Diseases of the kidney and the urinary system - 286 entries found
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- Diseases of the kidney and the urinary system
Matanoski G.M., Stockwell H.G., Diamond E.L., Sweeney M.H., Joffe R.D., Mele L.M., Johnson M.L.
A cohort mortality study of painters and allied tradesmen
The mortality experience of 57.175 workers in 4 states in the USA, from 1975 to 1979 was examined. No excess mortality was observed for the total union membership when compared to that of all US white males. When the study population was subdivided by the trade affiliation, members of locals comprised primarily of painters exhibited a significant elevation in mortality from all malignant neoplasms, lung and stomac cancer, compared to all US white males. This observation still remained after the data was treated to reduce the effect of non occupational activities. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in mortality from leukemia and cancer of the bladder observed between the groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1986, Vol.12, No.1, p.16-21. 21 ref.
Baxter P.J., McDowall M.E.
Occupation and cancer in London: an investigation into nasal and bladder cancer using the Cancer Atlas
This case-referent study of male deaths in certain boroughs of London (United Kingdom) found a significant relationship between nasal cancer and occupations involving heavy exposure to wood dust on one hand, and between bladder cancer and road transport driving and the handling of leather on the other. Consistently raised relative risk ratios for bladder cancer were also found for some other occupations (woodworking, fitting, printing, machining, plumbing and automobile repair).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1986, Vol.43, No.1, p.44-49. Illus. 39 ref.
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazards; uses (herbicide); precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.
Epidemiological surveys of the occupational origins of bladder cancer. Methodology of a case-control study
Etudes épidémiologiques des causes professionnelles du cancer vésical. Méthodologie d'une enquęte cas-témoins [in French]
This MD thesis presents an epidemiological survey conducted in France on the occupational origins of bladder cancer. The histology and carcinogenic mechanisms of bladder cancer are reviewed. The statistical methods used in this kind of epidemiological study are described. Detailed description of the present case-control study, taking into consideration non-occupational factors and occupational factors by product and industrial activity. The results of this survey confirm the conclusions of other surveys; by demonstrating the responsibility of certain chemical substances for the development of bladder cancer: aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais-Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1985. 193p. Illus. 89 ref.
Pozzi C., Marai P., Ponti R., Dell'Oro C., Sala C., Zedda S., Locatelli F.
Toxicity in man due to stain removers containing 1,2-dichloropropane
Three case studies of poisoning due to exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane (an organic solvent). Clinical features included liver and kidney damage, haemolytic anaemia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. One of the victims died.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1985, Vol.42, No.11, p.770-772. 15 ref.
Elinder C.G., Edling C., Lindberg E., Kĺgedal B., Vesterberg O.
Assessment of renal function in workers previously exposed to cadmium
Renal function was evaluated in 60 workers previously exposed to cadmium in a factory using cadmium-containing solders and in 32 controls. Tubular damage in the form of β2-microglobulinuria was found in 40% of the exposed workers, and urinary albumin and orosomucoid increased significantly with increasing urinary cadmium and increasing relative clearance of β2-microglobulin. There were no cases of typical glomerular proteinuria that could be related to cadmium. Renal stones were more common among workers with high urinary cadmium concentrations. Tubular dysfunction was noted in some of the exposed workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1985, Vol.42, No.11, p.754-760. Illus. 38 ref.
Liu Y., Huang J., Luo C., Xu B., Zhang C.
Effects of cadmium on cadmium workers
Epidemiologic study of 65 workers in a cadmium-refining plant in China. The average airborne cadmium oxide concentrations ranged from 0.004 to 0.187mg/m3 at most work stations. Except for some vague symptoms and reports of anosmia, no significant abnormalities were found in the clinical examinations. The majority of exposed workers had increased blood and urine cadmium levels. 9 cases (13.8%) with suspected or mild renal tubular damage were identified.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.29-32. 9 ref.
Gustavsson P., Hogstedt C., Holmberg B.
Mortality and the incidence of cancer in rubber workers - Update of a cohort study
Dödlighet och cancersjuklighet bland gummiindustriarbetare - Uppdatering av en kohortstudie [in Swedish]
A retrospective cohort study of 12,212 rubber workers was updated and reanalysed. Increased mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and an increased incidence of lung cancer was observed in the period >40 years after initial employment. The risk of ischaemic heart disease was positively correlated with the duration of exposure. There was a non-significant increase of mortality due to obstructive lung disease. An increased frequency of bladder cancer was observed in individuals working in the mixing and weighting department, exposed for at least 5 years and employed before 1951. The results of mutagenicity investigations and these epidemiological findings indicate that a further reduction in exposure is warranted.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 38p. 48 ref.
Armstrong B.G., Kazantzis G.
Prostatic cancer and chronic respiratory and renal disease in British cadmium workers: a case control study
This case-control study examined the possible association between certain diseases and intensity and duration of exposure to cadmium. The only clearly statistically significant association was between deaths due to bronchitis or emphysema and exposure to high levels of cadmium fume. There was suggestive evidence at the p=0.10 level of an increased risk of death from nephritis or nephrosis after high exposure. Marginally increased (but not statistically significant) risks were noted for death from prostatic cancer after high or medium exposure to cadmium.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.42, No.8, p.540-545. 12 ref.
Medical surveillance of workers at risk of developing bladder cancer due to exposure to aromatic amines
Surveillance médicale des travailleurs soumis ŕ un risque de tumeur vésicale due aux amines aromatiques [in French]
Medical thesis covering early detection methods for bladder tumours due to exposure to aromatic amines in industry. Epidemiology, aetiopathology, histology and evolution of bladder cancer. Clinical investigation techniques in occupational medicine. Strategies for medical surveillance during pre-employment examinations and for exposed workers. Legislative aspects, particularly in Italy. The need for new regulations (clinical and complementary examinations, medical files, periodic examinations, follow-up after the cessation of exposure) and for the standardisation of surveillance criteria are emphasised.
Université de Paris Val-de-Marne, Faculté de médecine de Créteil, Paris, France. 1985. 139p. 172 ref.
(Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung)
Data sheet on medical examination in accordance with [section] 13 02 of Annex 1 of the Ordinance on Occupational Diseases
Merkblatt für die ärztliche Untersuchung zu Nr.13 02 der Anlage 1 zur Berufskrankheitenverordnung (BeKV) [in German]
This data sheet concerns the medical examinations to be carried out for detection and assessment of occupational diseases due to halogenated hydrocarbons. It contains information on the harmful substances according to their uses (solvents, pesticides, refrigerants, aerosol propellants, separating agents, fire extinguishants, raw materials and intermediates, dielectrics, anaesthetics and disinfectants), their pathophysiology, the clinical picture of their effects and diagnosis.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, June 1985, No.6, p.55-57. 20 ref.
Alexeeff G.V., Kilgore W.W., Muńoz P., Watt D.
Determination of acute toxic effects in mice following exposure to methyl bromide
Mice were exposed for 1h to concentrations of methyl bromide ranging from 0.87 to 5.93mg/L. Decreased lung and liver weights were observed at 2.20 and 2.70mg/L, kidney lesions appeared at 3.50mg/L and mortality occurred at 3.82mg/L and above. The 1h LC50 of methyl bromide in mice via inhalation was 4.68mg/L (about 1200ppm). The dose-response curve was very steep and the LC10 to LC90 range of mortality was contained within a doubling of concentration.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.15, No.1, p.109-123. Illus. 23 ref.
Schulte P.A., Ringen K., Altekruse E.B., Gullen W.H., Davidson K., Anderson S.S., Patton M.G.
Notification of a cohort of workers at risk of bladder cancer
Members of a cohort of 1,385 chemical workers in the USA, who had handled carcinogenic amines (β-naphthylamine, benzidine, o-toluidine) were notified by mail that they were likely to be at increased risk of bladder cancer. A bladder cancer screening and follow-up programme was established. The complexity of actions needed and the problems encountered when communicating information on risk are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.27, No.1, p.19-28. 13 ref. Illus.
Kanamaru M., Suzuki H., Katoh M., Nishikawa T., Ohyama Y., Noda H.
Effects of agricultural chemicals on rural inhabitants in Miye prefecture - A report on the findings of health examinations
From 1980 to 1982, health examinations were conducted on 1,164 pesticide sprayers in Miye Prefecture, Japan. Most of the pesticides in use were organophosphorus. Mercury residues in hair were also measured. The rate of detection of abnormalities was not particularly high in comparison with that in health check-ups of ordinary persons. In comparison with previous findings, the cases of abnormal lipid metabolism and anaemia were fewer, whereas the number of cases of abnormal cholinesterase activities and albuminuria increased in both sexes. The average level of mercury in hair was 5.35ppm in men and 2.97ppm in women, and >6.0ppm of mercury was detected in 23.1% of the men and 1.9% of the women.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, July 1984, Vol.33, No.2, p.159-166. Illus. 29 ref.
Tatevosjan A.Ė., Sahkaljan Ė.O.
Experimental bases for a MAC for the acaricide Plictran in workplace air
Materialy k ėksperimental'nomu obosnovaniju PDK akaricida pliktrana v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
A standard battery of toxicological tests showed Plictran (tricyclohexyltin hydroxide) to be moderately toxic: intragastric LD50=318, 275 and 458mg/kg for rats, mice and rabbits, respectively; topical LD50 = 1880 and 2422mg/kg for rats and rabbits respectively; inhalation CL50=244 and 290mg/m3 for rats and mice, respectively. The threshold of acute toxicity (kidney damage) was about 6.5mg/m3. Plictran was not allergenic or sensitising, but was an irritant. Chronic exposure to 0.170mg/m3 did not produce embryotropic or teratogenic effects; this concentration may be taken as a threshold for such effects. A MAC of 0.02mg/m3 should be established for Plictran production facilities; the standard should carry the warning "skin absorption".
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1984, No.5, p.52-53. 5 ref.
Trevisan A., Bonadonna A.
On a case of cadmium nephropathy
Su di un caso di nefropatia conclamata da cadmio [in Italian]
Case study of a tool-repair brazer who worked with metal alloys with high cadmium content and who developed cadmium nephropathy exhibiting a Fanconi-like syndrome. Elevated tubular enzymuria and microproteinuria of marked tubular origin were also present. Biological fluids had a high cadmium content. There were no signs of irreversible kidney damage. Further medical monitoring of the subject is suggested.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.322-327. Illus. 26 ref.
Currier M.F., Carlo G.L., Poston P.L., Ledford W.E.
A cross sectional study of employees with potential occupational exposure to ethylene oxide
This study was conducted on 84 workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) in the chemical manufacturing industry and on individually matched controls. The exposure level was estimated to be below the TLV of 10ppm, and mostly below 1ppm. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the results of haematological and biochemical tests. There was a significant (p=0.035) increase in the prevalence of proteinuria among workers exposed to EO.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1984, Vol.41, No.4, p.492-498. 17 ref.
Falck F.Y., Keren D.F., Fine L.J., Smith R.G., McClatchey K.D., England B., Annesley T.
Protein excretion patterns in cadmium-exposed individuals: High resolution electrophoresis
High-resolution electrophoresis was used to evaluate protein excretion patterns in 6 cadmium-exposed individuals with proteinuria, 7 subjects with non-specific nephropathies and 4 normal unexposed subjects. The electrophoretic results were consistent with the quantitative results for the cadmium-exposed workers. The excretion pattern associated with Cd exposure could be glomerular or mixed glomerular-tubular, and it is different from non-specific nephropathies in that no gamma band exists.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1984, Vol.39, No.2, p.69-73. Illus. 11 ref.
Petržela K., Hůzl F., Senft V.
Chronic poisoning by cadmium in women in the manufacture of alkaline storage batteries
Chronické otravy kadmiem u žen při výrobě alkalických akumulátorů [in Czech]
Forty women and 2 men exposed to dust containing cadmium oxide in a storage battery factory were examined. Two cases fitting the criteria of chronic cadmium poisoning according to Czechoslovak regulations were found. There was kidney damage, an increase in the ratio of microproteins to macroproteins in the urine, and an increase in the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. The observations are consistent with the results of previous in-vitro and in-vivo experiments.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1983, Vol.35, No.8, p.335-339. Illus. 35 ref.
Lindberg E., Vesterberg O.
Urinary excretion of proteins in chromeplaters, exchromeplaters and referents
β2-microglobulin (MG) was measured in the urine of 24 presently exposed chromeplaters, 27 previously exposed chromeplaters and 37 referents. The MG concentration and the number of values >0.30mg/l was higher in the presently exposed group than in the referents. A dose-effect relation between the concentration of hexavalent chromium in air and the number of elevated values of urinary MG was found in the presently exposed group. No differences were found between the previously exposed group and the referents. There were no indications that exposure raised the excretion of albumin in urine. An acute effect on the kidney tubules is indicated which is reversible even in workers with previous relatively high exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.505-510. 20 ref.
Vineis P., Di Prima S.
Cutting oils and bladder cancer
This letter reviews evidence from studies in the USA, England, Canada, Finland, and Italy indicating that an excess of bladder cancer is occurring amongst machinists and other metal workers exposed to cutting and antirust oils. Aromatic amines used as antioxidants in such oils could be a contributing factor.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.449-450. 15 ref.
Thériault G., Tremblay C., Gingras S.
Bladder cancer in aluminum smelter workers
Epidemiologic study of the hospital records of 85 cases of bladder cancer and 255 controls matched for work location, date of birth, date of hire and number of years worked in an aluminium smelter. The period covered was 1970 to 1979. Söderberg process potroom workers were found to be the most at risk (2.39 standardised overall mortality ratio). Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (released from electrodes) seems to be the factor responsible. Cigarette smoking contributed significantly to the appearance of bladder cancer in the population studied.
School of Occupational Health, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada, 1983. 76p.
Franchini I., Cavatorta A., Falzoi M., Lucertini S., Mutti A.
Early indicators of renal damage in workers exposed to organic solvents
438 workers from 11 factories and 29 dry-cleaning shops were studied: 57 exposed to perchloroethylene; 118 painters exposed to benzene homologues at 5 metalworking factories; 51 exposed to styrene vapours in glass-fibre-reinforced plastics boat and silo manufacture; and 212 workers exposed to C5-C7 alkanes; also 2 control groups (80 and 81 workers). Renal function was investigated by determination of total proteinuria, albuminuria and urinary muramidase and β-glucuronidase. There was little evidence of renal damage due to solvent exposure. Total proteinuria was significantly increased in workers exposed to alkanes and to styrene, but this finding did not correspond to other changes. Any renal damage appeared to be mild and tubular rather than glomerular. The methods are intended as screening procedures and not as a substitute for clinical diagnosis of renal diseases.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1983, Vol.52, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 33 ref.
Sorahan T., Adams R.G., Waterhouse J.A.H.
Analysis of mortality from nephritis and nephrosis among nickel-cadmium battery workers
3025 workers were studied. Observed deaths from nephritis and nephrosis and all (non-cancer) diseases of the genito-urinary system were not significantly different from those of the general population of England and Wales. No significant association between cadmium exposure and mortality emerged from a comparison between exposures of those who had died from these causes and of survivors. Separate analysis of 39 workers with cadmium nephropathy (proteinuria) showed a just-significant difference in obsered and expected deaths for all cancers, and a mortality for non-cancers close to expectation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.25, No.8, p.609-612. 10 ref.
Desmyter J., Johnson K.M., Deckers C., LeDuc J.W., Brasseur F., Van Ypersele de Strihou C.
Laboratory rat associated outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome due to Hantaan-like virus in Belgium
3 or 4 people handling laboratory rats suffered acute renal failure. Hantaan-like virus was identified as the cause. Serological studies revealed infected rat strains at different sites on the university campus where the patients worked, and 50% of the exposed staff showed evidence of past infection. Monitoring of laboratory rats for Hantaan-like viruses (originating in East Asia) is recommended.
Lancet, 24-31 Dec. 1983, Vol.2, No.8365/6, p.1445-1448. 19 ref.
Abbas L., Bierre N., Fuchez J., Bellanger G.
Results of a computerised questionnaire survey on renal colic among the flight crew of civilian aircraft
Résultats d'une enquęte informatisée sur la colique néphrétique du personnel navigant technique de l'aviation civile et commerciale [in French]
This computerised questionnaire survey was conducted in 1982 to find out the frequency of renal colic among the flight crews of Air France, as compared with a previous survey in 1967. Starting in 1966, Air France flight personnel have been advised to drink only non-carbonated water during flights as a preventive measure, and the effects of this recommendation were also investigated in this survey. The 1967 survey found the renal colic incidence to be 7.6% among flight personnel, as opposed to 3.4% among ground workers. The new survey shows an incidence of 10.3% among flight personnel, with a positive correlation with seniority of service. The main factor causing renal colic seems to be the lowering of humidity during flight. The importance of following the preventive advice is emphasised.
Médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 3rd quarter 1983, Vol.22, No.87, p.199-206. 5 ref.
Timár M., Kabai J., Horkay F., Groszmann M., Ormos G., Süveges M., Grónai É., Barna T.
Exposure to cadmium and its effect on kidney function
Kadmium expozíció, hatása a veseműködésre [in Hungarian]
Cadmium concentration in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU), and total protein and β2-microglobulin in urine were determined in 3 groups of workers (100 agricultural workers not exposed to cadmium, 204 industrial workers not exposed to cadmium, 39 exposed industrial workers). CdB in unexposed industrial workers was 3-4 times higher than in agricultural workers, but still below the WHO-recommended TLV of 1µg/100ml. In the exposed group, all 4 measurements yielded significantly higher results than in the unexposed industrial group; this means that renal dysfunction occurred, though no other clinical symptoms of cadmium poisoning were observed.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1983, Vol.29, No.7-9, p.147-151. 22 ref.
Exposure to mercury vapour
100 workers exposed to metallic mercury vapour in mercury cell rooms and 100 control workers were studied. Hazards of inorganic mercury are set out, and the health screening programme of the plant under study is outlined. None of the study subjects complained of urinary symptoms. There was no evidence to show that the incidence of renal dysfunction was greater in the mercury exposed population than in the control group. A further aim of the study was to assess the occupational health nurse's contribution to a research team: company policy encourages nurses to qualify themselves for such tasks.
Occupational Health, June 1983, Vol.35, No.6, p.256-262. Illus. 3 ref.
State of legislation in the EEC countries with respect to the prevention and compensation of disorders due to aromatic amines
Etat des législations dans les différents pays de la C.E.E. sur la prévention et la réparation des affections entraînées par les amines aromatiques [in French]
To evaluate the possibility of harmonising the legislation in various EEC countries that concerns the prevention of bladder cancer due to carcinogenic amines, this thesis reviews the toxicity of the aromatic amines in the work environment, the modalities of compensation of occupational diseases in the EEC, and the technical and medical measures which can be taken to prevent occupational disorders due to aromatic amines. Provisions for such disorders differ widely within the EEC. Italian legislation may provide the best model for the other countries.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Paris-Ouest, Paris, France, 1983. 82p. 48 ref.
Ravnskov U., Lundström S., Nordén Ĺ.
Hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis: evidence from patients' occupations
In this statistical analysis of 124 glomerulonephritis victims, a significantly higher proportion of victims were occupationally exposed to hydrocarbons than would be expected from their relative numbers in the general population (46 observed against 28.6 expected). Occupational exposure factors suspected are organic solvents and fuels.
Lancet, 26 Nov. 1983, No.8361, p.1214-1216. 6 ref.
Aromatic amines in the workplace and urothelial tumours
Amines aromatiques en milieu de travail et tumeurs urothéliales [in French]
The difficulties involved in showing the relationship between occupational exposure and bladder cancer, due to the delayed appearance of the disease (averaging 20 years after exposure) and the problem of establishing the complete occupational history of patients are dealt with. The reasons are given why in France, compared to other European countries, very few cases of bladder cancer are recognised as occupational diseases. General practitioners are advised to find out the occupational history of bladder cancer patients, if not under the care of industrial physicians. Particularly at risk are workers in the chemical (especially dye manufacturing), textile and rubber industries, those working in laboratories and with pesticides.
Semaine des hôpitaux, Sep. 1983, Vol.59, No.29-30, p.2103-2106. 9 ref.
Suciu I., Olinici L.
Hepato-renal involvement in acute occupational trichloroethylene poisoning
Case reports of trichloroethylene poisoning in 2 workers who had worked with the substance for several hours in a small room without sufficient ventilation. Both workers had had liver diseases previously. Symptoms of intoxication included fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and asthenia. Recovery after treatment was 1-4 weeks, and hepatic function tests were normal in a follow-up examination 10 years afterwards.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1983, Vol.74, No.2, p.123-128. Illus. 58 ref.
Matsushima M., Murakami N., Fukazawa K., Yagishita T., Fujio K., Miura K., Sawamura Y., Tajima M., Nakayama K., Shirai M., Ando K.
Occupational cancer of the urinary bladder: The diagnostic value of urinary cytology in dyestuff workers exposed to aromatic amine
Urinary cytological tests were used since 1967 to screen 90 dyestuff workers exposed to aromatic amines in the period after 1945. 13 cases of bladder tumour and one case of asynchronous bilateral ureteral tumour were found. Following a positive exfoliative cytologic result, bladder tumours were confirmed in 5 cases within 3 months, in 4 more cases within one year and in all cases within 3 years. After various forms of therapy, survival at 5, 10 and 15 years was 84, 55 and 44% respectively. Cause of death was metastasis of the bladder tumour in 5 cases and cancer of other organs in 6. Exfoliative cytology was superior to cystoscopy or histology for early detection of bladder tumours in this group. Summary in English.
Japanese Journal of Urology, Jan. 1983, Vol.74, No.1, p.81-99. Illus. 35 ref.
Thun M., Stayner L., Brown D., Waxweiler R.
Mining and deaths from chronic renal failure
This letter points out that a re-analysis of mortality data for various cohorts of US miners in uranium and other mining groups has indicated a possible excess mortality due to chronic renal failure, kidney disease, chronic nephritis and genitourinary disease. A low-level nephrotoxic effect may be operational throughout the mining industry or a subset of miners may be at substantially increased risk of renal disease.
Lancet, 11 Sep. 1982, Vol.2, No.8298, p.606. 10 ref.
Slováček R., Hůzl F., Sýkora J., Senft V., Kavářová A.
Use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the detection of proteinuria in workers exposed to cadmium
Využití elektroforézy na polyakrylamidovém gelu k charakteristice proteinurie u zaměstnanců v exposici kadmiu [in Czech]
59 active or retired workers from alkaline-battery or cadmium-oxide plants were examined for proteinuria by electrophoresis of urine samples in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. All cadmium-exposed subjects showed higher urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins than did non-exposed controls. This tubular proteinuria was detectable in the absence of subjective symptoms of cadmium poisoning, and in the absence of clinically detectable functional disturbances. Thus, electrophoresis is a sensitive method for the early detection of cadmium poisoning.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1982, Vol.34, No.6-7, p.209-214. Illus. 15 ref.
Cartwright R.A., Rogers H.J., Barham-Hall D., Glashan R.W., Ahmad R.A., Higgins E., Kahn M.A.
Role of N-acetyltransferase phenotypes in bladder carcinogenesis: A pharmacogenetic epidemiological approach to bladder cancer
A large excess of patients with bladder cancer who have been exposed to N-substituted aryl compounds in production of dye intermediates have the slow phenotype of the enzyme N-acetyltransferase. Acetylator phenotyping in hospital patients with bladder cancer and controls is reported. Clerical workers and engineers using machine oils had slow-acetylator frequencies that were not significantly different from controls. All but 1 of 23 dye workers were slow acetylators. The results were highly significant. It is suggested that acetylator status could be used to identify susceptible individuals in potentially hazardous occupations.
Lancet, 16 Oct. 1982, Vol.II, No.8303, p.842-846. 18 ref.
Najem G.R., Louria D.B., Seebode J.J., Thind I.S., Prusakowski J.M., Ambrose R.B., Fernicola A.R.
Life time occupation, smoking, caffeine, saccharine, hair dyes and bladder carcinogenesis
75 subjects with bladder cancer and 142 controls were studied. Statistically significant associations with bladder cancer were found for cigarette smoking and for working in dye, petroleum (fuel) and plastics industries. Risk ratios were also high for workers in rodenticide and printing industries, cable workers and the spouses of bladder cancer patients.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1982, Vol.11, No.3, p.212-217. 26 ref.
Silverman D.T., Hoover R.N., Albert S., Graff K.M.
Occupation and cancer of the lower urinary tract in Detroit
Report of an analysis of the relation between occupation and cancer in Detroit, USA, by means of a population-based case-control study conducted as part of the US National Bladder Cancer Study. 303 patients with transitional or squamous-cell carcinoma of the lower urinary tract and 296 controls were interviewed to obtain lifetime occupational histories. Truck drivers had a significant excess risk of lower urinary tract cancer but whether their increased risk was due to diesel fume exposure could not be evaluated. Non-significant excess risks were also seen for tool and die makers. Employment in motor vehicle manufacturing was not associated with a significant excess risk of lower urinary tract cancer.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Feb. 1883, Vol.70, No.2, p.237-245. 35 ref.
Honda R., Yamada Y., Tsuritani I., Kobayashi E., Ishizaki M., Nogawa K.
Significance of low molecular proteinuria in cadmium poisoning
The most useful parameters for detecting the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure were studied by examining the urinary concentrations of Cd, protein, glucose, amino acids, proline and low-molecular-weight proteins such as β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 534 inhabitants of a Cd-polluted area. The most useful tests were those for the detection of the low-molecular-weight proteins β2-MG and RBP in urine. Low-molecular-weight proteins appear in the urine of Cd-exposed subjects as a result of renal tubular damage. Summary in English.
Journal of Kanazawa Medical University, Sep. 1982, Vol.7, No.3, p.142-151. Illus. 15 ref.
Roels H., Djubgang J., Buchet J.P., Bernard A., Lauwerys R.
Evolution of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction in workers removed from exposure
19 workers who had been examined before and after removal from Cd exposure of more than 15 years duration were studied. 0.3-7.9 years after removal from exposure, all exhibited signs of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. Cadmium-induced renal lesions are not reversible when exposure ceases.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 39 ref.
Roels H, Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Bernard A., Barthels A., Oversteyns M., Gaussin J.
Comparison of renal function and psychomotor performance in workers exposed to elemental mercury
Renal function and psychomotor performance (eye-hand coordination, arm-hand steadiness) of a group of 43 workers exposed to mercury vapour (battery manufacturing, chloralkali plant) were examined. Their mean age and average duration of exposure to mercury were 38 and 5 years, respectively. Increased proteinuria and albuminuria were found to be slightly more prevalent in the exposed group than in controls. The scores of the psychomotor tests were less satisfactory in the Hg workers, and the arm-hand steadiness test was more discriminative than the eye-hand coordination test. Increased prevalence of abnormal psychomotor scores seems to occur for mercury in blood between 1 and 2µg/100ml and for mercury in urine between 50 and 100µg/g creatinine. Therefore, a biologic threshold limit value of 50µg/g creatinine is proposed for urinary mercury to prevent the development of preclinical effects on the central nervous system.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 1982, Vol.50, No.1, p.77-93. Illus. 28 ref.
Slováček R., Hůzl F., Sýkora J., Senft V., Kovářová A.
Use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the identification of the type of proteinuria in cadmium-exposed workers
Využití elektroforézy na polyakrylamidovém gelu k charakteristice proteinurie u zaměstnanců v expozici kadmiu [in Czech]
A study carried out on 59 workers exposed to cadmium, of whom 43 were employed in the production of alkaline batteries, 10 in CdO production and 10 were retired, revealed a significant elimination of low-molecular-weight proteins. This tubular proteinuria was not related with any functional signs of cadmium poisoning. The technique used (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using sodium dodecyl sulfate) proved effective in the determination of the spectrum of low-molecular-weight proteins in the urine of exposed workers.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1982, Vol.34, No.6-7, p.209-214. Illus. 15 ref.
Bertelli G., Farina G., Alessio L.
Glomerular disease due to solvents: a growing problem
Glomerulopatia da solventi: un problema emergente [in Italian]
Review of the literature describing clinical cases, case-control studies and transverse epidemiological studies. The data compiled are subdivided by groups of substances and type of glomerular disease. Of the 355 cases of glomerular disease reported, 108 were linked with exposure to organic solvents; this was followed, at some considerable distance, by exposure to paints, varnishes and glues, and petroleum derivatives (38 and 36 cases, respectively). The most common conditions were membranoproliferative and proliferative glomerulonephritis (149 cases), followed by glomerulonephritis with minimal lesions (55 cases) and membranous glomerulonephritis (52 cases). The results of the epidemiological studies seem conflicting. Data from the literature give support to the hypothesis that there is a causal relation between organic solvent exposure and glomerular disease, at least in cases of intense exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1982, Vol.73, No.3, p.175-186. 37 ref.
Nomiyama K., Nomiyama H., Yotoriyama M., Matsui K.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate acrylamide gel electrophoretic studies on low-molecular-weight proteinuria, an early sign of cadmium health effects, in rabbits
Rabbits received subcutaneous injections of 0.5mg cadmium (Cd)/kg for 42 weeks. The effects observed were: in the first week, a gradual increase in urine Cd; in the third week, slight low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, proteins of molecular weight (MW) 12,000 and 25,000; in the sixth week, slight proteinuria, proteins of MW 67,000; in the 11-13th weeks, aminoaciduria, glycosuria, proteinuria, and LMW proteinuria. Proteins of MW 12,000 and 25,000 increased in urine earlier than proteins of MW 67,000, and the presence of LMW proteins was an effective index for screening for early effects of Cd. Cd-treated rabbits had 60-80% of proteins of MW 67,000 in their urine and only 10% of LMW proteins, suggesting that Cd affects both tubules and glomerules.
Industrial Health, 1982, Vol.20, No.1, p.11-18. Illus. 13 ref.
Nomiyama K., Nomiyama H., Yotoriyama M.
Low-molecular-weight proteins in urine from rabbits given nephrotoxic compounds
Rabbits were given 0.5mg cadmium (Cd)/kg by subcutaneous injection 6 times a week for 32 weeks. The main protein component in the urine of these animals had a molecular weight (MW) of ≥67,000 suggesting tubular and glomerular dysfunction. Low MW proteins were found, in addition, in the urine of animals given a single injection of uranium (U), chromium (Cr), or mercury (Hg). The MW distribution of proteins in the urine of these animals was very similar to that of Cd-treated rabbits. Low MW tubular reabsorption of phosphorus was >80%.
Industrial Health, 1982, Vol.20, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 25 ref.
Occupational diseases of the urinary tract
Malattie professionali dell'apparato uropoietico [in Italian]
This review covers: the anatomy, physiology, physiopathology and histopathology of the kidney and the classification of the main forms of acute renal insufficiency of occupational origin on the basis of the dominant pathogenic mechanism - renal ischaemia, tubular necrosis and haemoglobinuria - myoglobinuria; nephropathy due to heavy metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium; nephropathy due to carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, glycol and carbon disulfide; bladder cancer (historical review, epidemiology, incriminated aetiological factors and professions, experimental data, carcinogenic mechanisms, clinical features, diagnosis, prevention, renal detoxication, effects of work on renal function).
Collana di monografie sulle malattie professionali N.2, Supplemento della Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, no date. 24p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: L.1700.
Danan M., Lagrue G.
Chronic occupational nephropathies
Les néphropathies professionnelles chroniques [in French]
Review of the clinical and histological features of occupational renal toxicity and the main aetiological factors: proximal tubulopathies due to lead, cadmium and uranium; glomerular disease due to nephrangiosclerosis, arterial hypertension and carbon disulfide, and immunotoxic glomerular disease due to mercury and lipid solvents in particular. The role of the occupational physician is important in preventing exposure to harmful agents in the work environment (observance of threshold limit values), in medically supervising the workers and in determining fitness for work under specific conditions. Co-operation with the general practitioner and the nephrologist is indispensible in the detection of occupational kidney disease.
Revue du praticien, Mar. 1982, Vol.32, No.17, p.1121-1135. 23 ref.
Vázquez Tadei G.
Acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning
Fracaso renal agudo en la intoxicación por tetracloruro de carbono [in Spanish]
Description of a case of acute renal failure in a house painter due to massive exposure to carbon tetrachloride, with favourable course following haemodialysis. The literature on acute renal failure in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, and the clinical and histological features of this disease entity are analysed with special reference to the combination of carbon tetrachloride exposure and alcohol consumption.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1981, Vol.29, No.113, p.30-36. Illus. 105 ref.
Checkoway H., Smith A.H., McMichael A.J., Jones F.S., Monson R.R., Tyroler H.A.
A case-control study of bladder cancer in the United States rubber and tyre industry
Report of a case-control of 220 cases of bladder cancer in 5 US rubber and tyre companies to determine if there were high-risk jobs and work areas within the industry. Cases were matched with 2 controls by sex, race, year of birth and company, and with an additional control by year of hire and duration of employment. Comparison of the work histories of cases and controls showed that cases were more likely than controls to have worked in milling and calendering. The relative risk estimates for milling and calendering both exhibited linear trends of increase with duration of exposure. Jobs in both milling and calender operation entail handling of heated uncured stock and potential exposure to volatilised rubber chemicals including antioxidants, antiozonants, accelerators and organic solvents.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1981, Vol.38, No.3, p.240-246. 25 ref.
Suzuki Y., Toda K., Koike S., Yoshikawa H.
Cadmium, copper and zinc in the urine of welders using cadmium-containing silver solder
Urine samples from 12 male welders aged 20 to 50 years who had been engaged in work with cadmium-containing silver solder for 3-23 years were analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) and compared with samples from 5 controls. Mean concentration values of Cd, Cu, and Zn for welders were 26, 2.4 and 2.6 times those of controls. A linear relation was found between urine concentrations of Cd, and both Cu and Zn. In chromatographic analyses of samples from 2 welders suspected of suffering from Cd-induced renal injury, the metallothionein fraction contained Cd and Cu but not Zn, and the Cu content of this fraction was much greater than the Cd content. The Cd and Cu in this fraction represented 6 and 10% of totals; the remaining Cd and Cu were recovered from high molecular weight protein and low molecular weight non-protein fractions. Urinary Zn was present in both of these fractions. Cd accumulation affects the excretion of Cu and Zn in urine, and urinary excretion of metallothionein containing Cd and Cu may be involved in Cd-induced renal injury.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.4, p.223-230. Illus. 17 ref.
Kawahara K., Samamoto M., Kushihata T.
Correlation between renal dysfunction and imino acid in cadmium poisoning. 1. Urinary findings of copper and/or cadmium-administered rats for three months
In rats receiving copper (Cu) and/or cadmium (Cd), high correlation coefficients were found between (1) urinary Cd and both protein and free proline; (2) between urinary total proline and both free proline and free hydroxyproline; (3) between urinary Cd and calcium in the femur; and (4) between urinary proline and protein. Correlation was found between urinary imino acids in rats receiving 200ppm of Cu and Cd simultaneously or 200ppm of Cu alone. Urinary Cd, protein and glucose, and total and free proline can be used for early detection of chronic Cd poisoning.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Oct. 1981, Vol.8, No.1, p.14-18. 16 ref. Price: Y.2000.
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