Mining and quarrying - 1,961 entries found
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Oxygen enrichment of room air to improve well-being and productivity at high altitude
Increasingly, commercial and scientific activities, such as mining and observational astronomy, are taking place at very high altitudes, up to 5,000m. Frequently, workers commute to these locations from much lower altitudes. In addition, large numbers of people permanently live and work at high altitudes. The hypoxia of high altitude impairs sleep quality, mental performance, productivity and general well-being. The proposed solution is to inject oxygen into enclosed work areas through the air-conditioning system. An increase in oxygen concentration by one percentage point (e.g. from 21% to 22%) decreases the equivalent altitude by about 300m, i.e. a room at an altitude of 4,500m containing 26% oxygen is effectively at an altitude of 3,000m. This innovative technique promises to improve productivity and well-being at high altitudes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.187-193. Illus. 23 ref.
Marek K., Lebecki K.
Occurrence and prevention of coal miners' pneumoconiosis in Poland
Coal production is one of the largest industries in Poland and incidence of coal miners' pneumoconiosis is high. Epidemiological data are derived from the national register of occupational diseases and from previous investigations performed in Poland. Analysis of dust concentration measurements shows that occupational exposure limits are exceeded in 90% of underground workplaces. The number of new pneumoconiosis cases diagnosed annually ranges from 400 to 800 and has been showing a diminishing tendency in the last five years. Recently, a new system of medical and technical prevention has been introduced in seven collieries. Nevertheless pneumoconiosis prevention needs to be improved throughout the sector.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.36, No.6, p.610-617. Illus. 17 ref.
Säverin R., Bräunlich A., Dahmann D., Enderlein G., Heuchert G.
Diesel exhaust and lung cancer mortality in potash mining
The association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to diesel exhaust was investigated in a cohort of 5,536 male potash miners who were followed from 1970 to 1994. Quantitative exposure was assessed from concentration measurements of the total carbon in personal dust samples, multiplied by years of exposure. Work histories and smoking habit data were obtained from medical company records. During the follow-up period, 424 deaths were recorded, including 133 of cancer, 38 of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer between groups with high and low exposure was 2.2. With Cox regression, a relative risk of 1.7 for lung cancer after twenty years of exposure was found. Smoking was not a confounding factor. The principal finding is a doubling of relative lung cancer risk after twenty years of exposure in the workplaces with highest exposure. However, the observed elevation is nonsignificant even at a 90% level. Further follow-up is intended to enhance the study power.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.415-422. Illus. 15 ref.
Bauer M., Homberg F.
Experience with the ergonomic design of machines and its effects on strain and risks to operators
Erfahrungen mit ergonomischer Gestaltung von Arbeitsmaschinen und Auswirkungen auf die Belastung und Gefährdung der Fahrer [in German]
The results of ergonomic evaluations of the design of older and newer wheel loaders and power shovels used in handling and transporting coal in mines and storage sites are summarized. Shortcomings in ergonomic design were found in all equipment tested and included the steps leading to and from the operator's cabin as well as the design of the driver's seat, ventilation and air conditioning system, glare protection and illumination. Acceleration measurements of the vibrations on the driver's seat and cabin frame yielded values on the seat double those on the frame, both in older and newer equipment. Improvements carried out as a consequence of the evaluations led to increases in productivity, job satisfaction and motivation of the operators. The number of accidents causing injuries and damage dropped. Topics: coal mining; design of equipment; drivers cabs; drivers seats; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; glare; lighting; loaders; materials handling; power shovels; ventilation; vibration.
Bergbau, Jan. 1999, Vol.50, No.1, p.18-22. Illus. 5 ref.
Social and labour issues in small-scale mines
Les problčmes sociaux et de travail dans les petites exploitations miničres [in French]
Topics: mercury; silica; child labour; conditions of work; developing countries; economic aspects; ILO; informal sector; legal aspects; mining industry; report; responsibilities; small enterprises; social aspects; women.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1999. v, 99p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 17.50.
Brüning T., Chronz C., Thier R., Havelka J., Ko Y., Bolt H.M.
Occurrence of urinary tract tumours in miners highly exposed to dinitrotoluene
Higher than expected incidences of urothelial and renal cell tumours were found in a group of underground copper miners with high exposures to explosives containing dinitrotoluene. Categorization of the renal cell tumour cases by exposure revealed no dose-dependency concerning explosives and was similar to that of a representative group of formerly dinitrotoluene-exposed workers, whereas the urothelial tumour cases were predominantly confined to the high-exposure categories. These results along with results of genotyping indicate the possibility of human carcinogenicity of dinitrotoluene with regard to urothelium as the target tissue. Topics: bladder tumour; dinitrotoluene; copper mining; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; explosives; genito-urinary system diseases; latency; length of exposure; neoplasms; renal cancer; skin absorption.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.41, No.3, p.144-149. 33 ref.
Maiti J., Bhattacherjee A.
Evaluation of risk of occupational injuries among underground coal mine workers through multinomial logit analysis
The risk of injuries to miners working in a group of underground coal mines in India was assessed, taking into account their individual and workplace characteristics. A binary logit model was used to measure the risk of injuries to the miners and a multinomial logit model was used to measure the risk of severe and reportable injuries. Results revealed that both the individual and workplace characteristics of the miners had significant effect on the risk of occurrence of injuries. While the age and experience of the miners did not have any significant effect on the risk of occurrence of injuries, the occupation categories showed that the face workers were more at risk for injury. Among the workplace variables, the workplace location categories showed that the outby-face location is more conducive to accidents. Topics: coal mining; hazard evaluation; India; individual variables; risk factors; severity rates; statistical evaluation; underground work.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1999, Vol.30, No.2, p.93-101. 37 ref.
Implementation and evaluation of the Safety Element Method at four mining sites
The Safety Element Method (SEM) is a method for the improvement of safety results and safety approaches in the Norwegian mining industry. A group of organizational members assesses the current and desired situation for their own organization within defined areas. Based on this assessment, a strategy and action plan for the attainment of internal goals is developed. The implementation of the method in four mining companies is described and evaluated. Opinions regarding the experiences with the method are, on the whole, positive. Subjective assessments play a prominent role in SEM, but these assessments are supported by an extensive review of empirical data such as accident reports, interview results and a questionnaire. This means that the internal assessments correspond well to the safety results of the companies and also to the independent external reviews carried out by the researcher. Topics: cooperation; mining industry; plant safety organization; programme evaluation; role of management; role of supervisory staff; safe working methods; safety consciousness; safety programmes; subjective assessment; workers participation.
Safety Science, Apr. 1999, Vol.31, No.3, p.231-264. Illus. 59 ref.
Irsigler G.B., Visser P.J., Spangenberg P.A.L.
Asthma and chemical bronchitis in vanadium plant workers
The cause of cough and breathlessness in vanadium plant workers was examined after variable periods of exposure. Twelve of 40 subjects had bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR), and these were compared to 12 age-matched companion subjects whose BHR was normal. In ten, BHR was diagnosed by histamine inhalation, and in six of these the abnormality was severe. A further two had BHR by exercise challenge. After removal from exposure, 9 of the 12 subjects returned for follow-up 5 to 23 months later. BHR was worse in one, still present although less severe in five, and was no longer found in one subject. Baseline spirometry measurements were normal in seven subjects and only mildly impaired in the remaining five of the 12 subjects with BHR. The study provides strong supporting evidence that inhaled V2O5 induces BHR and asthma in subjects previously free of lung disease; the abnormality may persist for up to 23 months following exposure; routine spirometry will not detect affected subjects. Topics: allergic reactivity; allergy tests; asthma; vanadium pentoxide; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hypersensitivity; inhalation tests; irritants; maximal expiratory flow; mining industry; respiratory function tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.35, No.4, p.366-374. Illus. 37 ref.
Wang X., Yu I.T.S., Wong T.W., Yano E.
Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in coal miners: Looking into the effects of simple pneumoconiosis
Pulmonary function was measured in 205 miners with simple coal workers' pneumonconiosis (CWP) and in 289 without X-ray evidence of pneumoconiosis. A questionnaire on occupational history and respiratory symptoms including breathlessness, chronic cough, and phlegm was administered. The presence or absence of emphysema on X-ray films was also evaluated. On average, the miners with CWP had lower values of pulmonary function and higher prevalences of respiratory symptoms and emphysema than did those without. The simple CWP was associated with increased risk of the respiratory symptoms after adjusting for age, smoking, and years underground. Even when the effects of emphysema and respiratory symptoms indicating chronic bronchitis were taken into consideration, the significant relationship between CWP and decrements in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity remained. Findings are consistent with simple CWP being a contributor to significant decrements in pulmonary function, and to increased risk of respiratory symptoms. Topics: age-linked differences; chest radiography; China; chronic respiratory diseases; coal dust; coal mining; coalworkers pneumoconiosis; emphysema; epidemiologic study; length of exposure; pulmonary function; smoking; spirometry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.124-131. 38 ref.
Langholz B., Thomas D., Xiang A., Stram D.
Latency analysis in epidemiologic studies of occupational exposures: Application to the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort
A general statistical framework for modelling latency effects is described. Bilinear and exponential decay latency models are proposed and methods are described for fitting these models to cohort or case-control data. A latency analysis of radon exposure and lung cancer in the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort was performed. Analysis of the entire cohort showed that the relative risk associated with exposure increased for about 8.5 years and thereafter decreased until it reached background levels after about 34 years. The hypothesis that the relative risk remains at its peak level is strongly rejected. The variation in the latency effects over subsets of the cohort based on attained age, level and rate of exposure, and smoking was investigated. Age was the only factor for which effect modification was demonstrated. The decline in effect was much steeper at older ages than younger ages. The proposed methods can provide much more information about the exposure-disease latency effects than those generally used. Topics: age-linked differences; radon; case-control study; cohort study; epidemiology; hazard evaluation; latency; long-term exposure; lung cancer; mathematical models; uranium mining.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.246-256. Illus. 28 ref.
Rees D., Myers J.E., Goodman K., Fourie E., Blignaut C., Chapman R., Bachmann M.O.
Case-control study of mesothelioma in South Africa
In a study of mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in South Africa, data on cases and controls were collected from referral hospitals and exposure information was collected by interview. None of the 123 cases studied had purely chrysotile exposure. 23 cases had mined cape crocidolite, three had mined amosite, and three had mined Transvaal crocidolite plus amosite. A minimum of 22 cases had exclusively environmental exposure, 20 being from the NW Cape crocidolite mining area. The relative risks associated with environmental exposure in the NW Cape (crocidolite) were larger than for environmental exposure in the NE Transvaal (amosite and crocidolite). Results confirm the importance of environmental exposure in the Cape crocidolite mining area, the relative paucity of cases linked to amosite, and the rarity of chrysotile cases. They are consistent with a fibre gradient in mesotheliomagenic potential for South African asbestos, with crocidolite > amosite > chrysotile. Topics: asbestos mining; asbestos; crocidolite; chrysotile; amosite; case-control study; exposure evaluation; geographical variables; mesothelioma; neighbourhood populations; questionnaire survey; South Africa.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.213-222. 27 ref.
Statistics of mines in India - Vol. I (Coal) 1996
This document presents detailed statistics on coal mines in India for the year 1996 as well as statistical trends from 1983 to 1996. Contents: employment and output figures by type of mine and by state; trends in consumption of explosives and machinery; production of soft and hard coke; trends in import and export of coke, coal and lignite; trends in earnings index; trends in accidents, serious injuries, fatalities and dangerous occurrences. 131 cases of fatal accidents occurring in 1996 are described.
Directorate-General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad, India, 1998. vii, 170p. Price: INR 171.00.
Prinz F., Forster E., Dahmann D.
Determination of mine air pollution due to particulate diesel emissions in underground coal mining
Ermittlung der Belastung der Grubenwetter durch Dieselmotoremissionen in Steinkohlenbergwerken [in German]
Theoretically possible exposures of workers to particulate diesel emissions in two German underground coal mines were determined by calculation. It appears that the limit of 0.6mg/m3, acceptable for underground coal mining workplaces at the time of the investigation, can be complied with. This calculation method could be applied when planning new mining sites in order to improve prevention and limit workers' exposure.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft, Nov.-Dec. 1998, Vol.58, No.11-12, p.447-450. Illus. 7 ref.
Miller B.G., Hagen S., Love R.G., Soutar C.A., Cowie H.A., Kidd M.W., Robertson A.
Risk of silicosis in coalworkers exposed to unusual concentrations of respirable quartz
Chest radiographs were taken from 547 men who had worked at a colliery during the 1970s. Classifications of these films under the International Labour Organisation (ILO) 1980 scheme were related to existing data on individual men's exposures to respirable dust and quartz. 203 men (38%) showed progression of at least one profusion category on the 12-point scale, from the various 1970s surveys to the follow up in 1990-1. 158 men (29%) had a profusion of at least 1/0, and 47 (8.6%) of at least 2/1 at the follow up survey. Large opacities were recorded by at least two readers for 14 (2.6%) of the men. Profusion of small opacities was strongly related to exposures experienced in the 1970s, and more strongly for quartz than for the non-quartz fraction of the dust. Estimates of risk are presented over the range of quartz exposures experienced. The quartz exposures experienced by some men at this colliery have caused considerable progression of radiographic abnormalities since exposure ended.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.55, No.1, p.52-58. Illus. 22 ref.
Decree No.98-588 of 9 July 1998 completing and modifying the General Regulations Concerning Extractive Industries, introduced by Decree No.80-331 of 7 May 1980, as modified [France]
Décret n°98-588 du 9 juil. 1998 complétant et modifiant le Rčglement général des industries extractives institué par le Décret n°80-331 du 7 mai 1980 modifié [France] [in French]
This Decree adds to the 1998 Decree on extractive industries measures concerning protective measures, including medical surveillance, against the dangers of exposure to asbestos.
Journal officiel de la République française, 11 July 1998, No.159, p.10701-10706.
NIOSH program of mining research - A summary of mining research in progress 1998
Description of the NIOSH programme of mine safety and health research for 1998 in two laboratories working to develop coordinated programmes to address issues in the mining industries (metal, non metal, surface, underground and coal mining). Main research fields: mining injury and disease prevention; catastrophic failure detection and prevention; surveillance of mine safety hazards; hearing loss and prevention; disaster prevention; dust and toxic substance control.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1998. ii, 84p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Benke G., Abramson M., Sim M.
Exposures in the alumina and primary aluminium industry: An historical review
Epidemiological studies on chemical exposure in the aluminium industry are reviewed. Most such studies have concentrated on aluminium smelting, with many limitations in methodology. In aluminium smelting, exposure to fluorides, coal tar pitch volatiles and sulfur dioxide have tended to decrease in recent years, but insufficient information exists for other exposures. One finding is that excess cancers have been found among aluminium smelting workers. The small number of cohort studies have been a factor in the failure to identify clear exposure-response relationships for respiratory diseases. A dose-response relationship has been recently described for fluoride exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, but whether fluorides are the causative agent remains to be determined. Practically no epidemiological studies and quantitative exposure data for bauxite mining and alumina refining exist. Determination of possible relationships for this part of the industry through improved exposure assessment methods should be the focus of future studies.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1998, Vol.42, No.3, p.173-189. Illus. 95 ref.
Shrimpton M., Storey K., Husberg W.
Workers in remote areas: Case studies on the petroleum, mining and forestry industries
Topics: conditions of work; escape and exit; heavy work; ILO; logging; mental stress; mining industry; offshore oil extraction; personal protective equipment; plant safety and health organization; risk factors; safety and health training; shift work; social aspects; stress factors; thermal environment; welfare facilities; work in isolation; work organization.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, Jan. 1998. 85p. Illus. 45 ref.
Development of an occupational safety management system for German coal mines taking Saabergwerke AG as an example
Entwicklung eines Arbeitssicherheits-Managementsystems für den deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau am Beispiel der Saarbergwerke AG [in German]
The complete history of occupational safety and health in coal mining in the state of Saarland, Germany, is presented. The classical hazards encountered in coal mining and their importance today are discussed. The presently available protective measures are described. The basic principles of a new safety and health management concept for the anthracite mining company Saarbergwerke AG are presented. This new system controls all hazards encountered in anthracite mining from fires and explosions to dust exposure and work in confined spaces, as well as environmental pollution. Quality assurance is also integrated into this new safety and health management system. Supervisors and employees are fully involved in its implementation. Goals such as reduction of the accident rates to one third in three years were set and checks of the success of planned safety and health measures in regular intervals were included in the system.
Verlag der Augustinus Buchbandlung im Besitz des Verlags Mainz, Süsterfeldstr. 83, 52072 Aachen, Germany, 1998. 350p. Illus. 366 ref.
de Klerk N.H., Musk A.W.
Silica, compensated silicosis, and lung cancer in Western Australian goldminers
Silica has recently been reclassified as carcinogenic in humans based largely on the observed increase in rates of lung cancer in subjects with silicosis. This study aims to examine exposure-response relations between exposure to silica and subsequent silicosis and lung cancer in a cohort of goldminers. A total of 2,297 goldminers was examined in 1961, 1974 and 1975. Data were collected on respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and employment history. Subjects were followed up to the end of 1993. Survival analyses for lung cancer mortality and incidence of compensated silicosis were performed with age and year matched conditional logistic regression analyses. 89% of the cohort were traced to the end of 1993. 84% of the men had smoked at some time and 66% were current smokers. 1386 deaths occurred during the follow up period, 138 from lung cancer, and 631 subjects were compensated for silicosis. A strong effect of smoking on mortality from lung cancer and a smaller effect on the incidence of compensated silicosis was found. The incidence of silicosis was clearly related to exposure to silica and the onset of silicosis conferred a significant increase in risk for subsequent lung cancer, but there was no evidence that exposure to silica caused lung cancer in the absence of silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.243-248. 27 ref.
Notification No.238/1998 of the Czech Bureau of Mines to amend Notification No.55/1996 respecting the protection of health and the prevention of accidents for persons employed in mining activities [Czech Republic]
Vyhláška Českého báňského úřadu ze dne 30. září 1998, kterou se mění vyhláška Českého báňského úřadu č. 55/1996 Sb., o požadravcích k zajištění bezpečnosti a ochrany zdraví při práci a bezpečnosti provozu při činnosti ... [in Czech]
Topics: Czech Republic; law; mining industry; occupational safety and health; plant safety and health organization.
Sbírka zákonů, 19 Oct. 1998, No.81, p.7590-7598. Illus.
Notification No.236/1998 of 30 Sep. 1998 of the Czech Bureau of Mines to amend Notification No.26/1989 respecting the protection of health and the prevention of accidents for persons employed in mining activities [Czech Republic]
Vyhláška Českého báňského úřadu ze dne 30. září 1998, kterou se mění vyhláška Českého báňského úřadu č. 26/1989 Sb., o bezpečnosti a ochraně zdraví při práci a bezpečnosti provozu při hornické činnosti a při činnosti ... [in Czech]
Topics: Czech Republic; law; mining industry; occupational safety; plant safety and health organization.
Sbírka zákonů, 19 Oct. 1998, No.81, p.7586-7587.
Notification No.109/1998 of 24 Apr. 1998 of the Czech Bureau of Mines to amend Notification No.22/1989 respecting the protection of health and the prevention of accidents for persons employed in mining activities [Czech Republic]
Vyhláška Českého báňského úřadu ze dne 24. dubna 1998, kterou se mění a doplňuje vyhláška Českého báňského úřadu č. 22/1989 Sb., o bezpečnosti a ochraně zdraví při práci a bezpečnosti provozu při hornické činnosti a při ... [in Czech]
Topics: Czech Republic; danger symbols; law; mining industry; occupational safety and health; plant safety and health organization.
Sbírka zákonů, 28 May 1998, No.38, p.5370-5381. Illus.
Notification No.35 of 9 Feb. 1998 of the Czech Bureau of Mines concerning the protection of health and the prevention of accidents in operating underground trains in brown coal quarries [Czech Republic]
Vyhláška Českého báňského úřadu ze dne 9. února 1998 o požadavcích k zajištění bezpečnosti a ochrany zdraví při práci a bezpečnosti provozu důlní dráhy hnědouhelného lomu [in Czech]
Topics: coal mining; Czech Republic; danger symbols; law; lignite; occupational safety; rail transport; transport of materials; underground work.
Sbírka zákonů, 11 Mar. 1998, No.17, p.4426-4434. Illus.
Work in mines and diseases of the spinal column
Wirbelsäulenerkrankungen und bergmännische Arbeit [in German]
The main cause of accidents and spinal diseases among coal miners is manual lifting and carrying of loads. Ergonomic improvements of mining workplaces having had no effect on the incidence, a new approach was initiated which emphasized the teaching of correct work postures. A check list was worked out for risk evaluation of all manual lifting and carrying tasks in underground and surface mining operations. A safety brochure was compiled, containing advice on risks and correct behaviour, posture and auxiliary equipment to be used when handling loads. A special training programme was also developed for safety personnel to be able to recognize wrong body postures and to teach workers the correct postures.
Institut und Poliklinik für Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin und Sozialhygiene der Universität Köln, Köln, Germany, 1998. 99p. Illus. 74 ref.
Lehmann F., Hambeck L., Linkert K. H., Lutze H., Meyer H., Reiber H., Reinisch A:, Renner H. J., Seifert T., Wolf F.
Exposure to ionizing radiation in the uranium mining industry in the former German Democratic Republic - Final research report
Belastung durch ionisierende Strahlung im Uranerzbergbau der ehemaligen DDR - Abschlussbericht zu einem Forschungsvorhaben [in German]
The approach to determining past radiation exposure of uranium miners of the former GDR is described and resulting radiation levels listed. For a total of 523 different activities in underground and opencast uranium mining and ore processing exposures to radon daughters, radionuclides with long half-lives and gamma radiation between 1946 to 1990, when the mines were shut down, were determined. Inhalation of radon daughters was found to be the dominant type of radiation exposure in underground mining while inhalation of radionuclides with long half-lives constituted the dominant radiation source in open cast mining. Exposure to gamma radiation was comparatively low although doses of more than 70mSv/year did occur in some instances. Summaries in English, French and Spanish. Topics: uranium; exposure evaluation; gamma radiation; Germany; ionizing radiation; opencast work; radon daughters; underground mining; uranium mining.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Dec. 1998. 484p. Illus. 39 ref.
Williams B., Campbell C.
Creating alliances for disease management in industrial settings: A case study of HIV/AIDS in workers in South African gold mines
Using the South African mining industry as a case study, the state of the HIV epidemic is reviewed and programmess that have been undertaken to manage HIV are discussed. The reasons that current interventions have had little impact on HIV among mine workers are analyzed, tracing the lack of success to neglect of the social and community contexts within which HIV transmission takes place, as well as the lack of attention to the psychosocial processes and mechanisms underlying disease transmission. Finally, an intervention is described that aims to address the limitations of existing industrial programmes and improve the management of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, in a particular occupational setting through creating alliances between a wide range of community stakeholders. Topics: gold mining; health programmes; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; information of personnel; role of employers organizations; role of workers organizations; social aspects; South Africa.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 1998, Vol.4, No.4, p.257-264. Illus. 50 ref.
Montoliu Sanclement M.A., López álvarez G., González Díez V., Rodríguez Fernández B.
Physical and psychological criteria for the selection of rescue brigades
Criterios fisio-psicológicos para la selección de brigadas de salvamento [in Spanish]
Each coalfield in the region of Asturias, Spain, has its own rescue brigade. These brigades are expected to provide prompt and efficient aid in case of mining loss, both for rescue of miners injured by unbreathable atmospheres, landslides or floods, and for restoration of goods and facilities for work to continue with the minimum of alteration. Mine rescue work requires a coordinated system of action and technology in a hostile and dangerous environment. It must therefore be performed by professionals who assume responsibilities and risks in close coordination within the brigade. For an effective process of selection of rescue brigade members, particularly concerning the physical-psychological evaluation, a standard profile is required as reference framework for collating results. Topics: character; coal mining; intelligence; mine rescue; mining industry; physical fitness; psychological tests; respiratory function tests; Spain; vocational selection; work aptitude.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1998, Vol.18, No.72, p.23-33. Illus. 14 ref.
Liddell F.D.K., McDonald A.D., McDonald J.C.
Dust exposure and lung cancer in Quebec chrysotile miners and millers
A large cohort of men employed in the chrysotile producing industry of Quebec has been under study since 1966. The current study is of 488 cases of lung cancer among workers employed at three places: a major complex in the region of Thetford Mines, a mine and mill in the town of Asbestos and a small asbestos products factory in the same town. A case-referent study showed that lung cancer risks were negligible for years worked in dust categories 1 and 2 (averaging 0.5 and 2 million particles per cubic foot), regardless of the place worked. As the upper limit of category 1 is considerably higher than permitted nowadays, the lung cancer risk from exposure to chrysotile at permitted levels can be taken as extremely small. Patterns of exposure-response for higher categories were irregular. Main conclusions from this series of studies regarding lung cancer and mesothelioma are summarized. Topics: age; asbestos mining; asbestos processing industry; chrysotile; tremolite; cohort study; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; length of exposure; lung cancer; Quebec; respirable dust; risk factors; smoking.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 1998, Vol.42, No.1, p.7-20, 18 ref.
Winder C., Dingsdag D., Dain S.
Development of training programs for eye safety in the NSW coal mining industry
Eye safety programmes were reviewed as part of a larger project on eye safety in the New South Wales coal mining industry. Forty-five manager representatives in 20 mines were surveyed using an interview questionnaire. Eye safety was perceived as an important safety issue, although the presence and quality of eye safety programmes were very variable, from absent altogether to eyewear availability (but no training), from informal programmes to formal programmes. The availability of training to support these programmes was also very variable and, apart from a few mines, was considered inadequate. Further, different mineworker groups have different training needs. The content and structure of eye safety training programmes for mine managers, mineworkers and safety professionals is outlined. Topics: coal mining; face and eye protection; questionnaire survey; safety programmes; safety training in industry; training course.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.6, p.599-606. Illus. 5 ref.
Leigh J., Hendrie L., Berry D.
The incidence of mesothelioma in Australia 1993 to 1995 - Australian Mesothelioma Register report, 1998
Topics: age-linked differences; asbestos mining; asbestos; Australia; frequency rates; long-term exposure; mesothelioma; morbidity; mortality; report; sex-linked differences; statistical trends.
Epidemiology Unit, National Occupational Health And Safety Commission, 92 Parramatta Road, Camperdown NSW 2050, Australia, 1998. iv, 27p. Illus. 45 ref.
Carbon disulphide absorption during xanthate reagent mixing in a gold mine concentrator
A xanthate reagent mixer at a gold mine concentrator was exposed to carbon disulphide by extensive skin contamination with xanthate powder and solution during the reagent mixing process. Absorption of carbon disulphide was confirmed by the detection of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). Drager colorimetric tube testing during subsequent mixing recorded a maximum concentration of at least 60ppm carbon disulphide. An illness consisting of predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms began 20h after the exposure. Although this may have been due to carbon disulphide toxicity this is by no means certain. The need for engineering controls, impervious protective clothing and full-face respirators with particulate and organic vapour cartridges is discussed. Topics: carbon disulfide; case study; determination in air; determination in urine; fatigue; gold mining; migraine; respirators; skin absorption; threshold limit values; toxic effects; urinary metabolites; vomiting; xanthic acids.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.48, No.7, p.469-470. 4 ref.
Blank V.L.G., Laflamme L., Diderichsen F., Andersson R.
Choice of a denominator for occupational injury rates: A study of the development of a Swedish iron-ore mine
Injury risk was investigated at an underground iron-ore mine using alternative injury-rate denominators - hours worked and production volume. Six stages of mining development are defined, and three risk measures are employed: average injury rates (AIRS) by stage, injury rate ratios (IRRS) by stage, and annual injury rates (AnIRs). The two denominators give a quite different representation of injury risk at the early stages of development of the mine, but tend increasingly to provide a similar picture (similar ratios) at later stages. It is concluded that automated production processes, as opposed to mechanized ones, tend to make hours worked and production volume interchangeable denominators. Choice of appropriate denominator may depend upon whether the individual or the production process is in focus. Topics: accident-production ratio; cohort study; evaluation of technique; frequency rates; hours of work; iron ore mining; metal mining; occupational accidents; statistical evaluation; statistical trends.
Journal of Safety Research, Winter 1998, Vol.29, No.4, p.263-273. Illus. 38 ref.
Constitution of the Mining Qualifications Authority (MQA) [South Africa]
Adds an annex to the Mine Safety and Health Act, 1996 (CIS 96-1928). Topics: law; mining and quarrying; mining industry; qualifications; South Africa; vocational training.
Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 24 Apr. 1998, Vol.394, No.18854, p.3-32. Illus.
Agency for down grading profit-margin in the mines - Mining accidents in Zimbabwe
Topics: cost of accidents; economic aspects; fatalities; labour inspection; legal aspects; mining industry; occupational accidents; responsibilities of employers; statistical trends; Zimbabwe.
On Guard, Mar. 1998, Vol.6, No.12, p.3-5. Illus.
Nadif R., Bourgkard E., Dusch M., Bernadac P., Bertrand J.P., Mur J.M., Pham Q.T.
Relations between occupational exposure to coal mine dusts, erythrocyte catalase and Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activities, and the severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis
Blood samples were obtained from miners without coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) exposed to low dust concentrations for 4 or more years, or exposed to high dust concentrations for 14 or more years, and from retired miners with CWP. Estimated cumulative exposure to dust was strongly positively related to erythrocyte catalase activity and strongly negatively related to Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity only in miners exposed to high dust concentrations for ≥14 years. Moreover, catalase activity was strongly related to the severity of CWP as determined by chest radiography. Results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that production of reactive oxygen species may be an important event in the exposure to coal mine dusts and the severity of CWP. Topics: coal mining; coalworkers pneumoconiosis; determination in blood; enzyme activity determination; enzyme activity; epidemiologic study; erythrocytes; respirable dust; superoxide dismutase.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.55, No.8, p.533-540. 39 ref.
Goodwin S., Attfield M.
Temporal trends in coal workers' pneumoconiosis prevalence - Validating the National Coal Study results
Evidence from four successive rounds of the U.S. National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) indicates diminishing prevalence of the disease from 1969 to 1988. However, methodological inconsistencies across surveys have raised concerns. A standardized methodological approach was used to confirm the reported downward trend. Re-evaluation of radiological findings showed that the prevalence of small rounded opacities declined from 12.7% in Round 1 to 3.9% in Round 4. These findings support the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommendations for a reduced exposure limit for coal dust of 1mg/m3 because the present standard does not sufficiently protect miners against adverse health effects over a working lifetime of exposures. Topics: chest radiography; coal dust; coal mining; coalworkers pneumoconiosis; epidemiologic study; frequency rates; limitation of exposure; opacities; radiological diagnosis; statistical trends; USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.12, p.1065-1071. Illus. 19 ref.
Accident at the Zyrjanovskaja mine
Avarija na šahte "Zyrjanovskaja" [in Russian]
Description of the causes and consequences of a methane and dust explosion that killed 67 miners in a Russian coal mine. Topics: accident descriptions; causes of accidents; coal mining; coal-dust explosions; fatalities; mine gases; Russian Federation.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1998, No.4, p.14-20. Illus.
Improvement of Russia's Federal Mining and Industrial Supervision System under conditions of economic restructuring
Soverżenstvovanie sistemy Gosgortehnadzor Rossii v uslovijah reformirovanija ėkonomiki [in Russian]
A condensed version of the report "Results of the functioning of Russia's Federal Mining and Industrial Supervision System in 1997 and measures aimed at improving supervision of industrial safety and decreasing the number of industrial accidents and breakdowns in 1998" delivered by Mr. Lozovoj at the 27-28 Jan. 1998 board meeting of the Mining and Industrial Inspectorate (Gosgortehnadzor). Topics: manufacturing industries; mining industry; report of activities; role of government; Russian Federation; safety and health organization.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1998, No.3, p.2-9.
Mercury toxicity due to the smelting of placer gold recovered by mercury amalgam
Case-report of a worker who developed tremor in both hands and fatigue after starting work at a placer mine where he was exposed to mercury-gold amalgam. Seven weeks after removal from this work, the tremor had almost resolved and the urinary mercury concentration had fallen. The principal exposure to mercury was considered to be the smelting of retorted gold containing previously unrecognized residual mercury. The peak air concentration of mercury vapour during gold smelting was 0.533mg/m3 (TLV 0.05mg/m3). Several engineering and procedural controls were instituted. Topics: mercury; case study; determination in air; determination in urine; gold mining; melting; poisoning; tremor.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.48, No.6, p.413-415. 6 ref.
Effects of the intensity and timing of asbestos exposure on lung cancer risk at two mining areas in Quebec
Analysis of mortality data from 9609 workers at two asbestos mining areas in Quebec revealed a non-linear relationship between intensity of asbestos exposure and risk of lung cancer at both areas, but risk was greater at one area than the other. At the mine with lower risk, exposure occurring more than 30 years prior to death had little effect, while at the other mine, risk did vary with time since exposure and men starting employment before 1924 were at elevated risk. Results point to differences in dust composition at the two areas and illustrate the difficulties in estimating risk. Topics: airborne dust; asbestos mining; asbestos; chrysotile; cohort study; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; length of exposure; long-term exposure; lung cancer; mortality; risk factors; statistical evaluation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.40, No.9, p.821-828. Illus. 15 ref.
Influence of the work environment in a Pb-Zn mine on the incidence of cytogenetic damage in miners
In a study of cytogenetic damage in 120 miners occupationally exposed to radon and heavy metals in a lead-zinc mine, end points studied were structural chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges. Radon measurements were performed and the effective equivalent radiation doses over a 2-year period were calculated. The mean values of the percentage of structural chromosomal aberration frequency were 4.09% in miners, compared to 1.43% and 1.88% in two non-occupationally exposed control groups. The frequency of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges were also higher in the miners. Findings should be interpreted with regard to simultaneous exposure to radon and metals (lead, cadmium and zinc). Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; radon; lead; case-control study; chromosome changes; cytogenetic studies; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; lymphocytes; mining industry; smoking; workplace monitoring; zinc.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.455-463. Illus. 21 ref.
Commission Directive 98/65/EC of 3 September 1998 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 82/130/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres in mines susceptible to firedamp [European Communities]
Directive 98/65/CE de la Commission du 3 sept. 1998 portant adaptation au progrčs technique de la directive 82/130/CEE du Conseil concernant ... le matériel électrique utilisable en atmosphčre explosible des mines grisouteuses [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Directive amends Council Directive 82/130/EEC (CIS 94-1463). Topics: directive; European Communities; explosion hazards; explosion protection; explosion-proof electrical equipment; explosive atmospheres; mining industry; safety by design.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 19 Sep. 1998, Vol.41, No.L 257, p.29-34.
Hermühlheim W., Bresser G.
Improvement of protection against fires and explosions and of the mine rescue system in anthracite mining in newly industrializing countries
Verbesserung des Brand- und Explosionsschutzes und des Grubenrettungswesens im Steinkohlenbergbau industrieller Schwellenländer [in German]
Topics: anthracite mining; coal mining; explosion prevention; explosion protection; fire prevention; fire protection; mine rescue; newly industrialized countries; underground mining.
Bergbau, Feb. 1998, Vol.49, No.2, p.69-75. Illus.
Archer V.E., Renzetti A.D., Doggett R.S., Jarvis J.Q., Colby T.V.
Chronic diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lung in uranium miners
Topics: radon; case study; chest radiography; literature survey; mortality; pulmonary fibrosis; uranium mining.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1998, Vol.40, No.5, p.460-474. Illus. 107 ref.
Ebihara I., Kawami M.
Lung cancer and immunopathologic diseases among copper miners in a small copper mine, stone masons and pneumoconiotic patients in Japan
Topics: cohort study; Goodpasture's syndrome; immunobiological changes; Japan; long-term study; lung cancer; lupus erythematosus; mineral dust; mining industry; mortality; occupation disease relation; pneumoconiosis; respirable dust; rheumatoid arthritis; smoking; stone dressing.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 1998, Vol.74, No.3 (Part II), p.1-14. Illus. 68 ref.
Mitchell R.J., Driscoll T.R., Harrison J.E.
Traumatic work-related fatalities involving mining in Australia
Topics: Australia; causes of accidents; fatalities; frequency rates; injuries; job-exposure relation; mining industry; occupational accidents; risk factors; time of accident; unsafe practices.
Safety Science, July 1998, Vol.29, No.2, p.107-123. Illus. 34 ref.
Stayner L., Dankovic D., Smith R., Steenland K.
Predicted lung cancer risk among miners exposed to diesel exhaust particles
Topics: diesel engines; epidemiologic study; exhaust gases; hazard evaluation; literature survey; long-term exposure; lung cancer; mathematical models; mining industry; prediction; respirable dust; risk factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.34, No.3, p.207-219. 71 ref.
Friis L., Carter N., Edling C.
Self-reported health problems among Swedish miners one year after unemployment
Topics: backache; grip strength; health impairment; iron ore mining; neuropsychic effects; questionnaire survey; Raynaud's phenomenon; respiratory impairment; subjective assessment; Sweden; unemployment; upper extremity disorders.
Occupational Medicine, July 1998, Vol.48, No.5, p.297-301. 20 ref.
Harber P., Dahlgren J., Bunn W., Lockey J., Chase G.
Radiographic and spirometric findings in diatomaceous earth workers
Topics: cristobalite; diatomaceous earth; chest radiography; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; length of service; mining industry; opacities; pneumoconiosis; pulmonary function; silica; silicosis; smoking; spirometry; USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.22-28. 10 ref.
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