.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1998, Vol.42, No.3, p.219-220. 8 ref.

CIS 99-293 Grigulewitsch W., Reinert D.
Safe control systems for printing machines
Sichere Steuerungen für Druckmaschinen [in German]
Topics: automatic control; control circuits; detection of faults; electronic controls; layout of controls; printing and duplicating; safety by design; safety devices.
Automatisierungstechnische Praxis, 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.49-55. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 99-197 Gonzalez M., Velten M., Cantineau A.
Increased acquired dyschromatopsia among solvent-exposed workers: An epidemiology study on 249 employees of an aluminum-foil printing factory
Topics: alcoholism; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; determination in air; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; food industry; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; long-term exposure; organic solvents; packaging materials; pharmaceutical industry; photogravure printing; printing industry; smoking; vision tests.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1998, Vol.71, No.5, p.317-324. 29 ref.

CIS 98-1589
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety information for printers
Topics: allergic respiratory disorders; asthma; baling presses; colophony; causes of accidents; chemical hazards; conveyors; data sheet; epoxy compounds; hearing protection; information of personnel; isocyanates; legislation; machinery; manual handling; mechanical hazards; noise control; noise measurement; noise; platen presses; printing industry; repetitive strain injury; safety devices; safety training in industry; sensitization; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 8 data sheets, 24p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 98-1728 Trail I.A.
The prevalence of work-related upper limb disorders in a printing factory
Topics: epidemiologic study; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; frequency rates; printing industry; repetitive work; United Kingdom; upper extremity disorders.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.48, No.1, p.23-26. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 98-1266 Wright J.
Management of occupational health and safety in the printing industry (ANZSIC Code 2412)
Topics: Australia; chemical safety; dangerous substances; determination in air; harmful substances; manual handling; noise level; occupational hygiene evaluation; organic solvents; plant safety and health organization; printing industry; Queensland; safety and health documentation; supply of personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 1998, Vol.14, No.2, p.187-196. 20 ref.

CIS 98-1370 Goossens A., Coninx D., Rommens K., Verhamme B.
Occupational dermatitis in a silk-screen maker
Topics: case study; eczema; epoxy resins; hand; methacrylates; protective gloves; screen printing; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; wrist.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1998, Vol.39, No.1, p.40-42. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 98-527
Health and Safety Executive
The printer's guide to health and safety
Topics: electrical safety; emergency services; exhaust ventilation; fire protection; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; in-plant transport; legislation; machinery; manual handling; mechanical hazards; medical supervision; noise control; personal protective equipment; plant safety and health organization; preventive maintenance; printing industry; radiation protection; role of management; safety and health engineering; safety devices; safety guides; safety training in industry; storage; training manuals; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1998. viii, 136p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 98-528
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Printing industry: Health and safety training package. An open learning package
Topics: causes of accidents; cost of accidents; falls of persons; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; implementation of control measures; manual handling; mechanical hazards; noise control; plant safety and health organization; preventive maintenance; printing industry; responsibilities; risk awareness; role of management; safety and health engineering; safety training in industry; training course; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 284p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 50.00.

1997

CIS 01-1177 Görner B., Küter B., Renkewitz K., Schurig L.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Hazardous substances in offset printing industry: Safety engineering
Gefahrstoffe in Offsetdruckereien: Sicherheitstechnik [in German]
Topics: dangerous substances; exhaust ventilation; fans; Germany; limitation of exposure; offset printing; printing industry; safety and health engineering; solvents.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Bürgermeister-Smidt-Str. 74-46, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. viii, 55p. Illus. 39 ref. Price: DEM 17.50.

CIS 01-1107 Internal audit - Screen printing
Autodiagnostic - Sérigraphie [in French]
The internal auditing of hazards allows the preparation of a safety and health plan adapted to the company. A check-list for conducting such an audit within screen printing industry firms is proposed, consisting of the following parts: periodic checks; storage; screen preparation; ink preparation; printing machines; drying; screen cleaning; liquid effluents; paper guillotines and trimmers; presses; flocking machines; fabric cutting; screen making machines.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie (CRAM) des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue du Président Herriot, BP 3405, 44034 Nantes Cedex 1, France, Sep. 1997. 28p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 99-1881 Luce D., Landre M.F., Clavel T., Limousin I., Dimerman S., Moulin J.J.
Cancer mortality among magazine printing workers
In a study of 262 workers in an offset printing plant, an increased cancer mortality was found after ten years of employment, mainly because of a high mortality from lung cancer and from oesophageal cancer. The increased cancer mortality was concentrated among pressman. Although based on small numbers, the findings suggest an increased risk of cancer among these workers which should be further investigated. Topics: cancer; cohort study; length of exposure; lung cancer; mortality; oesophageal carcinoma; offset printing; printing industry.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1997, Vol.54, No.4, p.264-267. 17 ref.

CIS 99-614 Controlling cleaning-solvent vapors at small printers
Topics: data sheet; exhaust ventilation; health engineering; health hazards; local exhaust; printing and duplicating; protective gloves; solvents; substitution; USA.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Dec. 1997. 3p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 99-593 Morata T.C., Fiorini A.C., Fischer F.M., Colacioppo S., Wallingford K.M., Krieg E.F., Dunn D.E., Gozzoli L., Padrão M.A., Cesar C.L.G.
Toluene-induced hearing loss among rotogravure printing workers
124 workers exposed to various levels of noise and to an organic solvent mixture of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol underwent pure-tone audiometry and immittance audiometry testing. 49 percent had hearing loss. Of the numerous variables analyzed, age and hippuric acid (the biological marker for toluene in urine) met the significance level criteria for their contribution to the development of hearing loss. The odds ratio estimates for hearing loss were 1.07 times greater for each increment of one year of age and 1.76 times greater for each gram of hippuric acid per gram of creatinine. The findings suggest that exposure to toluene has a toxic effect on the auditory system. Topics: age-linked differences; audiometric tests; toluene; ethyl acetate; ethanol; cross-sectional study; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; length of exposure; noise level; noise; organic solvents; photogravure printing; synergism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1997, Vol.23, No.4, p.289-298. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 97-1548 Manufacturing industry
These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-1299
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Safe use of isocyanates in printing and laminating
This guidance is primarily concerned with the inhalation hazards arising from exposure to isocyanates. Contents: use of isocyanates in printing and printed packaging; health effects (sensitization, irritation, dermatitis, asthma); occupational exposure limits; selection of isocyanate products; storage; respirators; mixing processes; application systems; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems; decontamination and spillage; waste disposal; air monitoring; health surveillance; first aid; information of personnel.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. vi, 33p. Illus. 39 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.

1996

CIS 98-780 Nielsen H., Henriksen L., Olsen J.H.
Malignant melanoma among lithographers
Topics: cancer; carcinogens; cohort study; Denmark; lithography; melanoma; morbidity; organic solvents; photographic chemicals.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1996, Vol.22, No.2, p.108-111. 17 ref.

CIS 98-272 High-voltage hazards inside electrostatic imaging and burning equipment
Risque de choc électrique dû à la haute tension à l'intérieur de l'équipement d'imagerie et d'isolation électrostatique [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; duplicating; electric shock; electrical safety; electricity; high voltage; printing and duplicating; printing industry.
Industrial Health and Safety Program and Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, May 1996. 2p.

CIS 97-585 Hohmann R., Wölfel V., Görner B.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Harmful substances in offset printing plants: Exposure concentrations
Gefahrstoffe in Offsetdruckereien: Stoffbelastungen [in German]
Exposure to organic solvents was determined in 24 small and medium printing plants in Germany. A total of 92 workplaces with rotary and sheet-fed offset printing machines, using wetting and cleaning agents regularly, were covered by the measurements taken between 1992 and 1994. In the 257 personal samples which were analyzed, the principal substances identified were 2-propanol and various hydrocarbons. The average concentrations of 2-propanol and total hydrocarbons over the 8-hour workshifts ranged from 0.1 to 164mL/m3 and from 0.1 to 68mL/m3, respectively. None of the measured concentrations exceeded the exposure limits.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 101110, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 37p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: DEM 15.00.

CIS 97-604
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Dermatitis in printing
This leaflet provides advice on the prevention of dermatitis in the printing industry: duties of employers; substances that can cause dermatitis; precautionary measures (reducing skin contact, selection and use of protective equipment, skin creams, personal hygiene); managing the introduction of new processes or chemicals; reporting cases of dermatitis.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1996. 8p. 4 ref.

CIS 97-603
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Supply of chemicals to printers
This leaflet provides brief guidance on the legal requirements for the provision of health and safety information for chemicals used in the printing industry. Information which must be included in safety data sheets is described and advice is given on how this information may be used by printers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Apr. 1996. 16p. 10 ref.

CIS 97-573 Vrca A., Karačić V., Božičević D., Božikov V., Malinar M.
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in individuals exposed to long-term low concentrations of toluene
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to low concentration of toluene on the central nervous system by using brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). Forty nine printing plant workers occupationally exposed to low concentrations of toluene for an average of 20.3 years and 59 non-exposed controls were examined. The level of exposure to toluene was evaluated by defining the concentration of toluene in peripheral blood and the concentration of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol in urine. In the group of exposed workers, a significant decrease in all wave amplitudes examined, a significant prolongation of P1 wave latency and an increased interval of interpeak latencies (P3-P5) were found. This indicates that the extramedullary and high medullary part of the auditory pathway are biologically most frequently affected by long-term exposure to low concentrations of toluene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.62-66. 23 ref.

CIS 97-205 Lafontaine M., Framboisier X., Morèle Y., Gendre J.C., Braud M.C., Ferrand C., Guillouzic J.F.
Chemical risks linked to offset printing
Risques chimiques liés à l'impression offset [in French]
This study examined commonly used inks and solvents, in order to determine and quantify the main constituents. Atmospheric and personal samples were then taken in newspaper and book printing shops to evaluate the pollution levels engendered during printing (inhalable fraction, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and during cleaning (solvents). The pollution engendered by these operations was generally slight, except for cleaning operations of medium duration, where levels in excess of OELs may be found (aromatic solvents in particular).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, Note No.2033-165-96, p.475-480. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/risques_chimiques_lies_a_l_impression_offset.html [in French]

CIS 96-1756 Fustinoni S., Buratti M., Giampiccolo R., Pulvirenti S., Colombi A.
Biological monitoring of exposure to solvents: A gas chromatography method for the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and urine
Monitoraggio biologico dell'esposizione a solventi: metodo per la determinazione gascromatografica degli idrocarburi aromatici nel sangue e nell'urina [in Italian]
A gas chromatographic procedure was used for the detection of blood and urinary levels of aromatic hydrocarbons (AH) in 151 workers from three industries: the pharmaceutical industry, photogravure printing and office work. A dynamic head-space purge and trap preconcentration and flame ionization detection were utilized. In the first two categories of the occupationally exposed workers, blood AH levels were of 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than in the environmentally exposed subjects of the third category. In this latter group (office workers) there was a significant difference in blood and urine AH levels between nonsmokers and smokers.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1996, Vol.87, No.1, p.63-75. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 96-1408 Pelclová D., Urban P., Preiss J., Lukáš E., Pícková J., Žukov I., Weinstein C., Haas T.
Chronic occupational intoxication with toluene in rotogravure printers
Five rotogravure printers with an average of 18 years exposure to toluene (mean concentration 250ppm) experienced repeated feelings of inebriation during the workshift with pseudohallucinations at increased toluene concentrations. Clinical neurological examination revealed no significant deviations from the norm. Electroneuromyography was negative in all of them. Slight abnormalities were observed in three electroencephalograms and in three visual evoked potentials. Detailed psychological examination revealed neuropsychological impairment in four workers. As a result of the examinations, three workers received occupational disease compensation.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.1, p.3-11. 32 ref.

CIS 96-925
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Printing processes and printing inks, carbon black and some nitro compounds
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 10-17 October 1995. Overall evaluation: occupational exposures in printing processes, carbon black, 3,7-dinitrofluoranthene, 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitroanisole, nitrobenzene and tetranitromethane are possibly carcinogenic in humans (Group 2B); printing inks, chloronitrobenzenes, 3,5-dinitrotoluene, musk ambrette, musk xylene, nitrotoluenes and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (Group 3).
IARC Press, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69732 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1996. v, 578p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 90.00.

1995

CIS 96-2202 Intaglio printing: Reducing the toluene exposure
Tiefdruck: Toluolbelastung verringern durch neue Konzeptionen [in German]
The exposure limit to toluene established in 1994 in Germany is of 50mL/m3. The measures taken in the printing industry to reduce the exposure to toluene, in particular in intaglio printing shops to comply with the limit are described. These measures include: enclosure of the machines during operation, use of exhaust ventilation during standstill of the machine and automation of cleaning operations of machine parts.
Tag für Tag, Mar.-Apr. 1995, No.2, p.18-21. Illus.

CIS 96-2091 Bortkiewicz A., Pałczyński C., Makowiec-Dąbrowska T., Górski P.
Cardiac arrhythmia in women performing heavy physical work
The response of the circulatory system to heavy physical work was assessed in 35 women employed as printing machine operators. Heart rates during work, leisure time and sleep were evaluated with Holter ECG recordings. In nine of the women, heart rhythm disturbances (in particular, supraventricular extrasystoles) were found, which occurred in connection with the physical tasks performed. Conduction disturbances were observed at night in three cases. Elevated blood pressure was found in five of the subjects, but without ECG alterations. Among those with ECG changes, only one had abnormal blood pressure. Sixty percent of the examined women were overweight and many of them were habitual cigarette smokers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1995, Vol.8, No.1, p.23-31. 49 ref.

CIS 96-1724 Printing industry
Grafisk industri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding work environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish printing industry. In this sector there are 56,000 employees, which corresponds to 2.1% of the active working population. The main harmful factors and health problems are: strain injuries, noise and organic solvents (brain damage). This sector is also characterized by accidents, but the incidence of reported accidents is lower than the average for all industries.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 62p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.

CIS 96-871 White R.F., Proctor S.P., Echeverria D., Schweikert J., Feldman R.G.
Neurobehavioral effects of acute and chronic mixed-solvent exposure in the screen printing industry
Neuropsychological assessments were carried out on 30 workers in a screen printing business. Air sampling indicated the presence of toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, mineral spirits, β-ether, methylene chloride and acetic acid. Exposure levels varied throughout the plant but were all were below recommended threshold limit values. Workers with higher acute exposure demonstrated impaired test performance on tasks involving manual dexterity, visual memory and mood. Those with chronic exposure demonstrated poorer performance on visual memory tasks and mood. Results suggest that the mixed solvents used in the screen printing industry have an effect on central nervous system functioning in the absence of obvious clinical disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.221-231. 32 ref.

CIS 96-256 Muttray A., Lang J., Mayer-Popken O., Konietzko J.
Acute changes in the EEG of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were made of 11 workers before and after exposure to mixtures of organic solvents during the cleaning of printing rolls. Inhalation exposure was quantified by personal air sampling and was considered to be low to moderate. Results indicated that even a relatively short exposure to certain mixtures of organic solvents may cause acute changes in the EEG.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1995, Vol.8, No.2, p.131-137. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 95-1788 Wadden R.A., Scheff P.A., Franke J.E., Conroy L.M., Javor M., Keil C.B., Milz S.A.
VOC emission rates and emission factors for a sheetfed offset printing shop
Emission rates of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) were determined during the production phase in a sheetfed offset printing shop. The determination made use of measured concentration data (gas chromatography), ventilation rate information and mass balance models that characterize printing space. The average VOC emission rate was 470g/hr (range 160-1100g/hr). These values were in good agreement with the amounts of VOC, hexane, toluene and aromatic hydrocarbons determined from estimated solvent usage and measured solvent compositions. Comparison of the emission rates with source activities indicated an emission factor of 30-50g VOC/press cleaning. Based on the test observations it was estimated that this typical small printing facility was likely to release 1-2t VOC/year. Because this methodology does not require the use of temporary local enclosure and does not interfere with worker activities, it might be usefully applied in other industries with extensive solvent use, such as the surface coating industry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.368-376. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 95-1466
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Chemical safety in the printing industry
Contents of this guidance booklet: health hazards caused by chemicals in the printing industry (skin and eye contact, inhalation and ingestion); fire and explosion hazards; pollution control; managing chemical safety (exposure limits, collection of health and safety information, substitution of hazardous substances, evaluating risks); chemical safety measures; exhaust ventilation systems; use of respiratory protective equipment; safe storage, handling and transport procedures; spillage control; waste disposal; precautions during maintenance; instruction and training of personnel; record keeping and review.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 53p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

1994

CIS 96-2316 Bernard B., Sauter S., Fine L., Petersen M., Hales T.
Job task and psychosocial risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper employees
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the association of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and work-related factors among employees using video display terminals at a large metropolitan newspaper. A total of 973 workers completed the survey on their symptoms, job tasks, and psychosocial and work organization conditions. The results suggest a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities among newspaper employees and they provide additional evidence that increased work load, time pressure, and more hours of computer use are related to the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among these workers, particularly for disorders in the hand or wrist area.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1994, Vol.20, No.6, p.417-426. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 95-1356 Leon D.A.
Mortality in the British printing industry - A historical cohort study of trade union members in Manchester
A historical cohort study of the printing industry was conducted after an anecdotal report of a cluster of cases of bladder cancer in a newspaper factory in Manchester. The cohort comprised some 9,500 men who were members of either of two trade unions (the NGA and NATSOPA) in the Manchester area between 1949 and 1963. During the follow-up period (1949-1983) 3,482 deaths occurred among men born in 1890 or later; follow-up was 97% complete. The results of the study do not support the hypothesis of an occupational risk of bladder cancer in the printing industry. A high mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR=179, 95% CI 144-218) was found among men involved in newspaper letterpress printing that is consistent with the findings of previous studies. Increased mortality from cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx was found for NATSOPA workers in the newspaper industry. The lower mortality in the NGA compared with that in NATSOPA may well be due to socioeconomic differences in union composition, rather than occupational factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.51, No.2, p.79-86. 33 ref.

CIS 95-1139 Faucett J., Rempel D.
VDT-related musculoskeletal symptoms - Interactions between work posture and psychosocial work factors
This study describes the relationship between work tasks and musculoskeletal symptoms for workers in the editorial department of a newspaper. All of the workers were video display terminal operators, but they had different responsibilities. Work posture related to VDT workstation and psychosocial work factors were investigated and related to musculoskeletal symptoms. Relationships were found between postures, work stress, psychological workload and musculoskeletal symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.26, No.5, p.597-612. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 95-1043 Jost M., Hofer L.
Are photocopiers and laser printers dangerous to health?
Sind Arbeiten mit Fotokopiergeräten und Laserdruckern gesundheitsgefährdend? [in German]
Les photocopieuses et les imprimantes laser présentent-elles un risque pour la santé? [in French]
Review of the substances released and of the measures reported in the literature or carried out by the SUVA. The most frequent complaints were irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, headaches and fatigue. Recommendations apply to premises, maintenance, enclosed systems, filters and medical control.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Medizinische Mitteilungen Nr. 66, Apr. 1994, p.4-9. 14 ref.

CIS 95-656 Dampening in offset printing. Which method will be used in future?
Offsetfeuchtung. Welcher Weg zeichnet sich ab? [in German]
It is expected that the emission of isopropyl alcohol from offset printing machines will soon be limited in the European Union. Ceramic cylinders which require water with less addition of isopropyl alcohol for dampening have come into use. The experience with this method in six cases is described. In four cases the new method proved to be as good as the conventional method with regard to the quality of the print. The addition of isopropyl alcohol could be cut from 10% or more to 5% or less with the new ceramic cylinders. In 2 cases no satisfactory results were achieved.
Tag für Tag, Jan.-Feb. 1994, No.1, p.9-13. Illus.

CIS 95-205
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Making your safety policy work. A guide to the implementation of health and safety policies in printing works
This leaflet provides guidance on the preparation and implementation of a health and safety policy in a printing works. Contents: statement of general policy; responsibilities; arrangements for health and safety; identifying hazards and assessing risks; employee consultation; publishing the policy; checking that the policy is carried out (eg machinery safeguards, chemical safety, transport and storage, fire protection, systems of work and maintenance).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. 23p. 35 ref. Free.

CIS 94-1894
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Work-related upper limb disorders in the printing industry. Programme for prevention
This booklet describes types of upper limb disorders and their treatment and presents a programme for action in the workplace based on: deciding whether a firm has a problem with upper limb disorders; assessing the risk (examination of tasks, review of medical information); reducing the risk (job and equipment design, work organization, the work environment); keeping risks under control. Legal requirements are also outlined.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1994. 20p. 41 ref.

1993

CIS 97-1215 Check list for printing plants
Checklista för tryckerier [in Swedish]
This safety check list designed for the printing industry includes 86 items covering the following areas: stock rooms; printing; reproduction; book binding; other questions; the environment.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1993. 11p.

CIS 94-1999 Takizawa A., Aoyagi M., Ota H., Yamada S., Sawada A., Tanaka S., Iida A., Arai K.
Evaluation of offset printing workplaces by workplace environment measurements and their problems
Ofusetto insatsu sagyōba no sagyō kankyō sokutei kekka to mondai ten ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Workplace measurements carried out in various printing establishments between 1980 and 1992 were reviewed. Whereas in the most recent evaluations 80% of the offset shops and 90% of the screen printing shops had acceptable ambient solvent concentrations (Control Class I), only 25% of the gravure operations were so classified. Replacement of chlorinated solvents by hydrocarbon solvents over the years has improved the quality of workplace air, but some workers have higher concentrations of organochlorine compounds in their urine than the atmospheric levels would suggest. This implies that they are exposed by skin absorption when cleaning the printing surfaces with solvent-soaked rags, and that there is a work-environment problem that is not revealed when the Control Classes of print shops are determined.
Sagyō Kankyō, 1 Mar. 1993, Vol.14, No.2, p.52-60. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 94-1981 Sakaue Y., Matsui Y., Hinano Y., Harada A.
Working environment evaluation of industrial workplaces with respect to organic solvents
Yūki yōzai toriatsukai sagyōsho no kankyō hyōka ni tsuite [in Japanese]
The Industrial Safety and Health Law as amended in 1988 divides workplaces into Control Classes I, II and III on the basis of air monitoring at regularly spaced points over the surface of the work area (A sampling) and at points of emission of pollutants (B sampling). Concentrations of airborne organic solvents were measured in eight types of enterprise, including print shops, woodworking shops, small factories for the manufacture of rubber, electrical or electronic goods and others (160 workplaces, 1504 measurements). The solvents were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, chlorinated solvents ethyl acetate and dimethylformamide. Only 17% of the measurements put the corresponding workplaces in Control Class III, where immediate action is required. Gravure printing shops and some small manufacturing operations were the most common enterprises in this category.
Working Environment, 1 July 1993, Vol.14, No.4, p.52-58. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 94-1998 Kristensen P., Irgens L.M., Daltveit A.K., Andersen A.
Perinatal outcome among children of men exposed to lead and organic solvents in the printing industry
The study investigated the relation between paternal occupational exposures to lead and solvents and postconception events. Records of 6,251 infants born between 1967-1986 were used in the study. The adjusted odds ratio for early preterm birth (16-27 weeks) was 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-17.4) for infants with paternal exposure to solvents and 8.6 (95% CI 2.7-27.3) for children whose fathers were in the lead plus solvents category. The adjusted odds ratio for all perinatal deaths was 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-4.9) for children with fathers in the lead-exposed group and 1.9 (95% CI 0.96-3.7) for children with fathers in the lead plus solvents group. An increased risk of cleft lip was demonstrated, with interaction between sex and paternal lead exposure: the standardized morbidity ratio for boys in the two subgroups with lead exposure was 4.1 (95% CI 1.8-8.1). Paternal exposure had little impact on birth weight, intra-uterine growth, or total number of birth defects.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Jan. 1993, Vol.137, No.2, p.134-144. 50 ref.

CIS 94-1609 Sinclair M.I., McNeil J.J, Atkins R.C., Turnidge J.D., Wood C.J., Matthews B.J.
Investigation of hematuria at a printing company
An investigation was undertaken at a printing company into an apparently high prevalence of trace dipstick haematuria discovered during routine medical examinations. In both the printing employees and a control group from other industries, the prevalence of haematuria exceeded that described in most previous reports (using the criterion of >12 glomerular red cells or >2 non-glomerular red cells/mL of urine). No focus of abnormality was identified within the printing plant and no association was identified between reported exposure to potentially toxic substances and the degree of haematuria. An occupational hygiene inspection and medical follow-up of selected workers did not reveal any significant abnormalities. The limitations of available information concerning "normal" urinalysis results suggests that haematuria may not be a useful test for the screening of occupational groups at risk of bladder cancer.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.35, No.10, p.1055-1061. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 94-1033
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Solvent safety in printing
This booklet describes the types of solvents found in the printing industry along with their health hazards, the health and safety information to be provided by suppliers and legal requirements for risk assessment and implementation of control measures. Fire risks and precautions are also outlined.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Aug. 1993. 13p. 10 ref.

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