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CIS 01-1740
Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC)
CD-ROMs containing general information on the Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC), the annual report for 1999/2000 (see CIS 01-1720), news items on forthcoming events and publications, links to the SIMRAC website and close to 80 research reports on occupational safety and health in the mining industry in South Africa grouped under the headings of general, coal, gold and platinum, health, and other; these are in addition to those already published in the CD-ROM entitled "SIMRAC Volume One" (see CIS 01-1739); reports due to be published soon are also cited.
SIMPROSS (SIMRAC Project Support Services), Private Bag X 63, Braamfontein 2107, South Africa, Jan. 2001. CD-ROM requiring Windows.

CIS 01-1819 Lewis P., López-Valcárel A., Mkhumba N.J., Kitumbo H.I., Kirenga A.P., Samllwood J.J., Ehrlich R., Amweelo M., Deacon C.H., Jennings N.S., Ikingura J.R.
Construction and mining
This issue is devoted to theme of occupational safety and heath in African construction and mining industries. Contents include: problems posed by flexible labour; occupational safety in construction work; maintenance planning for construction equipment; construction industry in Tanzania; occupational health in the South African construction industry; prevention of occupational diseases and accidents in the Namibian construction industry; hazardous chemicals in the South African construction industry; standards in mining safety and health; exposure to mercury during gold mining in Tanzania; accident prevention in Namibian mines.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2001, Vol.11, No.1, p.1-27 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-948 Mine Health and Safety Act - Regulations [South Africa]
These Regulations were issued under the authority of the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (see CIS 96-1928). As of 2001, the following Regulations have been promulgated: appointments and administration; health and safety representatives and committees; Inspectorate of Mine Health and Safety; miscellaneous and general provisions; occupational health; tripartite institutions; definitions; forms; accidents and dangerous occurrences.
Accident Prevention Consultants, P.O. Box 6251, Homestead 1412, South Africa, 2001. 110p. (1 binder).

CIS 01-829 Tsuda T., Mino Y., Babazono A., Shigemi J., Otsu T., Yamamoto E.
A case-control study of the relationships among silica exposure, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer
The effect of silica exposure on gastric and oesophageal cancer mortality was investigated in a case-control study restricted to male subjects drawn from death certificates in the Tobi area of Japan. The control group was selected from a series of deaths due to colon cancer, and cancers of other organs. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (OR) were estimated after adjustment for age and smoking habits. For gastric cancer, adjusted ORs were 1.22 for brick and quarry work, and 1.36 among silicosis patients. For oesophageal cancer, adjusted ORs were 1.53 for the brick and quarry work, and 2.33 among silicosis patients. The results suggest that gastric and oesophageal cancer were related to silica exposure and silicosis in the study area.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.52-57. 24 ref.


CIS 03-311 Gao P., Chen B.T., Hearl F.J., McCawley M.A., Schwerha D.J., Odenkrantz J., Chen W., Chen J., Soderholm S.C.
Estimating factors to convert Chinese "total dust" measurements to ACGIH respirable concentrations in metal mines and pottery industries
Historical data on the dust exposures of Chinese workers in mining and pottery industries are being used in an ongoing epidemiological study to investigate the exposure-response relationship for silicosis, lung cancer and other diseases. Total particle concentrations were determined by a Chinese method, which does not provide data on particle size distribution. Therefore, in order to assess these exposures in light of American respirable dust exposure standards, conversion factors are needed to convert total dust concentrations to respirable dust concentrations. In order to estimate these factors, more than 100 airborne dust samples were collected in 20 mines and nine pottery factories in China during 1988 and 1989. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, a mean conversion factor of 0.25±0.04, was derived for all the job titles and industries, enabling respirable dust levels to be estimated from the historical total dust concentrations collected between 1952 and 1992.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 2000, Vol.44, No.4, p.251-257. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 03-310 Wang X.R., Christiani D.C.
Respiratory symptoms and functional status in workers exposed to silica, asbestos and coal mine dusts
Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in 220 silica, 227 asbestos and 551 coal mining workers. Data included responses to questionnaires, results of pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs. Significantly poorer pulmonary function and a higher prevalence of dyspnoea and chronic cough were observed in workers with pneumoconiosis, irrespective of dust type. Workers with stages II and III silicosis had worse pulmonary function and more symptoms than workers with equivalent coal workers' pneumoconiosis or asbestosis. Reductions in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms were associated with increasing stages of silicosis, asbestosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Despite the difference in degree and pattern of exposure to different fibrogenic dusts, respiratory impairments of all of the workers were associated with the presence and progression of parenchymal fibrosis and smoking.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.42, No.11, p.1076-1084. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 02-1790 Verma D.K.
Adjustment of occupational exposure limits for unusual work schedules
During the past two decades, unusual work schedules have become widespread in many industries, particularly in the mining and petrochemical sectors, and to a lesser extent in other industries. Workers in such situations no longer work the traditional 8h shifts five days per week that are the basic assumptions of the occupational exposure limit setting process. This article consists of a review of literature relating to the issue of adjustments of exposure limits during unusual work schedules. Various adjustment models are presented and discussed, and a number of conclusions are drawn. Tables of adjustment factors for 34 specific contaminants for two unusual schedules are given, and a simple approach for use by industrial hygienists is proposed.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.367-374. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 02-1770 Symanski E., Chang C.C., Chan W.
Long-term trends in exposures to nickel aerosols
A evaluation of the long-term changes in exposure levels to nickel aerosols was conducted using data from 10 nickel-producing and nickel-using industries. Significantly negative linear trends were found for exposures in the mining (-7%/yr), smelting (-9%/yr) and refining (-7%/yr) sectors, while exposures in milling showed a positive trend (+4%/yr). Effects of the work environment, process and nature of the job on exposure trends were evaluated. The decline in exposures was greater in workplaces with no ventilation compared with ventilated workplaces, in workers who performed similar rather than diverse tasks, and in North American workplaces compared with workplaces in Europe and Western Australia. These results could be used in the design of prospective sampling protocols and in future retrospective health-effect studies of workers in the nickel industries.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.324-333. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-676 Caroyer J.M., Strauss P.
Cancer among Belgian coal miners
Pathologie cancéreuse chez les houilleurs belges [in French]
Coal miners are exposed to silica. However, the possibly carcinogenic effect of silica exposure is uncertain, the various studies on lung cancer risks published to date remaining inconclusive. The objective of this study was to determine the level of occurrence of neoplasms, in particular of the lungs, among Belgian coal miners compared to the overall population. The study involved examining the medical files of 1466 miners having received compensation for silicosis and for whom the cause of death and the state of health at the end of their lives was known. Although not statistically significant, the incidence of neoplasms was 32.6% in miners as opposed to 24.9% in the overall population. A statistically significant relationship was found for bronchial cancer and myeloma. However, the possibly confounding roles of other factors such as smoking and exposure to radon cannot be excluded.
Revue de médecine du travail, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.1, p.60-63. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-403 Wiethege T., Wesch H., Müller K.M.
Radon - An irradiating subject: Data and facts by the pathologist
Radon - ein strahlendes Thema: Daten und Fakten des Pathologen [in German]
The aim of this study was assess the risk for the development of tumors induced by natural radiation sources such as radon. The preliminary results from a total of 17,466 autopsies performed on uranium miners of the former German Democratic Republic reveal that lung cancer mortality was significantly higher than in the normal population. Among miners who died between 1957 and 1965, a high rate of deaths due to small-cell carcinoma was observed. This rate dropped steadily between 1965 and 1990. Determinations of uranium, silica and arsenic in pulmonary tissue yielded high concentrations in some cases. The final results, including the assessment of the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality, are not yet available and will be published later.
Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Dec. 2000, Vol.26, No.12, p.617-624. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-232 Sishodiya P.K., Arora R.L.
Occupational health services in Indian mines
India has a unique blend of big and small, manual and mechanized, opencast and underground mines. The Indian mining industry can be categorized into three broad sectors: coal, other minerals and oil. This article describes current legislation, and present the results of a survey aimed at verifying the degree with which the laws and recommendations of the Conference on Safety in mines are applied. The Conference had recommended the creation of occupational health services in each mining company, medical surveillance of workers and the implementation of measures aimed at limiting dust and noise levels. Based on the results of the survey, further recommendations are made for improving occupational health services.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, July-Sep. 2000, Vol.XXXI, No.2, p.45-49.

CIS 02-187 Marquet M., Legrand C., Furon D.
Interstitial lung fibrosis among coal miners
Fibrose interstitielle pulmonaire chez le mineur de charbon [in French]
The retired miners of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais coal fields with pneumoconiosis have been regularly followed up for twenty years in the context of a post-occupational medical surveillance program. These medical observations revealed an unusually-high number of cases of interstitial lung fibrosis evolving independently from pneumoconiosis. This larger study of 7,770 coal workers confirmed the high incidence of such cases (close to 1%) and allowed to validate the diagnostic approach based on commonly-practiced screening examinations (clinical examination, radiological examination and respiratory function testing). Results raise the issue of the acceptance of the occupational origin of this coal workers pathology, and suggest that special attention be paid to other occupational exposures to dust with free silica.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Nov. 2000, Vol.61, No.7, p.485-490. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 01-1720
Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC)
SIMRAC Annual Report 1999/2000
Contents of this annual report include: technology transfer highlights; mining industry safety statistics, including fatality and injury rates broken down by gold, coal, platinum and other sectors; description of current research projects under the headings gold and platinum, coal, generic mining and health; annual financial statements for the year ending 31 March 2000. See also CIS 01-1739 and CIS 01-1740.
SIMPROSS (SIMRAC Project Support Services), Private Bag X 63, Braamfontein 2107, South Africa, 2000. 37p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 01-1695 Hnizdo E., Churchyard G., Dowdeswel R.
Lung function prediction equations derived from healthy South African gold miners
The objective of the study was to estimate lung function prediction equations and to identify appropriate normal reference values for the population of about 250,000 South African gold miners. Data from a lung function-screening programme conducted at a large South African gold mine from 1994 to 1998 were used to estimate the lung function prediction equations. The prediction equations for forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were estimated cross-sectionally on 15,772 black and 2,752 white healthy miners. Published reference equations that fitted most closely the observed data, respectively for white miners and black miners, were identified.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.57, No.10, p.698-705. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-1718 Kalhoulé T., M'Baye R.
Health and safety in the mining sector: Strategies and action of workers' organizations
Santé et sécurité dans les mines: stratégies et actions des organisations de travailleurs [in French]
This document is the summary report of a seminar devoted to safety and health in the mining sector held in Monda, Gabon, 17-19 April 2000. Working groups assessed the current situation with respect to safety and health in the mining industry, and make recommendations aimed at the government, employers, the ILO and industry organizations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. 26p.

CIS 01-1510 Hassi J., Gardner L., Hendricks S., Bell J.
Occupational injuries in the mining industry and their association with statewide cold ambient temperatures in the USA
The association of ambient temperature and wind data from the National Climatic Data Center with injury data from mines reported to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) was evaluated over a 6-year period from 1985-1990. 72,716 injuries from the seven states with the most numerous injuries were included. A weighted linear regression tested the relationship of daily temperature and injury rate for all injury classes. As temperatures decreased, injury rates increased for both cold exposure injuries and slip and fall injuries. The association of slip and fall injuries with temperature was inverse, but not strictly linear. The strongest association appeared with temperatures 29°F and below (i.e. below -2°C). The injury rates for other accident categories increased with increasing ambient temperatures. This study demonstrates the existence of an association between ambient temperatures and occupational slip and fall injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.49-58. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 01-1509 Bell J.L, Gardner L.I., Landsittel D.P.
Slip and fall-related injuries in relation to environmental cold and work location in above-ground coal mining operations
The association between slip and fall-related injuries and environmental temperature was examined for enclosed, outdoor and enclosed-outdoor jobs in the coal mining industry having varying exposure to cold temperatures. Temperature data were evaluated from 1985-1990 for seven states. Proportionate methods were used to examine the relationship between slips and falls and temperature. Proportionate injury ratios of slips and fall-related injuries increased as temperature declined for all three work locations. Proportion of slips and fall-related injuries that occurred while running/walking increased with declining temperature, with the ground outside as the most common source of these injuries. Outside movement becomes a greater hazard at freezing temperatures for workers in all locations, not just outdoor workers. Any intervention methods geared toward reducing injury incidents facilitated by cold weather must also be directed toward workers who spend time in more enclosed locations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.40-48. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 01-1095 National tripartite workshop on occupational safety and health
Proceedings of a conference on occupational safety and health in the mining sector held at Dhanbad, India, 27-29 April 2000. The main topics covered include: the ILO approach to occupational safety and health; status of occupational safety and health in Indian mines; legislation; specific issues of small-scale mines; management of hazardous substances; occurrence and prevention of silicosis; role of employers, trade unions, research organizations and occupational health specialists. Several relevant ILO conventions and recommendations are included in the appendices.
Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad 826 001, India, 2000. 282p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-1071 Gilliland F.D., Hunt W.C., Pardilla M., Key C.R.
Uranium mining and lung cancer among Navajo men in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969 to 1993
Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. To further characterize the long-term consequences of uranium mining in this high-risk population, lung cancer incidence among Navajo men residing in New Mexico and Arizona was examined from 1969 to 1993 and a population-based case-control study was conducted to estimate the risk of lung cancer for Navajo uranium miners. It was found that uranium mining contributed substantially to lung cancer among Navajo men over the 25-year period following the end of mining for the Navajo Nation. Sixty-three (67%) of the 94 lung cancers among Navajo men occurred in former uranium miners. The relative risk for a history of mining was 28.6. Smoking did not account for the strong relationship between lung cancer and uranium mining. The Navajo experience with uranium mining is a unique example of exposure in a single occupation accounting for the majority of lung cancers in an entire population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.42, No.3, p.278-283. 23 ref.

CIS 01-1020
Health and Safety Executive
Supplementary guidance on the use of flexible bolts in reinforcement systems for coal mines
This supplementary guidance relates to the use of flexible bolts in strata reinforcement systems for coal mines. It should be read in conjunction with the Guidance on the use of rockbolts to support roadways in coal mines (CIS 96-1055). Contents include: definitions; geo-technical assessment and site investigation; support system design; routine monitoring of the system; training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2000. iv, 8p. Illus. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 01-802 Hurt K.G., MacAndrew K., Bigby D.N.
Health and Safety Executive
Handbook on ground control at small coal mines
This handbook contains advice on the geotechnical aspects of ground control intended for small coalmine operators. It should be read in conjunction with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) document Guidance on the design, installation and use of free standing support systems in coal mines (HSE, 2000), which gives specific advice on support systems, including those typically used in small mines. The handbook is the result of a research project funded by HSE to assist small mines to improve support safety and comply with the new ground control regulations which came into force in December 1999. The handbook contains advice derived from the research undertaken. A full report on the research project is available through HSE Mines Inspectorate.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iii, 59p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 01-359 New ordinance for improved safety in construction work [Switzerland]
Nouvelle ordonnance destinée à l'amélioration de la sécurité des travailleurs dans les travaux de construction [Suisse] [in French]
Neue Verordnung für mehr Sicherheit auf dem Bau [in German]
Nuova ordinanza per una maggiore sicurezza sui cantieri [in Italian]
This brochure presents the main changes introduced in the new Swiss ordinance on construction work which came into effect on 1 July 2000, replacing the Ordinance on the prevention of accidents in the construction industry (CIS 92-1060) and the Ordinance on the prevention of accidents in roofing work and in work performed on roofs (CIS 92-1059). Main topics covered: planning and organization of the work; protection against falls (scaffolding); compulsory wearing of protective helmets; warning signs; safety of electrical sockets for connecting mobile equipment; protection against falls from the edges of roofs (scaffolding, nacelles, rails); protection against falls through roofs (ladders, tear-resistant blankets); specifications concerning scaffolding.
Suva, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2000. 4p. Illus.

CIS 01-206 Lavrik V.G., Nogih S.R., Pašorin R.N.
Construction and use of a group rescue chamber in the Zyrjanovskaja Mine of Kuznetskugol AO UK
Stroitel'stvo i ėkspluatacija kamery gruppovogo spasenija na šahte "Zyrjanovskaja" AO UK "Kuzneckugol'" [in Russian]
A rescue cabin is described which should protect up to 25 miners working underground in tunnels too long for the capacity of personal safety equipment. It is serviced by fresh compressed air and has communications and first-aid facilities. It was first installed in a coal mine of Kuznetskugol in Russia. It is planned that other mines of this company be equipped with similar cabins. Positive pressure protects the miners against gas and dust.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 2000, No.3, p.39-41. Illus.

CIS 00-765 Tossavainen A., Kovalevsky E., Vanhala E., Tuomi T.
Pulmonary mineral fibers after occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos in the Russian chrysotile industry
The concentration and type of asbestos fibres were determined in 47 lung tissue samples from autopsies of workers and residents in the area of the world's largest asbestos mine at Asbest, Russia. Work histories were obtained from pathology reports and employment records. In 24 chrysotile miners, millers and product manufacturers, the pulmonary concentrations of retained fibres were 0.8-50.6 million f/g for chrysotile, and <0.1-1.9 million f/g for amphiboles. The concentrations were lower in 23 persons without any known occupational contact with asbestos, namely 0.1-14.6 million f/g for chrysotile, and <0.1-0.7 million f/g for amphiboles. On average, 90% of all inorganic fibres were chrysotile, and 5% tremolite or anthophyllite. Occupational contact was the most important source of asbestos exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.327-333. 23 ref.

CIS 00-521 Donoghue A.M., Sinclair M.J., Bates G.P.
Heat exhaustion in a deep underground metalliferous mine
A total of 106 miners working in a deep underground mine suffered from acute heat exhaustion in the course of a one-year period. Their history was obtained with a structured questionnaire, and their pulse rate, blood pressure, tympanic temperature and urine-specific gravity measured before treatment. Venous blood was analysed during the acute presentation and after recovery. Body mass index and maximum O2 consumption were measured after recovery. Psychrometric wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature and air velocity were measured at the underground sites where heat exhaustion had occurred. Conclusions are that heat exhaustion in underground miners is associated with dehydration, neutrophil leukocytosis, eosinopenia, metabolic acidosis, increased glucose and ferritin, and a mild rise in creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.57, No.3, p.165-174. Illus. 44 ref.


CIS 10-0527 Jennings N.S. (ed.)
Small-scale gold mining: Examples from Bolivia, Philippines & Zimbabwe
Working paper on safety and health in the gold-mining sector, with a detailed examination of practices at three mining areas: San Simón (Bolivia); the Kias gold mine (Philippines); the Button gold mine (Zimbabwe). [] [Series no: SAP 2.76/WP.130]
ILO Publications, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1999. 67p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-205 Campbell C., Williams B.
Beyond the biomedical and behavioural: Towards an integrated approach to HIV Prevention in the Southern African mining industry
This paper examines limitations in the response of key players in the gold mining industry in countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) to the problem of HIV/AIDS. It is argued that attention was given to biomedical or behavioural prevention programmes or to human rights issues rather than to the social and developmental dimensions of HIV-transmission. A case study highlights some of the social, economic and political factors which make southern African migrant workers susceptible to HIV infection and describes an intervention in a mining community in South Africa which seeks to develop a more holistic approach to HIV/AIDS management in an industrial setting.
Social Science and Medicine, June 1999, Vol. 48, No.11, p.1625-1639. 34 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1689 Costs of mining safety, and reversing the trend
Costos e inversión en seguridad minera [in Spanish]
The purpose of this study is to highlight the advantages of safety interventions in medium-sized and large Peruvian mines. The study is divided into four parts: statistics of accidents having occurred between 1994 and 1998, by enterprise and cause; defining and identifying the elements that need to be taken into account when calculating the costs of an accident; calculation of the fixed and variable costs for each type of accident and for the mining sector as a whole; analysis of the reversal of the trend achieved thanks to the implementation of safety programmes, compared to the costs of accidents in the absence of such programmes.
Instituto de estudios energético mineros (IDEM), Lima, Peru, 1999. 99p, Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 02-248 Mastromatteo E.
Minesafe 1998 - Identifying key health issues for the next millennium: The role of occupational health professionals
This article reviews current occupational health issues in mining, including cancer risks, diesel engine emissions, the status of quartz as a carcinogen, the concept of dust overload of the lungs, radon in relation to cancer and pneumoconiosis, asthma from exposure to platinum, neurological diseases and metals, and two infectious hazards, tuberculosis and AIDS. The review also deals with new approaches to risk assessment and risk management, international standardization, the application of evidence-based science to occupational health, and the need to characterize work exposure information in a standard way to link with epidemiological studies in risk assessment and to provide better input for the establishment of threshold limit values. The review presents recommendations for further consideration by the mining community.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.25-35. 3 ref.

CIS 01-1739
Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC)
SIMRAC Volume One - Final Project Reports 1994-1996
CD-ROM containing general information on the Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC) as well as over 80 research reports on occupational safety and health in the mining industry in South Africa, grouped under the headings of coal, gold and platinum, health, and general reports. See also CIS 01-1740.
SIMPROSS (SIMRAC Project Support Services), Private Bag X 63, Braamfontein 2107, South Africa, no date. CD-ROM requiring Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT or higher. Includes Acrobat Reader 4.0 and Winzip. 1999.

CIS 01-1842 Matzka U.
EL 2000 - Rheinbraun's new generation of electric locomotives - Ergonomic and safety conception
EL 2000 - Die neue Lok-Generation bei Rheinbraun - Ergonomie- und Sicherheits-Konzept [in German]
With the help of feedback from drivers on ergonomic issues, the cabs of locomotives for coal-transporting freight trains of a German mining company were redesigned. The operating panels were designed with displays and controls which are easy to read, understand and operate. Swivel chairs were ergonomically designed, with arms rests that can be raised to avoid uncomfortable sitting postures. The floor of the driver's cabin is designed to provide insulation against vibration. An air conditioning and heating system provides temperatures between 18 and 24°C. The stairs leading to the driver's cab have hand rails for support and a large-enough platform to avoid falls from heights. A radio, installed to ameliorate the monotony of work, is automatically turned off whenever communication or warning signals are received.
Braunkohle - Surface Mining, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.51, No.4, p.429-433. Illus.

CIS 01-1291
Health and Safety Commission
Health and safety at quarries - Quarries Regulations 1999 - Approved code of practice
This code of practice gives the text of the Quarries Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-1224) and provides guidance on each regulation. Contents: interpretation of the Regulations and definition of quarry; health and safety management (duty of the person entitled to work the quarry, training, competence, rules, safety and health measures); risk control; additional safety and health requirements (permits to work, safety drills fire and explosion hazard prevention, detection harmful and explosive atmospheres, danger areas); explosives; excavation and tips; duties of employers and persons at work; record keeping and notification of quarry operations; repeals, modifications and revocations.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. vi, 94p. lllus. 51 ref. Price: GBP 9.75.

CIS 01-1086 Liévin D., Krawsky G., Pagliéro D.
Safety of isolated workers: A summary. Preventive approaches and application in sand and gravel pits
La sécurité du travailleur isolé: bilan. Démarche préventive et application dans le secteur des sablières [in French]
After a survey of the various issues involved in isolated work (trends, health effects, principles of safety and regulations), a specific example in the sand and gravel pit sector is described. This example is part of an interdisciplinary project involving organizations and professionals in charge of occupational risk prevention. The regulations governing this activity are laid down in the French Mining Code, which because of the risk of drowning, authorizes isolated workers to work by the water's edge only in the presence of another person. For economic reasons, this rule is often difficult to apply, so thought was given to means of guaranteeing the safety of isolated workers next to bodies of water other than through the physical presence of another person, for example with the help of a suitable alarm device. An ergonomic study was carried out at three firms. The results should lead to a set of specifications that could serve as a guide for the industries and occupations concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.175, p.13-30. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 01-1154 Fulekar M.H.
Occupational exposure to dust in quartz manufacturing industry
In India, a total of 65 small-scale quartz powder manufacturing enterprises, employing 650 workers, located in a region with an abundance of sedimentary rock were studied. Quartz powder manufacturing involves various processes, such as manual handling of quartz stones, crushing, grinding, screening, mixing, storing and bagging. Results demonstrate that each of these operations generates high concentrations of airborne total dust and respirable dust, which contain a very high percentage (≥75%) free silica. The estimated average exposure to airborne total dust was 22.5mg x m-3 (Permissible Limit of Exposure (PLE) 1.08mg x m-3), and to respirable dust was 2.93mg x m-3 (PLE 0.36mg x m-3). Total dust exposure was 7.7 times higher than respirable dust. Since the present work systems and practices may pose a serious risk to the health of workers and the public and to the environment, suitable preventive and control measures are suggested.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 1999, Vol.43, No.4, p.269-273. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 01-448 Otten H., Perlebach E., Schulz H., Piekarski. C.
Medical aid given to the former workers of the Wismut uranium mines
Die Betreuung der ehemaligen Arbeitnehmer im Uranerzbergbau Wismut [in German]
From 1 January 1991 the workers of the Wismut uranium mines of the former German Democratic Republic became the responsibility of the statutory insurance carriers of the Federal Republic of Germany. Since then, the records of the Wismut uranium mines have been screened for data on the working conditions, as well as for the names and addresses of the workers. Missing information on the exposures of workers before 1955 was obtained by reconstructing the exposure conditions from mining conditions and methods employed at that time. Exposure to radon and radon daughters, noise, vibration, asbestos, quartz dust, fumes from diesel engines and mine blasting was determined. Medical examinations were offered to and accepted by 80,000 workers. Of them 24,000 received a second medical examination. In approx. 1900 cases, new claims for receiving compensation for a diagnosed occupational disease have been filed.
Die BG, May 1999, No.5, p.285-290. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 01-461 Alfa S.
Child labour in small-scale mines in Niger: Cases in natron, salt and gypsum mines, and on gold panning sites
Le travail des enfants dans les petites exploitations minières du Niger: cas des sites de natron, de sel, de gypse et d'orpaillage [in French]
This ILO working document presents an analysis of the current situation of child labour in the informal small-scale mining sector in Niger. The extraction of natron, salt, gypsum and gold, where children account for over 50% of the workforce, is described. Poverty is the main cause of child labour, and this can only be alleviated over the long term. However, there is a short-term need to stop some of the worst forms of child labour through law enforcement and with the help of international governmental and non-governmental organizations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. iv, 50p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 01-275 Caws A., Kupper A., Heasman T.
Health and Safety Executive
Quarry vehicle access and egress - An ergonomics study
This report contains the results of a study investigating problems experienced by drivers entering or leaving the cabs of large quarry vehicles. Recent statistics show a high injury risk associated with slips, trips and falls. Telephone interviews were conducted and site visits organized in order to observe the range of vehicles and the methods of access and egress used. It was found that in many cases the standard basic dimensions of the access systems were not satisfied, and in particular the height of the first step: of 13 vehicles evaluated, none met the requirement for the basic dimension (400mm); all but two met the requirements for maximum height. Recommendations are made to manufacturers to integrate ergonomics early in their design process.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. viii, 47p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 01-240 Hillier D.E., Hollywell P.D., Jeffries R.M., Scott I.M.B.
Health and Safety Executive
Limiting the instance of fly-rock from quarry operations
Fly-rock is defined as material blasted away from explosion sites. The objective of this study was to develop a working method or procedure to manage fly-rock risk, based on a blend of safety management issues, including human factors, technological solutions such as a probabilistic approach and engineering controls to enable the industry to effectively control fly-rock.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. viii, 111p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 32.50.

CIS 01-119 Pavlov A.F., Čigrin V.D.
Situation of injuries in the enterprises of the coal industry
Sostojanie travmatizma na predprijatijah ugol'noj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
The article describes the situation with respect to accidents in Russian coal mines. During the industrial restructuring of the late 1980's ("perestroyka"), a distinct improvement was seen. Since then, both fatal and nonfatal accidents have either increased, or not decreased in proportion to falling outputs of the industry and to the decommissioning of outdated plants. The accident record for 1997 was particularly poor, and in 1998 two severe methane explosions occurred in the Vorkuta mines. Strikes, decreasing discipline and decreasing competence are cited as reasons. In addition to investing in technological improvements, including dust venting equipment, it will be necessary to enhance discipline and quality control, clarify responsibilities at work and compile plant safety documentation.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, June 1999, No.6, p.2-5. Illus.

CIS 01-118 Wang M.L., Pestonk E.L., Beekman L.A., Wagner G.R.
Clinically-important FEV1 declines among coal miners: An exploration of previously unrecognized determinants
The relation between occupational exposure to dust and loss of ventilatory lung function is well established. However, other exposures may also be important. This study was performed in 264 underground coal miners whose lung function had been followed up for an average of 11 years. They were asked by questionnaire about their occupational and non-occupational exposures, smoking, personal and family medical history, and living conditions during childhood. Several variables of the mining environment were found to be associated with excess decline in FEV1, including work in roof bolting, exposure to explosive blasting, and to water sprayed for dust control. Other factors included smoking, body mass, weight gain, childhood pneumonia, and childhood exposure in the home to passive tobacco smoke and smoke from wood and coal fuels. These additional risk factors may be useful in developing approaches to the prevention of chronic respiratory disease.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.56, No.12, p.837-844. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 00-1639
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety at quarries: Quarries Regulations 1999
Guide to the application of the 1999 Quarries Regulations (see CIS 00-1224). Topics: comment on directive; earthmoving equipment; escape and rescue; explosives; fire protection; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; inspection records; labour inspection; legislation; medical supervision; occupational accidents; permits-to-work; plant safety and health organization; quarrying industry; responsibilities of employers; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1999. vi, 94p. Illus. 50 ref. Price: GBP 9.75.

CIS 00-1224 Health and Safety - The Quarries Regulations 1999 [United Kingdom]
These regulations (effective 1 January 2000) list the various responsibilities of employers: preparation of a hygiene and safety document prior to undertaking any work; training of workers in hygiene and safety; inspection, maintenance and rescue plan; detection of explosive atmospheres. Parts V and VI concern the measures to be taken by employers with respect to explosives and excavations. Part VII deals with the responsibilities of workers and their participation. The Regulations modify the Mines and Quarries Act 1954 (CIS 89-1407) and repeal the Quarries (Explosives) Regulations 1988 (CIS 89-1434) and the Quarries Miscellaneous Health and Safety Provisions Regulations 1995 (CIS 95-1174).
The Stationery Office, The Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1999. 32p. Price: GBP 5.80.

CIS 00-1040 Martínez Castilla Z.
Child labour in the small-scale mining region of Mollehuaca-Huanuhuanu-Caraveli-Arequipa-Perú
Trabajo infantil en el centro minero artesanal de Mollehuaca-Huanuhuanu-Caravelí-Arequipa-Perú [in Spanish]
Topics: mercury; child labour; disturbances of coordination; gold mining; health hazards; ILO; intelligence; legal aspects; occupational hygiene; Peru; report; short-time memory; young persons.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. 44p. 13 ref.

CIS 00-1027 Laraqui C.H., Caubet A., Harourate K., Laraqui O., Verger C.
Occupational health and safety in the mining industry in Morocco
The mining sector is one of the mainstays of the Moroccan economy. Occupational injuries in this sector have declined sharply in number and severity during the last 20 years despite an increase in the number of workers. This is the result of widespread adoption of safety and hygiene measures and the industry's own medical services. Reported occupational diseases have increased, probably because of improved medical reporting systems within large mining enterprises. Occupational diseases in the mining sector constitute 80% of the country's total. Silicosis accounts for 96% of these. The reporting of injuries and diseases needs further improvement.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.90, No.5, p.693-703. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1026 Hine D.W., Lewko J., Blanco J.
Alignment to workplace safety principles: An application to mining
Open-ended interviews were conducted with senior managers and front-line workers in a Canadian hard rock mine following the introduction of a new set of safety principles to guide employee decision-making and behaviour. The interviews were transcribed and coded for statements that suggested alignment or misalignment with each principle. Results indicate that, relative to front-line workers, senior managers were significantly more aligned with principles dealing with injury prevention, management accountability and rule following. Contrasts between front-line workers with above-average safety records and below-average records revealed only one significant difference: above-average workers were more strongly aligned with the principle "working safely is good business" than their below-average counterparts.
Journal of Safety Research, Fall 1999, Vol.30, No.3, p.173-185. 22 ref.

CIS 00-958
Health and Safety Executive
Do you work in a quarry? A simple guide to the Quarries Regulations 1999
This booklet provides practical guidance to the United Kingdom Quarries Regulations 1999, which aims to improve the safety record in the quarrying industry. Contents: responsibilities of operators and contractors; worker participation; training and qualifications; controlling risks at excavation and tips, with vehicles and with explosives; inspection and maintenance; escape and rescue; first aid; fences to limit access and trespass.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. 14p. 13 ref.

CIS 00-706
International Labour Office (ILO)
The face of decent work
Le visage du travail décent [in French]
El aspecto del trabajo adecuado [in Spanish]
This videotape is an exposé on the world's most deadly professions and workplace hazards: mining, agriculture, factory fires, to name but a few. It shows primitive forms of labour that have remained unchanged in their methods for nearly a thousand years. It shows the victims of the pressure to increase production in an increasingly competitive and global economy, and is intended as an awareness-raising tool for the general public, to be used by the ILO's social and institutional partners and the NGO community in the framework of seminars, group presentations, exhibitions and technical meetings.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. VHS Videotape (length: 18min).

CIS 00-733 Svotwa Uz R.S.
The design and acquisition strategies of engineering safety
Discussion of the best way to achieve machine safety in African mines. Topics: Botswana; degree of skill; machinery industry; Mali; mining industry; mining machines; Namibia; plant safety organization; responsibilities of employers; safety by design; safety engineers; selection of equipment; South Africa; Zambia; Zimbabwe.
On Guard, Mar. 1999, Vol.6, No.16, p.18-22.

CIS 00-315 Act No.543 of 24 March 1999 on mineral resources [the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia]
Zakon za mineralnite surovini [in Macedonian]
One chapter of this law concerns safety during mining operations. Topics: law; mineral products; mining industry; occupational safety; safety training in industry; underground work.
Služben Vesnik na Republika Makedonija, 31 Mar. 1999, Vol.LV, No.18, p.1139-1160.

CIS 00-360 Pereira S., Guerreiro H., Leitão A.
Natural stone sector - Prevention manual
Sector das pedras naturais - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual presents a risk analysis of quarrying and stonemasonry and the prevention measures to be implemented in these industries. Various risks are identified (mechanical, electrical, chemical, thermal hazards, respirable dusts, vibration, noise) and evaluated with respect to their effects on exposed workers. A distinction is made between generic risks affecting all workers and specific risks associated with specific tasks. Preventive measures (signalling, personal protective equipment, training and information) are defined for each of the various risks. Maps of quarrying and stonemasonry units which have already implemented some of these measures are presented. Includes a glossary and a survey of Portuguese legislation.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, 2nd ed., Nov. 1999. 255p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 00-576 West J.B.
Oxygen enrichment of room air to improve well-being and productivity at high altitude
Increasingly, commercial and scientific activities, such as mining and observational astronomy, are taking place at very high altitudes, up to 5,000m. Frequently, workers commute to these locations from much lower altitudes. In addition, large numbers of people permanently live and work at high altitudes. The hypoxia of high altitude impairs sleep quality, mental performance, productivity and general well-being. The proposed solution is to inject oxygen into enclosed work areas through the air-conditioning system. An increase in oxygen concentration by one percentage point (e.g. from 21% to 22%) decreases the equivalent altitude by about 300m, i.e. a room at an altitude of 4,500m containing 26% oxygen is effectively at an altitude of 3,000m. This innovative technique promises to improve productivity and well-being at high altitudes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.187-193. Illus. 23 ref.

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