Mining and quarrying - 1,961 entries found
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Testing times for the mining industry: A Western Australian perspective on alcohol and drugs workplace problems
Topics: alcoholism; Australia; drug dependence; drug testing; economic aspects; implementation of control measures; legislation; mining industry; risk factors; smoking; survey.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.711-724. 20 ref.
Maintaining OHS standards in an international environment: A contractor viewpoint
Maintaining safety and health standards in overseas mining operations. Topics: alcoholism; Australia; drug dependence; mining industry; multinational enterprises; plant safety and health organization; safety training in industry; workmen's compensation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.701-710.
Safety training: The need to start at the top
Safety training in mining with particular reference to the influence of management decisions in accident causality. Topics: accident descriptions; management failure; mining industry; role of management; safety training in industry.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.693-700. 16 ref.
Occupational hygiene in mining: The South African experience
Topics: economic aspects; legislation; mining industry; occupational hygiene; South Africa.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.685-692. 6 ref.
Establishing a major mining operation in a developing nation
Implementation of a safety programme during the construction of a mining facility in Zimbabwe. Topics: construction work; developing countries; mining and quarrying; plant safety organization; role of management; safety and health training; safety consciousness; safety programmes; Zimbabwe.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.679-684.
Occupational health services in mining: Current and future trends
Topics: future trends; ILO; international agreements; mining industry; plant health organization; plant health services; responsibilities of employers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.657-667. 3 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Deep Mined Coal Industry Advisory Committee
Guidance on the repair and overhaul of apparatus intended for use in coal mines susceptible to firedamp
Part 1 of this document provides guidance, principally of a technical nature, on the repair and overhaul of certified electrical apparatus designed for use in the potentially explosive atmospheres found in underground coal mines. Part 2 covers the repair and overhaul of diesel engines constructed for use in underground mines. Contents includes: statutory requirements; guidance for the manufacturer, user and repairer; additional guidance for apparatus according to the type of protection; reclamation of equipment parts.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO 10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. vi, 60p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 12.00.
Dasgupta A.K., Harrison J.
Effects of vibration on the hand-arm system of miners in India
A study of 66 miners using vibrating jackhammer drills included a questionnaire survey of symptoms and vibration exposure, clinical assessment, and measurements of motor nerve conduction velocities and finger circumference. Complaints of neurological symptoms in the hands were more prevalent in the drillers than in a group of unexposed controls. Clinical examination revealed soft tissue wasting in the hands (26 cases), ulnar nerve impairment (23 cases), median nerve impairment (23 cases) and Dupuytren's contracture (4 cases). Compared to the control group, the motor conduction velocity of the right median nerve in the exposed group was significantly decreased, and finger circumferences were smaller.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.46, No.1, p.71-78. 29 ref.
Čigrin V.D., Semin A.P.
State of safety engineering, accidents and injuries in the enterprises of the coal industry of Russia in 1995
Sostojanie tehniki bezopasnosti, avarijnosti i travmatizma na predprijatijah ugol'noj promyšlennosti Rossii v 1995 g. [in Russian]
Accident statistics for 1995 were little changed from 1994. Of 273 mines subject to the Mines and Industries Inspectorate (Gosgortehnadzor), 93 recorded fatal accidents. There were 221 victims. Leading causes were rock falls (28.7%), methane and dust explosions (22.5%), transport (20.2%) and injury by machines (10.1%). The total number of accidents with injury was 14,436. The statistics are broken down by type, cause and location of accident, and by occupation and experience of victim. The mines with the highest frequencies of accidents are often more than 40 years old. The workings have had little maintenance, underground transport is difficult and ventilation systems need to be replaced. Twenty-one actions that should be undertaken in response to the situation are presented.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1996, No.3, p.10-20.
Greskevitch M.F., et al.
Results from the National Occupational Health Survey of Mining (NOHSM)
This report presents the results of a national questionnaire survey of 491 U.S. mines (431 metal and nonmetal mines and 60 coal mines) carried out during the period 1984-1989. The survey methodology is described along with the development and use of a computerized database of the results. Potential exposures were investigated in relation to physical agents, musculoskeletal overload, welding, brazing and soldering activities, abrasive grinding, chemical substances and products, and dust. Chemical substances and trade products in use in the mines are identified and potential exposure are estimated.
Publication Dissemination, EID, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1996. xiii, 210p. Illus. 32 ref.
An analysis program for occupational cohort mortality and update cancer risk in copper miners
A computer system for the analysis of data from occupational follow-up studies is described. Application of the system to an updated cohort of copper miners in China showed that the number of deaths from all types of cancer was higher than expected; the standardized mortality ratio being highest for lung cancer. Risk of cancer deaths increased with time since first exposure and more strongly with duration of exposure. In addition to cancer, cardiovascular diseases and silicosis were important factors in determining the life expectancy of the miners. Exposure to silica dust is considered to be a risk factor.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1996, Vol.9, No.4, p.301-308. 17 ref.
Starzyński Z., Marek K., Kujawska A., Szymczak W.
Mortality among coal miners with pneumoconiosis in Poland
The mortality of a cohort of 7065 hard coal miners with pneumoconiosis diagnosed during 1970-1985 was investigated to end 1991. The miners showed significantly elevated total mortality and mortality due to respiratory diseases compared with the general male population of Poland. Mortality from all diseases of the circulatory system was lower among the miners. No significant increase in the risk of death from malignant neoplasms of the lung was observed among the miners as a whole or among sub-groups which varied according to their risk of pneumoconiosis and their level of exposure to ionizing radiation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1996, Vol.9, No.4, p.279-289. 13 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Deep Mined Coal Industry Advisory Committee
Guidance on the use of cablebolts to support roadways in coal mines
This guidance applies to the use of situations where cablebolts (fully grouted long tendon anchors constructed from steel rope strands) are installed as additional support when excessive strata movement is experienced or expected in places principally supported by rockbolts. Contents: site investigation; cablebolt system design and specification; routine monitoring; suitability of consumable items. In appendix: sampling of grout mixed underground; cablebolt dual height tell-tale; training requirements for managers, bolting co-ordinators, officials and operators.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 15p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: GBP 9.75.
Gagné L., Gérin M., Perrault G.
Mineralogical data and occupational exposure to dusts in Quebec mines
Données minéralogiques et exposition professionnelle aux poussières dans les mines du Québec [in French]
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the occupational exposure of Quebec miners to potentially present and/or unsuspected dusts. Results are presented as tables (matrices) linking the specific mines with worker exposure to the various substances. Partial validation was accomplished by comparing these assessments with dust characterizations done by the Quebec Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute for six of the mines. It appears that mine workers may be exposed to mineral dusts containing not only the substance of primary commercial interest and/or usually monitored, but also other substances originating from the mineralization process e.g. asbestos, talc, mica and arsenic in certain gold mines. This matrix constitutes an inventory that could be used by hygienists as a tool to systematically identify potential exposures in Quebec mines.
Travail et santé, Mar. 1996, Vol.12, No.1, p.S-2 to S-6. 20 ref.
Two case reports of neurological disease in coal mine preparation plant workers
Cases of neurotoxicity related to occupational exposures at plants producing acrylamide monomers have been reported in medical literature. However, cases involving neurotoxicity related to jobs using polymers with acrylamide monomer contamination have not been widely reported. In 1992, two patients who had worked in different coal preparation plants in southern West Virginia for over 10 years and had exposure to an acrylamide polymer flocculent contaminated with acrylamide monomer were evaluated. Neither patient had any instruction in the proper use or dangers of acrylamide or was given adequate safety equipment. One of the patients developed parkinsonism and the other, peripheral neuropathies with a neurogenic bladder. Many chemicals are being introduced into mining operations and awareness of potentially toxic exposures and new diseases not previously reported in the mining industry must become part of the surveillance system. Further research on the extent of acrylamide neurotoxicity in the mining industry is encouraged.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.56-61. 9 ref.
Regulations under the Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act 1986 [Australia - South Australia]
These Regulations (effective: 1 Sep. 1996) were made under the 1986 Act (see CIS 90-1404), complementing the principal regulations of 1995. They contain safety regulations for petroleum work and mining operations. For petroleum work, they require the use of blowout prevention equipment, regulate the sue of well drilling fluids and prohibit certain kinds of night operation. For mining operations, they provide regulations concerning the use of diesel engines, lifting equipment, shafts, electricity, ventilation and explosives.
South Australian Government Gazette, 22 Aug. 1996, No.101, p.761-792.
Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 [South Africa]
This Act was assented to on 14 June 1996, and comes into operation on a date fixed by proclamation by the President. It covers: health and safety at mines (owner's responsibility; appointment of manager, whose responsibilities include the maintenance of a healthy and safe environment, the ensuring of the supply of health and safety equipment, the staffing of mines with due regard to OHS and the establishment of OHS policy; codes of practice; manager's responsibilities for training, risk assessment and response, conduct of occupational hygiene measurements and the establishment of a system of medical surveillance; safety and medical records; exit certificates; employers' rights to information and to the disputing of expertise; manufacturer's, supplier's and employee's duties for OSH; employee's right to leave dangerous workplaces); health and safety representatives and committees; tripartite institutions (Mine Health and Safety Council, Mining Qualifications Authority); inspection of mines (establishment of Inspectorate, appointment of Chief Inspector, inspection procedures and records); powers of the Minister; legal proceedings and offences; general provisions (including definition of terms). The Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (CIS 94-1451) is not applicable to any matter in respect of which any provision of this Act is applicable.
Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 14 June 1996, Vol.372, No.17242, p.1-112 (whole issue).
Laflamme L., Menckel E., Lundholm L.
The age-related risk of occupational accidents: The case of Swedish iron-ore miners
Age-related accident risks faced by Swedish male iron-ore miners were studied with a retrospective longitudinal analysis of national registers over a ten-year period (1980-1990). Three time periods of five years and five age categories were used examining age-related accident frequency, characteristics and severity. Among older miners high accident ratios were found to be rare whatever the time period, but some accident patterns became substantially more frequent in some older age cohorts over the years. Injuries tended to be more severe in older age groups. The tentative conclusions are: inequality in risk exposure between age groups may explain the lower accident ratios found among older workers, but also that the aging of a working population may lead to the application of task-assignment principles that penalize older workers, at least with regard to certain specific accident risks. Age is a good predictor of accident severity, provided that differences in risk exposure are controlled for, but further studies are needed to test these hypotheses in different occupations.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1996, Vol.28, No.3, p.349-357. 26 ref.
Laflamme L., Menckel E.
Age and occupational accidents in the light of fluctuations on the labor market: The case of Swedish non-ferrous ore miners
Non-specific and specific age-related accident frequencies among Swedish non-ferrous ore miners were examined with a retrospective statistical analysis of national registers over a ten-year period (1980-1990). Three time periods of five years and five age categories were used, studying age-related accidents frequencies, characteristics and severity. Age-related accident ratios (ARs) were employed as indicators and calculated for all accidents. The AR is calculated from the ratio of all accidents that occurred during a given period and the average number of employed workers during the same period. ARs tended to be lower among older workers, with differences between age groups for almost all accident types. It is plausible that this is explained by lower risk exposure. In the middle-age cohort (25-34 years) an increase in ARs was seen by the end of the period for all accident types. Age-related risks are also influenced by other factors, such as labour-market conditions. In certain more demanding jobs, reduction in personnel may expose younger workers to higher risks, because their basic capacities are exceeded and/or because of lack of relevant experience.
Work, 1996, Vol.6, p.97-105. 34 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
A guide to the Quarries Miscellaneous Health and Safety Regulations 1995
These Regulations (see CIS 95-1174) place duties on quarry owners, although some of the duties are also appropriate to contractors who are employers. Contents of this guide: preparation of a health and safety document (risk assessment, health and safety aspects of the design, use and maintenance of the quarry, control of explosive and harmful areas, fire protection); provision of escape and rescue facilities (means of escape and rescue, roadways, rescue equipment, communications, safety drills); health surveillance; lighting. The text of the Regulations is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 13p. Price: GBP 7.95.
Is simultaneous occurrence of silicosis and lung cancer coincidental or associational?
The incidence of silicosis in the Mecsek coal and uranium mining region of Hungary was determined from local autopsy records (1958-1994) and mortality data (1980-1988). Data on coal miners who died from lung cancer between 1980 and 1988 were also analyzed. In agreement with other published studies, results indicate that a simultaneous occurrence of silicosis and lung cancer is coincidental and lacks any pathogenetic connection. Problems in the diagnosis of silicosis are also discussed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.1, p.37-46. Illus. 13 ref.
Giardino D.A., Durkt G.
Evaluation of muff-type hearing protectors as used in a working environment
Noise reduction measurements were carried out for 23 models of muff-type hearing protection devices (HPDs) and 545 machines in a mining environment. The measured effectiveness was compared with the performance predicted by the Environmental Protection Agency Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) method, based on laboratory-derived attenuation values. The field performance was significantly less than that predicted by the NRR method. It was concluded that the NRR method grossly overestimates HPD performance. Use of this laboratory-based technique to predict field performance of HPDs could result in an overestimation of the protection afforded the worker.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.264-271. Illus. 18 ref.
International Metalworkers' Federation (IMF)
Health, safety and environment
A survey of working conditions and exposure to arsenic was carried out among copper workers in Chile. High levels of arsenic and other pollutants were found in two smelting shops and in the surrounding area; analysis of dust samples from the shop floor showed an arsenic content of 11 to 19%. Workers rarely used any form of respiratory protection. There was a high frequency of silicosis among mine workers. The role of trade unions in improving the working conditions of these workers is emphasized.
IMF Bulletin on Occupational Health and Safety - Bulletin FIOM sur l'hygiène et la sécurité au travail, 1996, No.34, p.1-8 (whole issue). Illus.
Mahieu B., Mayer L., Bertrand J.P., Frache A.
Chart of occupational risks relating to the reconstitution of job histories in the Lorraine coal mines
Cartographie des risques professionnels au service de la reconstitution des carrières aux Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine [in French]
Good knowledge of present and past occupational risks and estimation of workers' exposure levels allow improved prevention by occupational physicians. In France, types of work in mines requiring specific medical surveillance are regulated and cover 80% of the employees in the Lorraine coal mines. Occupational physicians have added to this list a few additional risks. To assess occupational exposure levels, two methods are used: 1) collection of occupational hazards through the telematic transmission system of daily staff checking, with automatic and individual recording of single or serial nuisances defined for a work activity; 2) creation of a chart taking into account present and former occupational risks for each worker, representing a real reconstitution of the occupational hazards history based on computerized data of the jobs and a job-exposure matrix resulting from a study of 170 activities (each activity is a job family with the same hazards). Occupational physicians can carry out personal and specific medical surveillance of a worker - or of a group of workers - exposed to detected risks and then select populations presenting the same exposure criteria for the purpose of epidemiological studies.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.32-36. 3 ref.
Jennison E.A., Odencrantz J.R., Sembower K., Petsonk E.L.
Self-reported use of respiratory protection among a cohort of underground bituminous coal miners
Patterns of self-reported respirator use were analyzed in a cohort of 193 underground bituminous coal miners who were followed for five years. Based on 1370 responses, the mean percentage of time that a respirator was worn was 18.9% for all subjects; 39.8% reported no respirator usage. Face workers reported wearing respirators a mean of 28.1% of the time compared with 9.8% for nonface workers and 3.0% for supervisors. Higher tenure was associated with lower respirator use. Further studies are needed to relate patterns of respirator use to temporal changes in coal mine dust exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.191-195. 17 ref.
Prince T.S., Frank A.L.
Causation, impairment, disability: An analysis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis evaluations
Impairment evaluation data for a group of 374 coal miners who filed for disability for coalworkers' pneumoconiosis were reviewed. Several pulmonary function variables declined in association with years mining, even after controlling for smoking and roentgenograph findings of pneumoconiosis. Of the 203 cases settled, 157 (77%) received some kind of disability payment, although only 49 (24%) had a roentgenograph positive for pneumoconiosis. Among 59 with completely normal roentgenographs and pulmonary function tests, 38 received some disability award. Findings support development of a more rational impairment/disability system for those with potential coal dust disease.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1996, Vol.38, No.1, p.77-82. 18 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Deep Mines Coal Industry Advisory Committee
Guidance on the use of rockbolts to support roadways in coal mines
This guidance applies to the places in coal mines where rockbolts provide the principal support. Contents: geotechnical assessment and site investigation; support system design; design verification monitoring; routine monitoring and recording scheme (monitoring devices, mine plans and measurement schedules, duties of managers and inspectors); training; suitability of consumable items. In appendix: techniques for measuring the performance of a rockbolt system.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. v, 34p. Illus. Price: GBP 9.75.
Orders of 26 Dec. 1995 concerning the creation of a functional safety and health structure in mines ... or recourse to an approved external agency for the development of safety and health in quarries [France]
Arrêtés du 26 déc. 1995 relatifs à la création d'une structure fonctionnelle dans les mines ... ou au recours à un organisme extérieur agréé pour le développement de la prévention dans les carrières en matière de sécurité et de santé au travail [France] [in French]
Topics: approval; France; law; mining and quarrying; plant safety and health organization; report of activities; safety and health training; safety checks; safety consultants; safety officers.
Journal officiel de la République française, 13 Jan. 1996, No.11, p.554-556.
Rogers A., Nevill M.
Occupational and environmental mesotheliomas due to crocidolite mining activities in Wittenoom, Western Australia
Topics: airborne dust; asbestos mining; Australia; crocidolite; dust measurement; environmental pollution; epidemiologic study; hazard evaluation; latency; mesothelioma; morbidity; neighbourhood populations; occupation disease relation; prediction; Western Australia.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1995, Vol.21, No.4, p.259-264. Illus. 19 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in quarries. A hundred of years of law
This booklet describes legislation covering United Kingdom quarries from 1895 to 1995. Topics discussed include: provisions of the Quarries Act 1894; inspection and enforcement activities; causes of accidents; recommendations of a Royal Commission report of 1914 concerning the qualifications of quarry managers, use of explosives and other safety issues; provision of the Factories Act 1937 and the Mines and Quarries Act 1954.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 24p. Illus.
Swaen G.M.H., Meijers J.M.M., Slangen J.J.M.
Risk of gastric cancer in pneumoconiotic coal miners and the effect of respiratory impairment
This study was carried out to investigate the mortality patterns in a group of 3790 coal miners. The study population had abnormal chest X-ray films at a routine medical examination that was performed in the 1950's. The total group of 3790 coal miners was followed up for mortality up to 1 January 1992. Total mortality in this group of coal miners was significantly higher than expected, mainly a reflection of the increase in mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality from gastric cancer was also significantly increased. This risk of mortality from gastric cancer was confined to workers with no pneumoconiosis or only a mild from. Despite the strong relation to duration of employment and pneumoconiosis the group of workers with more severe manifestations of pneumoconiosis did not experience an excess in mortality from gastric cancer. This study confirms the earlier reported risk of gastric cancer in coal miners. Also it confirms the hypothesis that this risk of gastric cancer is limited to workers with a mild degree of pneumoconiosis or none. In workers with severe forms of pneumoconiosis the pulmonary clearance system is impaired in such a way that the inhaled coal dust does not reach the digestive tract.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.52, No.9, p.606-610. 15 ref.
Schins R.P.F., Borm P.J.A.
Epidemiological evaluation of release of monocyte TNF-alpha as an exposure and effect marker in pneumoconiosis: A five year follow up study of coal workers
Study to determine the reproducibility with previous cross-sectional findings and the predictive value of initial release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) towards later progression of coalworkers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Release of monocyte TNF-alpha after in vitro stimulation with coal mine dust, silica and endotoxin was measured in 104 retired miners and was related to stage of CWP and cumulative exposure. A subgroup of 46 miners was screened by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). As observed previously, dust stimulated release of TNF-alpha was increased in miners, especially in the early stages of pneumoconiosis. Cumulative exposure was related to pneumoconiotic stage but not to release of TNF-alpha. Initial concentrations of TNF-alpha were related to later progression of CWP. The results show the significant involvement of TNF-alpha in pneumoconiosis in humans induced by coal dust and that this routine test possibly constitutes a powerful tool to estimate individual prognosis of pneumoconiotic disease, even after the end of occupational exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1995, Vol.52, No.7, p.441-450. 31 ref.
Michaylov M.A., Pressyanov D.S., Kalinov K.B.
Bronchial dysplasia induced by radiation in miners exposed to 222Rn progeny
This study investigated whether sputum cytology can be used to monitor epithelial cell changes in groups at high risk of lung cancer from exposure to radiation. To this end, 434 underground miners were examined of whom 334 were exposed to 222Rn progeny and 100 were not. The frequency of dysplasia in the exposed group was significantly higher than in the unexposed group and an exposure-response relation was found which was different for smokers and non-smokers. Possibly the frequencies of dysplasia could be used to assess past exposures of groups of miners. This approach could be applied to cases where data on radiation monitoring are not available or are very scarce.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.52, No.2, p.82-85. Illus. 15 ref.
Silicosis, radon, and lung cancer risk in Ontario miners
Uranium miners are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. This is generally attributable to exposure to radon. However, miners are also exposed to silica, classified by IARC as a possible human carcinogen. In a study of lung cancer risk in 328 miners with silicosis, which included a small number of uranium miners (23 subjects), it was found that the radon risk factor decreased when lung cancer risk was adjusted for the presence of silicosis. Smoking is also an important risk factor, but it was not feasible to include smoking in the statistical models. The results for the radon risk factors are, however, uncertain because of the small number of uranium miners included in the sample. Additional studies of this factor are considered warranted.
Health Physics, Sept. 1995, Vol.69, No.3, p.396-399. Illus. 12 ref.
Other common industries
Anden almen industri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish stone, ceramics and glass industry. Some other sectors (such as the instrumentation industry), which do not naturally belong to other groups of industries, are also included in this sector. There are about 42,000 employees in this group, of whom half work in the stone, ceramics and glass industry. The main working environment problems are noise, strain injuries, respiratory diseases and accidents. Other problems are exposure to chemicals and vibration. The incidence of reported occupational diseases and accidents is high. Since this group of industries is heterogeneous, working environments and their problems vary greatly. However, concrete and cement factories, glassworks and the paper industry seem to have the highest exposures to harmful factors.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 72p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Guide for the study of Convention No.176 and Recommendation No.183 concerning safety and health in mines, aimed at professional OSH personnel
Guide pour l'étude de la Convention 1976 [sic] et la Recommandation 183 concernant la sécurité et la santé dans les mines à l'usage des professionnels de la santé et sécurité au travail [in French]
Teaching manual aimed at French-speaking African OSH specialists. It covers the main points of ILO Convention 176 and Recommendation 183 concerning safety and health in mines (CIS 95-1939). Contents: definitions; risk factors; nine directives for technical prevention measures; 15 suggestions for improving legislation and practice in individual countries; emergency plans and first aid; role of safety representatives; welfare facilities; medical supervision and "tertiary" prevention; cooperation between employers and workers; rights and obligations of employers and workers. Group exercises accompany the text throughout.
International Labour Organization, Multidisciplinary Team for Central and West Africa (EMACO), Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, Oct. 1995. 33p.
Decree 1325-95 of 4 Oct. 1995 - Regulation concerning the pulmonary health examination of mine workers [Canada - Quebec]
Décret 1325-95 du 4 oct. 1995 - Règlement sur les examens de santé pulmonaire des travailleurs des mines [Canada - Québec] [in French]
This Decree, introduced under the authority of the Act Respecting Occupational Health and Safety (CIS 87-1131), approves a regulation providing for the medical surveillance of mine workers concerning the health of their lungs. Contents of the regulation: definitions; general provisions; lung examinations (pre-employment, in the course of employment); certificates of pulmonary health. In annex: medical questionnaire to be filled out by miners undergoing a medical examination; basic requirements for the physical examination of miners and for the lung X-rays they have to undergo. Effective date of the regulation: 3 Nov. 1995.
Gazette officielle du Québec, 18 Oct. 1995, 127th Year, No.42, Part 2, p.4444-4457.
http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=3&file=/S_2_1/S2_1R10_01.HTM [in French]
Mines Safety and Inspection Regulations 1995 [Australia - Western Australia]
These Regulations were issued under the authority of the Mines Safety and Inspection Act 1994, and came into operation on the same date as the Act. They contain detailed regulations on: interpretation of terms; administration (inspectors, health and safety representatives, board of examiners, Mines OHS Advisory Board); management of mines (including notification of commencement and suspension of mining operations, workplace inspections, health surveillance, information of workers, accident notices, surveys and plants); safety requirements (general, construction work, emergency preparation); electricity; safety relating to specific types of plant; occupational health (noise control, hygiene and sanitation, hazardous substances); explosives; ventilation, dust control and control of atmospheric contaminants); specific requirements of underground mines; winding, winding ropes and signals; shaft sinking; surface mining; dredging; railway operations; radiation safety. The Mines Regulation Act Regulations 1976 and the Coal Mines Regulations are repealed.
Government Gazette of Western Australia, 8 Dec. 1995, No.169 (special), xvi, 285p.
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/wa/consol_reg/msair1995385/ [in English]
Order of 24 July 1995 regarding specific complementary provisions for the use of visual display screens on working equipment (extractive industries); Order of 24 July 1995 regarding minimal safety and health provisions for manual handling (extractive industries) [France]
[Arrêtés du 24.7.95] - relatif aux dispositions ... concernant l'utilisation d'écrans de visualisation sur les équipements de travail (industries extractives); relatif aux prescriptions minimales de SST concernant la manutention manuelle (industries extractives) [France] [in French]
Visual displays are covered regardless of the display process [cathode-ray, liquid crystal, etc.]. Operators should undergo medical examinations to verify their aptitude for the work and in case of complaints associated with visual display work. Employers are responsible for identifying and eliminating hazards. Software must meet performance standards. Screens, keyboards and other equipment must be ergonomically satisfactory. The workplace must be free of excessive heat, radiation, humidity and noise. Regarding manual handling, work should be organized and mechanized so as to minimize recourse to manual labour. Possible hazards should be identified and preventive measures undertaken; occupational physicians should assist employers in this. Employers must provide workers with relevant information and training.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.63, p.213-215.
Gundy S., Bank J., Bojtor I., Köteles G.J.
The occurrence of sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of radon-exposed underground ore miners
Frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were investigated in peripheral blood samples taken from underground uranium miners exposed to various levels of radon and from unexposed controls. Six exposure groups were identified according to the level of exposure. While no general tendency was observed in change of SCE frequencies with increasing radon exposure, significant differences were found between certain groups of miners. The findings are discussed with respect to the opportunity for biological monitoring of radon exposed persons.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.78-86. 13 ref.
Brhel P., Rybáková Z.
Comparison of the health of the miners of underground mines and bituminous coal mines
The health of 166 underground lignite miners in the Czech Republic was compared with that of 166 age-matched bituminous coal miners in the same region. Among subjective complaints, symptoms of musculoskeletal and nervous system disorders predominated. Bituminous miners suffered a higher prevalence of dyspnoea, cough, chest pains, white finger phenomenon and hearing loss. They also showed a higher mean systolic blood pressure and lower ventilatory parameters; 12% had pneumoconiosis. Lignite miners showed no respiratory impairment but had a higher frequency of joint and back pains. The prevalence of symptoms reflects the working conditions in each type of mine.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.25-30. 18 ref.
Williams V., de Klerk N.H., Whitaker D., Musk A.W., Shilkin K.B.
Asbestos bodies in lung tissue following exposure to crocidolite
Routine asbestos body counts in lung tissue from 206 autopsies in Western Australia were analyzed. Counts for 32 cases who had worked in the asbestos industry (mining and milling of crocidolite) correlated well with estimates of their cumulative airborne exposure to crocidolite fibres. No other exposure variables, including time since ceasing exposure or age, had any significant effects on body count. It is concluded that the relatively simple technique of light microscopy for counting asbestos bodies in lung tissue provides a reliable indication of past occupational exposure to crocidolite in subjects whose exposure has been only to crocidolite.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.489-495. 11 ref.
Kuempel E.D., Stayner L.T., Attfield M.D., Buncher C.R.
Exposure-response analysis of mortality among coal miners in the United States
In a study of 8,878 coal miners in the USA, significant exposure-response relationships were observed for cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust and mortality either from pneumoconiosis or from chronic bronchitis or emphysema. Miners exposed at or below the current U.S. coal dust standard of 2mg/m3 over a working lifetime, have an elevated risk of dying from these diseases. No exposure-related increases in lung cancer or stomach cancer were observed. Pneumoconiosis mortality varied significantly according to the rank of coal dust to which the miners were exposed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.167-184. Illus. 30 ref.
Montoliu M.A., Gonzalez V., Palenciano L.
Cardiac frequency throughout a working shift in coal miners
To estimate the physical effort necessary to sustain coal-mining activities in a poorly mechanized mine, cardiac frequency was measured throughout the working shift with a "Sport-Tester" in a representative sample of 73 Asturian miners engaged in a full spectrum of underground work. The mean cardiac frequency in miners working at the coal face (33 subjects, mean age 32.7 yrs, age range 21-48 yrs) was 106.5±18.2 beats/min. In other miners (40 subjects, mean age 34.6 yrs, age range 23-48 yrs) the value was 103.1±17.7 beats/min. The absolute values of subjects' shift-average heart rates were not related to age, measured (treadmill) VO2 max or VO2 max per kg body weight, but there was a weak correlation between these three factors and shift-average heart rate as a percentage of its maximal value. Workshift peak heart rate was negatively related to age. This study provides the distribution of the overall cardiac frequency values likely to be found in subjects working in these poorly mechanized mines. However, average workshift cardiac frequency differs considerably from subject to subject and is largely unpredictable. Summaries in French and German.
Ergonomics, June 1995, Vol.38, No.6, p.1250-1263. Illus. 16 ref.
A global ban on lead mining and primary smelting
This editorial considers lead exposure to be a worldwide environmental problem and urges a global ban on lead mining and smelting. While regulations have resulted in reduced lead exposure in the United States, much of the reduction is matched by increased exposure in developing countries to which lead is exported. Although the short-term economic impact of a global ban on mining would probably be severe, the health consequences of lead exposure justify source reduction. Such a ban would stimulate efforts to find substitute products.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.70-71. 3 ref.
Blank V.L.G., Andersson R., Lindén A., Nilsson B.C.
Hidden accident rates and patterns in the Swedish mining industry due to involvement of contractor workers
According to official statistics on occupational injuries, mining accident rates have declined in recent years. However, mining accidents involving workers employed by subcontractors are not recorded in the statistics for the mining industry, but rather in the statistics for those branches of industry within which their own employer is classified. Using data from the Swedish National Information System on Occupational Injuries, this cross-sectional study covers 2397 accidents occurring during a five-year period. The official statistics do not reflect the real risk situation in the branch due to the involvement of contractor workers. Despite the lack of valid exposure data, this category of worker seems to incur more frequent and more severe injuries. These workers also seem to be performing different tasks and to be working under conditions other than those of mining company employees at the time of injury.
Safety Science, Nov. 1995, Vol.21, No.1, p.23-35. 19 ref.
Construction and mining industry
This whole issue is devoted to safety and health issues in the Asian construction and mining industries. Articles cover: safety and health in construction (Gold D.); safety management at construction sites - the Singapore experience (Wong H.K.C.); ergonomics in construction work: physical load and means of affecting it (Lappalainen J., Oksa P., Kaukiainen A.); cost of construction site accidents and optimal safety investment in Hong Kong (Tang S.L., Lee H.K., Chiu C.C.K., Ngai B.W.B.); a new safety audit and feedback system for construction sites (Laitinen H.); the ILO perspective on mining in Asia and the Pacific (Jennings N., Eskov V.).
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 1995, Vol.2, No.1, whole issue (27p.) Illus. Bibl.ref.
Verma D.K., Clark N.E.
Relationships between phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results of samples from occupational exposure to airborne chrysotile asbestos
A study was carried out to derive relationships between transmission electron microscope (TEM) and phase contrast microscope (PCM) fibre counts that could be used in the extrapolation of risk estimate from occupational exposure to low-level (nonoccupational or paraoccupational) exposure to asbestos. A total of 65 filter samples (10,318 fibres) were analyzed from chrysotile mining sites and asbestos end-use sites. Ratios of TEM-PCM equivalent to PCM counts varied from 1.4 to 3.2. The proportion of long thin fibres increased as the asbestos operation moved from the primary sector (mining) to the end-use sector (manufacturing).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1995, Vol.56, No.9, p.866-873. Illus. 27 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
A guide to the Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995
This guide contains the text of the Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995 (see CIS 95-1187) with accompanying guidance. Contents: appointment and general duties of the operator; notice of the commencement of drilling operations and the abandonment of boreholes; preparation of the health and safety document (risk assessment, health and safety measures, design, use and maintenance of workplace and equipment, co-ordination of health and safety measures among contractors, emergency plans for escape and rescue, site access for emergency services, prevention of fires, explosions, blowouts and gas escapes, detection and control of toxic gases); health surveillance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 56p. 14 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.
Ainsworth S.M., Gero A.J., Parobeck P.S., Tomb T.F.
Quartz exposure levels in the underground and surface coal mining industry
Occupational quartz exposure data gathered by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration during the period 1988 to 1992 were analyzed. In underground mines, a substantial number of samples contained greater than 5% quartz; some samples represented quartz exposures exceeding 100µg/m3. Occupations with a high frequency of excessive quartz exposure included the roof bolter and the continuous-miner operator and helper. In surface coal mines, the highwall drill operator and helper, the bulldozer operator, scraper operator and truck driver were frequently exposed to high quartz concentrations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1995, Vol.56, No.10, p.1002-1007. Illus. 4 ref.
Aks S.E., Erickson T., Branches F.J.P., Naleway C., Chou H.N., Levy P., Hryhorczuk D.
Fractional mercury levels in Brazilian gold refiners and miners
A study of 30 subjects working in or living near a gold mining and refining region of Brazil revealed that those with recent exposure (less than 2 days since last exposure) had higher blood and urine mercury levels than those with intermediate exposure (less than 60 days) or remote exposure (greater than 60 days). The remote exposure group showed the highest fraction of organic mercury and also reported more symptoms than the other groups. Results indicate a significant exposure to mercury; symptoms may be persistent and low levels of blood and urine mercury do not exclude remote or cumulative toxicity.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1995, Vol.33, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 33 ref.
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