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Diseases of the kidney and the urinary system - 286 entries found

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  • Diseases of the kidney and the urinary system

1976

CIS 77-730 Vesterberg O., Nise G., Hansén L.
Urinary proteins in occupational exposure to chemicals and in diseases.
The advantages of isoelectric focusing over standard methods of analysis of urinary proteins are pointed out. The version of the method used allows study of up to 25 samples on each thin-layer polyacrylamide gel. Separation takes about 1h. A sensitive staining procedure permits detection of 0.1µg protein in each zone, of which more than 20 may sometimes be separated. Evaluation is done by densitometry and classification of patterns.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1976, Vol.18, No.7, p.473-476. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 77-729 Tsuchiya K.
Proteinuria of cadmium workers.
Results of almost 10 years' observation of 16 cadmium workers, including 5 subjects of a previous study (CIS 242-1968, Cek Gsy Qem), since when hygiene conditions in the plant were improved. Cadmium-induced proteinuria was reversible in some workers. The relation between urinary cadmium and proteinuria after cessation of exposure is not clear. Anaemia and other biochemical changes may be reversible if exposure is reduced. Reduction of air cadmium to approx. 20µg/m3 remarkably improved workers' general health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1976, Vol.18, No.7, p.463-466. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 77-479 Chang L.W., Sprecher J.A.
Pathological changes in the kidney after methylcadmium intoxication.
5 injections of 3mg methylcadmium were given to cats. Histological changes affecting the tubular lumen and the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules and glomeruli are described. Methylcadmium appeared to be even more nephrotoxic than inorganic cadmium.
Environmental Research, Aug. 1976, Vol.12, No.1, p.92-109. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 77-149 Scott R., Mills E.A., Fell G.S., Husain F.E.R., Yates A.J., Paterson P.J., McKirdy A., Ottoway J.M., Fitzgerald-Finch O.P., Lamont A., Roxburgh S.
Clinical and biochemical abnormalities in coppersmiths exposed to cadmium.
Findings in 27 coppersmiths exposed to cadmium fumes during brazing operations were compared with a control group. Renal stones were found in 5 them (18.5%). The exposed group showed evidence of renal impairment, a greater tendency to liver damage, and a higher incidence of restrictive airways disease. Comments by Morgan W.K.C. on this paper appear in Lancet, 11 Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.7985, p.585-586.
Lancet, 21 Aug. 1976, Vol.2, No.7982, p.396-398. 24 ref.

CIS 76-1694 Manz A.
Cancer of the urinary tract in town gas workers
Harnwegskarzinome bei Beschäftigten der Gasindustrie [in German]
Statistical analysis of causes of death among personnel of a domestic gasworks of a large town showed a high rate of urinary tract carcinoma (in particular, 7 cases of hypernephroid carcinoma) in furnace battery and pipe distribution system workers. The author believes the causative agents to be substances contained in tar, in particular beta-naphthylamine. Average exposure was calculated to be 21 years, latency period 10.4 years and age at death, 65.9 years. Surgical treatment was successful where diagnosis was sufficiently early. The article stresses the importance of preventive measures, personal hygiene and periodic check-ups after cessation of occupational exposure.
Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1976, Vol.118, No.3, p.65-68. 22 ref.

CIS 76-1687 Ferber K.H., Hill W.J., Cobb D.A.
An assessment of the effect of improved working conditions on bladder tumor incidence in a benzidine manufacturing facility.
Following the introduction in 1955 of a new enclosed and wet process and of strict industrial hygiene control measures in a dye manufacturing plant opened in 1915, to reduce the possibility of exposure to benzidine, the number of cases of bladder tumour was drastically reduced both among the workers exposed to benzidine alone and those exposed to benzidine and/or other carcinogenic agents. The changes made to the process and the control measures devised are listed. Details are also given of the statistical methodology used in this study.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1976, Vol.37, No.1, p.61-68. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 76-1440 Fox A.J., White G.C.
Bladder cancer in rubber workers - Do screening and doctors' awareness distort the statistics?
This prospective mortality study in 27 rubber workers and 88 controls, all with bladder cancer, showed no statistical differences between the 2 groups in their death rates or in the relative frequency with which bladder cancer was recorded as cause of death. There was also no evidence to support suggestions that rubber workers survive longer than those from other industries with bladder cancer. It is concluded that neither cytological screening nor doctors' awareness of this hazard in the rubber industry have a significant influence on the recorded death rate for bladder cancer in rubber workers. The search for the recent excess (1972-74) in this death rate should therefore concentrate on the chemicals to which workers developing bladder cancer in the rubber industry had been exposed.
Lancet, 8 May 1976, Vol.1, No.7967, p.1009-1011. 6 ref.

1975

CIS 76-1631 Ehrlicher H.
On a preventive medical examination for workers exposed to cadmium
Zur Vorsorgeuntersuchung Kadmiumexponierter [in German]
After discussion of the methods for determination of urinary albumin, the author shows comparative results of 6 different determinations from 51 people exposed to cadmium. Since there have been very frequent cases of proteinuria observed in non-exposed persons, the author concludes that it is impossible to draw conclusions from proteinuria in exposed persons independently of clinical symptoms and the presence of cadmium in urine and air.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Dec. 1975, Vol.25, No.12, p.363-366. 9 ref.

CIS 76-1094 Koss L.G.
Environmental causes of carcinoma of the bladder.
Among descriptions, with histological photographs, generally in black and white, of epithelial, papillary and non-papillary and other tumours of the bladder, precancerous lesions, lesions simulating cancer, etc., this short chapter is devoted to the environmental causes of carcinoma of the bladder and the relationship between duration and amount of exposure to industrial carcinogens and bladder cancer. Follow-up studies of high-risk patients are dealt with briefly.
In: "Tumours of the urinary bladder", Atlas of Tumour Pathology, 2nd series, fascicle 11, American Registry of Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C. 20306, USA, 1975, p.76-77. 23 ref. Price (whole fascicle): US-$8.00.

CIS 76-449 Lebigot A.
Study of renal function and histology in workers chronically exposed to lead in the working environment
Etude de la fonction et de l'histologie rénale chez les sujets soumis à une exposition chronique au plomb en milieu professionnel. [in French]
M.D. thesis. Detailed description of 12 cases of occupational lead poisoning; 10 of the patients, who worked in a hot environment, had high urinary lead levels, a typical sign of lead-induced kidney damage. In all 12 cases a systematic battery of tests for kidney function was carried out, with a complete clinical examination, biological tests and, most important, histological examination. The results, compared with the patient's medical history and clinical picture, showed the following characteristic features: renal insufficiency was rarely present; there were no signs of tubular insufficiency; hypertension was frequent (but could not be definitely ascribed to lead poisoning); intranuclear inclusions were found in the tubular cells (frequently seen in optic microscopy and twice in electron microscopy, associated with renal insufficiency. Advice on conditions to be observed before workers with diagnosed lead poisoning can be allowed to return to work.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Pitié - Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1975. 95p. ILlus. 93 ref.

CIS 76-205 Zimmerman S.W., Groehler K., Beirne G.J.
Hydrocarbon exposure and chronic glomerulonephritis.
Investigations in 63 patients with biopsy-proven primary proliferative glomerulonephritis, or a clinical picture consistent with this condition, showed that these patients had significantly greater exposure to toxic substances (mainly hydrocarbons) than patients with other renal diseases and than matched controls without renal disease. The grade of exposure is tabulated for the 28 patients with proven or suspected glomerulonephritis.
Lancet, 2 Aug. 1975, Vol.2, No.7927, p.199-201. 8 ref.

CIS 76-202 Tsuchiya K., Okubo T., Ishizu S.
An epidemiological study of occupational bladder tumours in the dye industry of Japan.
Study of a total of 1,787 dyestuffs industry workers exposed to benzidine, α- and β-naphthylamine, and other aromatic amines. 100 cases of bladder cancer reported between 1949 and 1970 are broken down in charts and tables by age, year of first diagnosis, year of first exposure, causative agent, site of tumour, and duration of latent period. Prohibition of the production and use of carcinogenic aromatic amines seems to have reduced the incidence of bladder cancer since 1969.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1975, Vol.32, No.3, p.203-209. 22 ref.

CIS 75-1871 Materne D., Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Brouwers J., Stanescu D.
Investigations of the hazards of exposure to cadmium in 2 plants producing and 2 using cadmium
Investigations sur les risques résultant de l'exposition au cadmium dans deux entreprises de production et deux entreprises d'utilisation du cadmium. [in French]
Account of an occupational health survey covering 163 workers exposed to cadmium and approximately the same number of controls employed in 4 different plants. Detailed description of observations and examinations: questionnaire and clinical examination, lung function tests, ECG and chest radiography, laboratory tests. Findings: slight lung and kidney impairment was found in some workers (the pulmonary lesion consisted of a slight obstructive syndrome, occasionally with incipient emphysema); abnormal laboratory findings became worse with length of exposure; the slight kidney damage was found in 70% of the workers with over 20 years' exposure. Conclusion: the total permissible concentration of Cd in air should not exceed 50µg/m3; furthermore, in view of the correlation between urinary Cd and proteinuria, urinary Cd in exposed workers should not exceed 15µg/g creatinine.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Mar.-June 1975, Vol.12, No.1 and 2, p.3-76. Illus. 65 ref.

CIS 75-1982 Reisin E., Teicher A., Jaffe R., Eliahou H.E.
Myoglobinuria and renal failure in toluene poisoning.
Report of a case of renal failure with severe myoglobinuria following acute exposure to toluene. The myoglobinuria appeared to be the direct cause of the renal failure, which rapidly became non-oliguric on early administration of intravenous fluids, osmotic diuretics and frusemide. Haemodialysis was performed on 3 occasions. Recovery was complete.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1975, Vol.32, No.2, p.163-164. 7 ref.

CIS 75-1750 Hoover R., Fraumeni J.F.
Cancer mortality in U.S. counties with chemical industries.
Geographic analysis of U.S. cancer mortality, 1950-1969, revealed excess rates for bladder, lung, liver, and other cancers among males in 139 counties where the chemical industry is highly concentrated. The correlation could not be explained by confounding variables such as urbanization, social economic class, or employment in non-chemical industries. If the excess cancer mortality in these areas is due to industrial exposures, the actual risk of cancer among certain chemical workers must be very high. The correlation was limited to counties associated with specific categories of the chemical industry. Bladder cancer showed strong positive gradients associated with dyes, intermediates, and organic pigments; drugs; perfumes and cosmetics. Lung cancer was associated with industrial gases, drugs, soaps and detergents, paints, inorganic pigments, and synthetic rubber. Liver cancer was associated with other organic chemicals, synthetic rubber, soaps and detergents, cosmetics, printing ink. Excess mortality appeared about ages 35-39, 45-49, and 50-54, respectively, for the three types.
Environmental Research, Apr. 1975, Vol.9, No.2, p.196-207. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 75-439 MacIntyre I.
Experience of tumors in British plant handling 3,3'dichlorobenzidine.
Dichlorobenzidine (DCB) has been suspected of carcinogenicity because of its chemical similarity to benzidine, a known carcinogen, and because it has caused tumours in experimentsl animals. There has however been no case of human cancer attributed to DCB. An account is given of a survey in a plant in Britain which has been using DCB for 30 years. No case of bladder cancer has been reported. The exposed population (225) is not large enough and the time lapse since the first exposure not long enough to prove that DCB is non-carcinogenic, but a negative incidence together with American experience and European figures (unpublished) suggest that the measures adopted so far are satisfactory.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1975, Vol.17, No.1, p.23-26. Illus. 12 ref.

1974

CIS 76-805 Anton M., Nastoiu I.
Certain effects of flight in supersonic aircraft on the renal function of air crews
Certains effets du vol sur avions supersoniques sur la fonction rénale des aviateurs. [in French]
An increase in the incidence of renal calculus in air crews led the authors to study the following urinary physico-chemical values in a group of airline pilots subjected to a 6-h supersonic flight: urinary output per minute, density, pH, dry residue, electrolytes, uric acid, creatinine, urea and calcium oxalate crystals in the urinary sediment. In spite of increased urinary output (2.5 to 3 times more than normal) during the flight, the results, given in diagrammatic form (higher concentration of certain electrolytes and greater amount of urinary dry residue) show a urinary concentration which requires the adoption of preventive measures to counteract certain adverse effects on the kidneys.
Revue de médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 4th quarter 1974, Vol.13, No.52, p.257-262. Illus.

CIS 75-1693 Fukushima M., Sakamoto M., Kobayashi E.
Urinary amino acid excretion in "Itai-itai" patients and inhabitants of cadmium polluted areas
Kadomium osenti jumin no nyochyu-yuri-aminosan haisetsu ni tuite [in Japanese]
Aminoaciduria was widespread among patients with Itai-itai disease (chronic cadmium poisoning) living in the Jinzu River Basin area polluted with cadmium and also in inhabitants with tubular proteinuria and glucosuria in the Ichi River Basin area, where cadmium pollution has also been observed. The amino acid patterns were similar in these cases and also resembled that reported in the Fanconi syndrome. The increase in amino acid excretion in these cases seems to be due to multiple disorders of the amino acid transport systems in the renal tubules, although increased hydroxyproline excretion is ascribed to a disturbance of amino acid metabolism.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Dec. 1974, Vol.29, No.5, p.498-504. Illus. 29 ref. (12 English).

CIS 75-1689 Fokkens W.
Cancer as an occupational disease
Kanker als beroepsziekte [in Dutch]
Review of current knowledge of bladder tumours (historical background, pathogenesis, latency period, dose-response relationship, prevention, early detection of carcinogenic factors), cancer of the scrotum, lung cancer, asbestos mesothelioma, cancer of the ethmoid, leukaemia and angiosarcoma of the liver.
Tijdschrift voor Ziekenverpleging, 24 Sep. 1974, Vol.27, No.33, p.871-881. Illus.

CIS 75-1386 Essing H.G., Schäcke G., Bekmann H., Valentin H., Wittgens H., Weltle D., Rhode D., Pfäffl A.
Kidney function tests on workers exposed for many years to tetrachloroethylene
Untersuchungen zur Nierenfunktion bei Werkstättenarbeitern mit langjähriger Perchloräthylen-Exposition [in German]
Analysis of the results of tests performed on 142 workers employed in a railway rolling stock repair shop, who had been exposed on an average for 12 years to a mean concentration of 35ppm tetrachloroethylene. Kidney function tests revealed disorders among 68% of the workers. It was impossible to establish a statistically significant correlation between the deterioration of kidney function and long-term exposure to tetrachloroethylene. The possibility of individual sensitivity cannot be excluded. English translation may be obtained from: Health and Safety Executive, Translation Services, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN, United Kingdom.
Der ärztliche Dienst, May-June 1974, Vol.35, No.5-6, p.65-72. 33 ref.

CIS 75-1329 Zlateva M., Vălčeva V., Antov G.
Toxic organic changes in laboratory animals placed in an ammonia-rich working atmosphere
Toksični promeni v organizma na opitni životni postaveni v rabotna sreda, bogata na amonjak [in Bulgarian]
Results of biochemical, histochemical and histological examinations performed in white rats breathing an atmosphere having an ammonia content of 0.02-0.12mg/m3 (Bulgarian threshold limit value: 0.02mg/m3). The authors noted a reduction in liver succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity, on the other hand, was increased. These findings evidence an inhibition of redox processes, disturbances of active transport and of oxidative phosphorylation, and an activation of lytic processes. The enzymatic effects and the dystrophic liver lesions show that even a slight excursion above the threshold limit values of ammonia may have a toxic effect on the animal organism.
Trudove na Instituta po higiena, ohrana na truda i profesionalni zaboljavanija, 1974, Vol.22, No.1, p.147-154. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 75-1106 Glashan R.W.
The early detection of bladder carcinoma in industrial workers and the use of a hydrostatic technique in treatment.
The author claims that routine cytological screening of the urine offers the best means of early detection of occupational bladder cancer, permitting individual workers who show the first signs of the disease process, instability of the bladder mucosa, to be followed up over a prolonged period by regular cystoscopy and biopsy. 3 case histories illustrate the argument. The treatment of bladder neoplasms is discussed and the use to good effect of a high pressure distension therapy technique originally developed by Helmstein is described.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1974, Vol.24, No.4, p.117-124. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 75-1105 Anthony H.M.
Industrial exposure in patients with carcinoma of the bladder.
Analysis of the lifetime occupational histories of over 1,000 persons with bladder cancer compared to control groups showed 2 patterns of industrial hazard. The classic pattern, risk from all periods of exposure and development of tumours at a lower age, was found among chemical dye workers and possibly textile dyers, tailor's cutters and hairdressers. A long-term pattern present among weavers, tailors, tailors' pressers and possibly among cooks, electricians and some engineering workers showed risk after long periods of exposure only.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1974, Vol.24, No.4, p.110-116. 12 ref.

CIS 75-750 Devulder B., Martin J.C., Mathot J., Dequiedt P., Durocher A., Vanhille P., Tacquet A.
Renal manifestations of chronic lead poisoning - Clinical, biological and histological study
Les manifestations rénales du saturnisme - Etudes cliniques biologique et infrastructurale. [in French]
Clinical observation of a metal worker who showed, after exposure to lead, biological disturbances typical of lead poisoning, associated with very discrete azotaemia. In-depth nephrological exploration by electronic microscope showed the existence of intra-cytoplasmic inclusions, intra-nuclear corpuscles and mitochondrial changes, without significant impairment of renal function. This case brings the authors to analyse the more recently discovered clinical, biological and histological aspects of the kidney in chronic lead poisoning and to draw conclusions concerning prognosis and medico-legal aspects. As regards therapy, the use of chelating agents, on account of the sudden liberation of the toxic metal it causes, seems liable to aggravate kidney and other damage, and should therefore be administered under strict medical supervision.
Lille médical, 1974, Vol.19, No.6, p.651-660. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 74-1695 Cramér K., Goyer R.A., Jagenburg R., Wilson M.H.
Renal ultrastructure, renal function, and parameters of lead toxicity in workers with different periods of lead exposure.
Renal biopsies from 5 men with heavy occupational exposure to lead were compared with studies of their renal function and parameters of lead toxicity. 2 men had lead exposure of less than 1 year, while 3 had been exposed for from 4 to more than 30 years. Renal function studies were performed in 2 men from whom renal biopsies could not be obtained. The study demonstrates that the pathogenesis of chronic lead nephropathy is a continuum of morphological and functional change that can be divided into 2 stages which are described.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.31, No.2, p.113-127. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 74-1378 Gieske T.H., Foulkes E.C.
Acute effects of cadmium on proximal tubular function in rabbits.
While it is known that chronic exposure to cadmium produces a renal tubular syndrome in man and in experimental animals, the effects of more acute exposure to cadmium have not been studied in detail. This paper describes the renal dysfunction in acutely poisoned rabbits, with special emphasis on the nature and mechanism of the associated aminoaciduria.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1974, Vol.27, No.2, p.292-299. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 74-1326 Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Roels H.A., Brouwers J., Stranescu D.
Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cadmium - Effect on lung, kidney and several biological indices.
Pulmonary and renal functions and several biological indices were investigated in 3 groups of workers exposed to cadmium dust (women with less than 20 years' exposure (E1), men with less than 20 years' exposure (E2) and men with more than 20 years' exposure (E3) and in 3 control groups. The current airborne cadmium dust concentration was below the TLV (200 µg/m3). Slight but significant impairment of pulmonary function was found in the E3 category. Kidney damage was more prevalent, manifested by proteinuria in 15% of the E2 group and in 68% of the E3 group. These findings support the proposal to reduce the TLV for cadmium dust to 50 µg/m3.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar. 1974, Vol.28, No.3, p.145-148. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 74-1083 Veys C.A.
Bladder tumours and occupation: a coroner's notification scheme.
In order to investigate the importance of occupational factors in the aetiology of bladder cancer, a coroner's notification scheme for all bladder tumours occurring within a defined industrial area was instituted. Every death certificate on which a bladder tumour was recorded was notified to the coroner's office within a 6 year period (1965-1970). In almost all cases a necropsy was carried out to confirm diagnosis. An inquiry into the occupational history was conducted and related to 2 industrial checklists. It was found that about 20% of persons dying of this disease had a suspicious history of exposure to a carcinogen, which accords broadly with other recent surveys whose methodology was different.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1974, Vol.31, No.1, p.65-71. Illus. 37 ref.

1973

CIS 75-468 Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Brouwers J.
Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cadmium
Enquête épidémiologique des travailleurs exposés au cadmium. [in French]
Preliminary results of a survey covering 80 workers occupationally exposed to cadmium dust (electronics factory, manufacture of Ni-Cd storage batteries, industrial production of cadmium). The authors distinguish 3 groups of effects according to the degree and duration of exposure to the dust. They also take into account the effects of the subjects' smoking habits. Conclusion: prolonged exposure to a cadmium dust concentration lower than the TLV may result in a syndrome of mild respiratory obstruction; kidney damage occurs before lung function impairment. The authors therefore recommend that the TLV for total cadmium dust concentration should be lowered from 200 to 50µg/m3.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor bedrijfsgeneeskunde, Dec. 1973, Vol.10, No.4, p.169-170.

CIS 74-1997 Occupational cancer of the renal tract.
After defining cancer of the bladder, this note lists the industries and processes presenting a hazard of occupational cancer (chemical industry, especially the dyestuffs sector, textile dyeing and printing, rubber industry, cable industry, gas industry, security printing, laboratory processes and rodent control) and describes symptoms, possible causal agents and preventive measures (substitution of non-carcinogenic materials, adequate control and cleanliness, personal protection, medical supervision).
Technical Data Note No.3, (Rev), H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 3p. Gratis.

CIS 74-1075 Fréjaville J.P., Christoforov B.
Toxic kidney impairment
Néphropathies toxiques. [in French]
A general account of acute toxic renal insufficiency is followed by a proposed classification of industrial toxic agents by renal tropism. For acute disorders a double entry classification is used: by the mechanism of renal injury (isolated tubular nephritis or tubular nephritis developing in a different manner) and by the IUPAC chemical classification. For chronic disorders a list is given of agents the prolonged handling of which might induce various tubular disorders, with some reservations as regards those which have only been used in animal experiments. The problem of the mechanism of the renal toxicity of these agents is raised.
Gazette médicale de France, 23 Nov. 1973, Vol.80, No.37, p.6245-6252. 3 ref.

CIS 74-511 Prost G., Dechavanne M., Tolot F.
Hepatic and renal diseases of occupational origin
Atteintes hépatiques et rénales d'origine professionnelle. [in French]
Considers a number of liver and kidney diseases due to infection (brucellosis, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis). The distinction is drawn between forms of toxic hepatitis due to substances which are absolute or constant poisons for the liver, and those caused by substances which are inconstant or idiosyncratic poisons. The various aetiologies, toxic process, anatomical and clinical observation, course of the disorder and possibilities of diagnosis are given for each of these substances. Acute poisoning of the kidneys occurs in 2 ways: directly, or during haemolysis. Chronic lesions are mostly due to lead or cadmium. Preventive medicine has to deal with 3 vital problems: working capacity of persons suffering from kidney or liver damage, diagnosis of the most discrete forms of such impairment, research on new toxic substances.
Journal de médecine de Lyon, 5 May 1973, Vol.54, p.643-652.

CIS 74-434 Zavon M.R., Hoegg U., Bingham E.
Benzidine exposure as a cause of bladder tumors.
25 men formerly engaged in benzidine manufacture were investigated over a period of 13 years; 13 of the group developed bladder tumours. A survey of the process of benzidine manufacture was carried out and the hazardous stages determined. Control of benzidine exposure by engineering methods should be the first line of defence. Rotation of workers does not significantly decrease risk to the individual, while increasing the number at risk. Periodic cystoscopic examination of exposed persons is advocated as the best method of early detection. It is not recommended to wait until haematuria appears.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1973, Vol.27, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 21 ref.

1972

CIS 74-1398 Lejeune A.
Renal disorders of occupational origin
Les manifestations rénales d'origine professionnelle. [in French]
MD thesis. A review of the anatomy and physiology of the kidney and the clinical and paraclinical aspects of pathological changes classified into acute and chronic renal diseases. Their aetiology may be traumatic, physical, infectious or toxic. Considering the primary importance of the kidney in the metabolism and excretion of products, kidney disorders due to toxic substances are the most frequent. The chief toxic agents responsible are the acyclic hydrocarbons, the derivatives of aromatic cyclic hydrocarbons, metals and metalloids. A chapter deals with the role of the kidney in other disorders of occupational origin such as silicosis or carbon monoxide poisoning.
Université de Lille, Faculté de médecine, Lille, France, 1972. 116p. 135 ref.

CIS 72-2269 Vaskov L., Batolska A., Ditcheva T.
Radioisotope nephrography in workers exposed to an occupational heavy-metal poisoning hazard
Néphrographie radio-isotopique chez des travailleurs exposés à un risque d'intoxication professionnelle par métaux lourds [in French]
131I-tagged hippuran was used for radionephrography on 38 workers with lead, mercury or other heavy-metal poisoning, and on 20 controls. 21 of the 30 workers with slight lead poisoning and 6 of the 8 workers with discrete mercury poisoning, presented a change in the secretory phase, demonstrating an early functional change in tubule secretion. Other clinical and laboratory examinations gave no confirmation of definite renal involvement. The accuracy and innocuousness of the method are sufficient recommendation for its use in the detection of occupational heavy-metal poisoning.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.107-112. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 73-1336 Beirne G.J., Brennan J.T.
Glomerulonephritis associated with hydrocarbon solvents mediated by antiglomerular basement membrane antibody
The association of Goodpasture's syndrome with exposure to hydrocarbons has been mentioned in the literature. The medical and occupational histories of 6 patients (5 with Goodpasture's syndrome, and 1 with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis) are presented; all had had extensive chronic exposure to various hydrocarbon mixtures (paint removers, degreasing solvents, hair sprays, jet propulsion fuel), but it was not possible to implicate any specific compound. It is recommended that a history of exposure to petrol and other hydrocarbon solvents should be sought in workers who have rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with or without pulmonary haemorrhage.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1972, Vol.25, No.5, p.365-369. Illus. 9 ref.

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