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Mining and quarrying - 1,961 entries found

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CIS 06-75 Breuer J., Höffer E.M., Hummitzsch W.
Rate of occupational accidents in the mining industry since 1950 - A successful approach to prevention policy
This paper discusses the decrease in occupational accident insurance claims in the German mining industry over the last five decades. It shows that this process is above all the result of a prevention policy involving collaboration between companies and the body responsible for the legal accident insurance scheme in the mining industry. A system such as the German accident insurance scheme, combining prevention, rehabilitation and compensation, enables successful and modern safety and health measures.
Journal of Safety Research, 2002, Vol.33, No.1, p.129-141. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 05-721
Health and Safety Commission
Guidance on the design, installation and use of free standing support systems (including powered supports) in coal mines
This guidance sets out the key elements for the safe use of free standing support systems. Topics covered: definition of free standing support systems; legal framework; assessing ground conditions; preparing the design, implementing the design; assessing the adequacy of free standing support systems; notifying HSE of significant changes to the support systems; setting and withdrawing supports; support materials.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. iv, 56p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 11.00.

CIS 04-82 de Klerk N.H., Ambrosini G.L., Pang S.C., Musk A.W.
Silicosis compensation in Western Australian gold miners since the introduction of an occupational exposure standard for crystalline silica
The aims of this study were to re-examine the incidence of silicosis among Western Australian gold miners and to estimate the risk of silicosis among these workers since 1974, when the current exposure standard for crystalline silica was implemented. Work histories of cases compensated for pneumoconiosis after 1974 were examined. The number of workers likely to be exposed to crystalline silica in Western Australia were considered as the population at risk. It was found that there were no cases of compensated silicosis in Western Australian miners whose first dust exposure began during or after 1974. The upper 95% confidence interval for this zero rate was estimated to be 4.8 per 100,000 person-years.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2002, Vol.46, No.8, p.687-692. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 04-115 Mwami J.A., Sanga A.J., Nyoni J.
Tanzania - Child labour in mining: A rapid assessment
The mining sector in Tanzania has a high concentration of child labour. This study sets out to explore the following objectives: to find out the causes and incidences of child labour in the mining sector in Tanzania; to examine working conditions, characteristics and consequences of child labour in the mining sector; to propose intervention measures aimed at alleviating the child labour phenomenon. The approach used was the Rapid Assessment Methodology developed the ILO and UNICEF. Contents: background information; research methods and procedures; description of the study areas; nature and extent of child labour in the mining sector; working conditions; causes and solutions; conclusions.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. xi, 64p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1722 Systematic safety - Practical organization of safety and health at work
Sicher mit System - Arbeitschutz praxisgerecht organisieren [in German]
Published by the German mutual insurance against occupational accidents in quarries, the purpose of this CD-ROM is to improve the organization of occupational safety and health in the quarrying sector. It includes applicable regulations, codes of practice aimed at the better organization of occupational safety and health within the enterprise, check lists for verifying the implementation of preventive measures and highlighting weaknesses or gaps, advice for the implementation of systems for quality management (ISO 9000) or occupational safety and health management (ILO) as well as a list of specialists that can provide support over the phone. Statistics of occupational accidents in this sector are also presented.
Steinbruchs-Berufsgenossenschaft (StBG), Theodeor-Heuss-Straße 160, 30853 Langenhagen, Germany, 2002. CD-ROM.

CIS 03-1185 Wognin S.B., Infante-Rivard C., Yeboue-Kouame B.Y., N'Gbesso R., Ostiguy D., Bonny J.S., Tuo N., Kouassi Y.M.
Study of the prevalence of silicosis among workers at a granite quarry in Abidjan
Etude de la prévalence de la silicose chez les travailleurs d'une carrière de granit à Abidjan [in French]
In order to determine the prevalence of silicosis in the Ivory Coast and its possible repercussions on the respiratory functions, a cross-sectional study was carried out in one of the most important granite quarries of the country. The 126 current workers of the quarry were given a standardized questionnaire and subjected to chest X-ray examinations. Lung functions were tested in 29 non-smoker subjects without anterior thoracic disease. The analysis allowed to identify six cases of silicosis among the 126 workers, corresponding to a prevalence of 4.76%. The affected workers (average age 44) all worked in "crushing", where exposure levels are high. No differences were found in vital capacity between the workers and non-exposed controls selected among the general Ivory Coast population. The prevalence of silicosis appears much lower than that observed in most developing countries. However, the comparison should take into account parameters such as the dust content of free silica and methodologies applied in the definition of silicosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.25-31. 28 ref.

CIS 03-572 Mvududu J.C.
Hazard identification and risk management - A strategic tool for marketing health and safety in industry
Hazard identification and risk assessment activities are key aspects of the successful implementation of a safety, health and environmental management system. Contents of this review article on hazard identification and risk management: definitions of hazard identification and risk assessment; distinctions between risk, hazard and danger; risk assessment principles; understanding risk assessment; outline of the risk assessment programme implemented by a mining and smelting industrial group.
On Guard, Mar. 2002, Vol.7, No.1, p.9-16. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 03-196 Schröder C., Friedrich K., Butz M., Koppisch D., Otten H.
Uranium mining in Germany: Incidence of occupational diseases 1946-1999
In former East Germany, uranium mining was performed on a large scale from 1946 to 1990. The poor working conditions during the post-war years until 1955 led to a high level of occupational diseases. The present study gives an overview of the occurrence of occupational diseases during the mining period as well as after uranium mining was stopped in 1990. The number of occupational diseases which occurred during the mining period was calculated from the files of the mining enterprise. Although exposure to uranium ceased after 1990, cases of occupational diseases continued to be recognized after that date. There are currently more than 35,000 known cases occupational diseases, and many more are expected. Approximately two-thirds are lung diseases, including 16,376 cases of silicosis or silico-tuberculosis and 7,695 cases of bronchial carcinoma. The increase in the numbers of recognized occupational diseases is discussed in light of changes in criteria for recognition, in working conditions and in the duration of the latency period.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.75, No.4, p.235-242. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-253 Hiba J.C.
Conditions of work and occupational safety and health in Peruvian mines
Condiciones de trabajo, seguridad y salud ocupacional en la minería del Perú [in Spanish]
This report presents a broad overview of the conditions of work and the management of occupational safety and health in the mining sector in Peru, integrating economic and social factors. It consists of seven chapters: general characteristics of the mining sector (size of enterprises, types of production, profile of the worker population, technology, national institutional framework, degree of the multinational character of the sector); general living conditions and adaptation to working at high altitudes; conditions of employment and work (contractual and wage systems, working hours, shift work, work organization, training, employee welfare facilities, hazards due to the work environment, occupational accidents, occupational diseases); national institutional framework for the mining sector and implemented or proposed preventive actions; situation of small-scale mines in Peru (types of enterprises, legislative framework, conditions of work, occupational safety and health); conclusions and recommendations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. 248p. Illus. 169 ref.

CIS 03-26 Minimum Requirements for Safety and Health at Work (Surface and Underground Extractive Industries) Regulations of 2002 [Cyprus]
Oi perí Eláhistōn Prodiagrafṓn Asfáleias kai Ugeías stēn Ergasía (Upaíthries ḗ Upógeies Exoruktikés Biomēhaníes) Kanonismoí tou 2002 [in Greek]
These regulations were issued under the authority of the 1996 Act concerning safety and health at work (see CIS 98-5), as modified by 2002. Detailed safety rules are provided for safety and health in mines and quarries. Implementation in Cyprus of Council Directive 92/104/EEC of 3 December 1992 on the minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers in surface and underground mineral-extracting industries (see CIS 94-758).
Episêmos Efêmeris tês Dêmokratias, 7 June 2002, No.3610, p.2728-2775.

CIS 03-25 Minimum Requirements for Safety and Health at Work (Extractive Industries Through Drilling) Regulations of 2002 [Cyprus]
Oi perí Eláhistōn Prodiagrafṓn Asfáleias kai Ugeías stēn Ergasía (Exoruktikés diá Geōtrḗseōn Biomēhaníes) Kanonismoí tou 2002 [in Greek]
These regulations were issued under the authority of the 1996 Act concerning safety and health at work (see CIS 98-5), as modified by 2002. Detailed safety rules are provided for the extractive industries that rely on drilling. Implementation in Cyprus of Council Directive 92/91/EEC of 3 November 1992 concerning the minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers in the mineral-extracting industries through drilling (see CIS 93-23).
Episêmos Efêmeris tês Dêmokratias, 7 June 2002, No.3610, p.2659-2727.

CIS 03-23 Coal Mine Health and Safety Act 2002 [Australia - New South Wales]
This Law concerns the protection of the safety, health and welfare of persons in connection with coal mining operations. Contents: definitions; application of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 (see CIS 00-1501); duties related to health, safety and welfare at coal operations (duties of colliery holders, operators of coal operations, managers, supervisors, contractors, exploration holders; duties and rights of employees); safety of coal operations; notification of incidents; stop work orders; competence standards; oversight of coal operations; coal mining industry codes of practice; regulations (list of matters on which regulations can be made); miscellaneous matters (enforcement, information, exercise and delegation of functions, supply of documents). The Coal Mines Regulation Act 1982 is repealed.
Statutes of New South Wales, 2002, Vol.3, 10+120p. [in English]

CIS 02-1672 Zhai R., Liu G., Ge X., Yang C., Huang C., Wu C., Christiani D.C.
Genetic polymorphisms of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1 and OGG1 in coal workers' pneumoconiosis
This study investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms of various enzymes such as MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, or OGG1 and susceptibility to coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The study population was composed of 259 retired coal miners who had similar dust exposure histories. Of these, there were 99 cases with ILO chest radiological criteria for CWP and 160 controls. Individual dust exposure variables were estimated from work histories, and smoking information was obtained from interviews. Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques evaluated the genotypes of all study subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed no differences in genotype frequency of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, and OGG1 between miners with and without CWP. Cumulative dust exposures, but not genetic polymorphisms, were associated significantly with the presence of CWP. This study illustrates the complexity of factors that may contribute to the development of CWP.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.372-377. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1514 Occupational Health and Safety (Mines) Regulations 2002 [Australia - Victoria]
Regulation (effective 28 Oct. 2002) issued under the authority of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (see CIS 88-1751). Contents: definitions; general provisions; safety duties of mine operators (risk control in all mines, specific safety duties in all mines, additional duties in prescribed mines); consultation and information; duties of workers. Modifications are introduced into related legal intruments.
Statutory Rules - Victoria, 2002, Vol.2, p.1161-1205. Index. [in English]

CIS 02-1642
Steinbruchs-Berufsgenossenschaft (StBG)
Qualified persons in the field of occupational safety [Germany]
Fachkräfte für Arbeitssicherheit [in German]
This document reproduces the full text of the version of safety regulation BGV A6 (of 1 October 2002) of the German Insurance Association for the Prevention of Accidents in Quarries on specialized occupational safety staff, together with its application directive. Contents: scope; required qualifications of persons responsible for occupational safety; vocational training; duties with respect to report-writing; transitional provisions and implementation; effective date. Appendices include: days of annual employment of safety specialists as a function of the number of employees in enterprises with a risk factor of 1.0; example of advice developed by the quarries association aimed enterprise managers; law on enterprise physicians, safety engineers and other qualified staff in the field of occupational safety and health.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2002. 12p.

CIS 02-1531
Steinbruchs-Berufsgenossenschaft (StBG)
Grinding and brushing tools [Germany]
Schleif- und Bürstenwerkzeuge [in German]
This document reproduces the full text of the version of safety regulation BGV D12 (of 1 October 2002) of the German Insurance Association for the Prevention of Accidents in Quarries on grinding and brushing tools, together with its application directive. Contents: scope; definitions; marking of tools; safety factors and sturdiness requirements; magnesium grinding wheels; intermediate layers; planing tools; layout of premises; configuring the equipment for transport; use in compliance with the provisions, use restrictions; storage and transport of grinding and brushing tools; fixing of grinding tools; safety tests; trimming of grinding wheels; fixing of brushing tools; violations of the regulations; effective date. Appendices include: marking of grinding and brushing tools; safety factors for grinding tools; examples of labelling.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2002. 18p. Illus. Index

CIS 02-1815 Morfeld P., Lampert K., Emmerich M., Reischig H.L., Klinkner H.G., Bauer H.D., Stegmaier C., Ziegler H., Dhom G., Piekarski C.
Dust exposure, pneumoconiosis and lung cancer: An epidemiological study in the Saarland hard coal mining industry
Staubexposition, Pneumokoniose und Lungenkrebs: Eine epidemiologische Studie aus dem Saarländischen Steinkohlenbergbau [in German]
This study examines the relationship between exposure to dust and lung cancer mortality among coal miners in the German State (Land) of Saarland. The follow-up of the mortality of a cohort of 4581 miners was carried out between 1980 and 1998. The standardized mortality ratio was 0.80 overall, 0.80 for cancer and 0.79 for lung cancer. Exposures to coal and quartz dusts were evaluated by various techniques. Average concentrations of 2.79mg/m3 and 0.23mg/m3 were found for coal and quartz dusts, respectively. 95,455 chest radiographs were re-evaluated according to ILO classification criteria. There was a 23.5% risk of coal miners' pneumoconiosis after 40 years of working underground. It was not possible to prove a direct causal relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and the risk of lung cancer. However, coal miners' pneumoconiosis could represent a biological marker of lung susceptibility to lung cancer. Interactions between dust exposures, pneumoconiosis and cancer risk need to be studied further.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2002, Vol.52, No.10, p.382-397. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1925 Aubertin M., Li L., Simon R.
Effect of damage on the stability of underground hard rock excavations
Effet de l'endommagement sur la stabilité des excavations souterraines en roche dure [in French]
The mechanical behaviour of rocks and rock masses around underground openings depends on many factors. For hard rocks, the onset of crack propagation, which can eventually lead to stress-induced failure, is a fundamental property called the damage initiation threshold. This threshold and the short term failure strength of rocks are represented using a multiaxial criterion in stress space. This criterion, named MSDPu, which has been extended to rock mass, allows the introduction of key factors that influence opening stability, namely small scale intact rock strength. Once all the components are properly defined, the MSDPu criterion is applied to various situations corresponding to actual conditions. In the applications described in this report, the approach is first used to analyse the stability of boreholes under idealized (laboratory) conditions, followed by the stability of large underground openings (with well documented information). Finally, the method is applied to a mine to evaluate its applicability and its limitations.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. [1 vol.] Illus. 80 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM. [in French]

CIS 02-1731 Velasco Ortega J., Martín Egurza M.
Evaluation of hygiene risks in quarries and cement plants: General aspects (II)
Evaluación del riesgo higiénico en canteras y cementeras: aspectos generales (II) [in Spanish]
This sequel to the article analysed under CIS 02-1730, covers methods used in industrial hygiene to identify, evaluate and control the main health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical and physical agents during the various operations of open-air quarrying and cement manufacture. Contents: limiting the exposure to physical agents (noise, lighting, heat, ionizing radiation); legislation; medical supervision.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2002, No.162, p.8-21. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 02-1730 Velasco Ortega J., Martín Egurza M.
Evaluation of hygiene risks in quarries and cement plants: General aspects (I)
Evaluación del riesgo higiénico en canteras y cementeras: aspectos generales (I) [in Spanish]
This article in two parts (see also CIS 02-1731) reviews the current industrial hygiene methods used to identify, evaluate and control the main hazards resulting from exposure to chemical and physical agents during the various operations of open-air quarries and cement manufacturing plants. Contents: description of quarrying and cement manufacturing operations; types of cement (natural, artificial); chemical contaminants (silica, hexavalent chromium, nickel, cobalt) and physical agents (noise, lighting, thermal stress, ionizing radiation); effects of dust exposure on health (deposition in the lungs, silicosis); skin hazards; limiting the exposure to chemicals (monitoring inhalable and breathable dust fractions, hexavalent chromium, other metals); practical example of the evaluation of exposure to dust in two quarries.
Prevención, July-Sep. 2002, No.161, p.8-22. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-1744 The evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry
L'évolution de l'emploi, du temps de travail et de la formation dans les industries extractives [in French]
The aim of this report was to provide background information and a basis for discussions for delegates attending a tripartite meeting on the evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry held at the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland, 7-11 October 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange views on the evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry, the social and labour implications of these developments for the parties concerned and the role of social dialogue in addressing them, and to adopt conclusions that include proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level and by the ILO. Contents of this report: evolution of employment in the mining industry; evolution of working time; evolution of training; the AIDS/HIV issue; mining and sustainable development; summary and suggested points for discussion.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. vi, 83p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: CHF 17.50.

CIS 02-677 Boojar M.M.A., Goodarzi F.
A longitudinal follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to manganese
To study the effects on the respiratory system in mine workers with long-term exposure to manganese (Mn) in the workplace, a follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms was carried out among 145 workers employed in a large manganese mine and 65 matched controls. Lung function was measured by recording spirometric parameters. The Mn-exposed workers reported more respiratory symptoms and a significantly higher prevalence of all grades of pulmonary function impairment. All predicted symptoms except for asthma increased significantly in the current smoking group compared with the non-smoking group. There was a significant decrease in FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% values in exposed workers at stages 2 and 3, with an additive effect of the smoking habit. The Mn concentrations in blood, urine, and hair were significantly higher in the exposed workers. The level of cumulative exposure index of workplace Mn was notable and did not change significantly over this study.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.44, No.3, p.282-290. 42 ref.

CIS 02-515 Order No.117/2002 of 20 Feb. 2002 on the minimum safety and health requirements of workers in the mining industry [Slovak Republic]
Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 20. februára 2002 o minimálnych požiadavkách na bezpečnost' a ochranu zdravia zamestnancov pri banskej činnosti a pri dobývaní ložísk nevyhradených nerastov [in Slovak]
This Order (entry into force: 1 Apr. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of the safety and health of workers in mines and related industries.
Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 13 Mar. 2002, No.49, p.1322-1335. [in Slovak]

CIS 02-806 Wild P., Leodolter K., Réfrégier M., Schmidt H., Zidek T., Haidinger G.
A cohort mortality study and nested case-control study of French and Austrian talc workers
The mortality of two historical cohorts comprised of male subjects who had worked for at least one year in talc producing companies in France and Austria was compared with local death rates. Case-control studies focusing on respiratory diseases were set up to estimate possible dose-response relations with estimated cumulative exposure to talc dust. Mortality from lung cancer was in small excess in both cohorts (France, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 21 cases observed, Austria SMR 1.06, seven cases observed). The case-control study of non-malignant respiratory disease showed an increased mortality in the highest exposure groups (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 for a cumulative exposure ≥800 with a significant trend (OR/100 1.08) with cumulative exposure to talc. However, no increasing trend could be found in the case-control study of lung cancer. Adjustment for smoking and exposure to quartz had no significant influence on the results.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.59, No.2, p.98-105. 29 ref.

CIS 01-1796 Yardley E.D., Stace L.R.
Health and Safety Executive
Fire safety testing of conveyor belts
The fire propagation test gallery used for large-scale approval testing of the fire behaviour of conveyor belts in the United Kingdom was shut down in the year 2000. The objectives of this research project were to characterize the test gallery, to identify and develop small scale laboratory tests that could be used to examine the fire behaviour of conveyor belts in the absence of the large scale facility; and to understand the importance of changes in test conditions on the performance of belts currently approved for use in coal mines. A new small-scale test method has been developed that adequately simulates the performance of the large-scale test.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. x, 85p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.


CIS 05-30 Vinogradov A., Jennings N.S., Påsche A., Risikko T., Mäkinen T., Hassi J., Abraham P.P., Yakovlev S.Y.
Construction, mining and fishery
Collection of articles on construction, mining, fishing in the Nordic countries and Russia. Topics covered: ILO perspective on standards in mining safety and health; occupational health in the fish processing industry; assessment and management of cold risks in the construction industry; international comparison of occupational injuries among commercial fishermen in selected Northern countries and regions; occupational safety and industrial safety.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2001, Vol.4, No.1, p.3-39 (whole issue). Illus. 65 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-91 Ritter P., Winkelmann T., Tidow G.
Prevention of lumbar column disorders - Pilot project in the coal mining sector: Physical effort and coordination training of apprentices
Prävention von Wirbelsäulenschäden - Modelvorhaben im Steinkohlenbergbau: Krafttraining und Koordinationsschulung mit Auszubildenden [in German]
The aim of this pilot project involving 140 coal mining apprentices was to examine to what extent a focused physical training programme could lower the probability of backache-related absenteeism. Following various sports medicine examinations (maximal strength, body movement analysis, posture diagnosis), half of the group of apprentices were given a specific one-hour training programme, three times a week for three months. The programme involved weight training exercises, stretching exercises and exercises aimed at improving the coordination of body movements. All apprentices were re-examined at the end of the programme and after a further six months. A positive development of all the characteristics examined was found in the group that followed the training programme, in particular changes in movements carried out during the lifting of loads, increases in strength and in muscle cross-sections, as well as changes in physiology and coordination.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Oct. 2001. 184p. Illus. 84 ref.

CIS 03-1296 Tossavainen A., Kotilainen M., Takahashi K., Pan G., Vanhala E.
Amphibole fibres in Chinese chrysotile asbestos
Ten chrysotile bulk samples originating from six Chinese chrysotile mines were studied for amphibole fibres. The asbestos fibre content in lung tissue from seven deceased workers of the Shenyang asbestos plant was also examined. The bulk samples were pretreated with acid/alkali-digestion, and thereafter, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to identify the minerals. The amphibole asbestos contents were between 0.002 and 0.310 w-%. Tremolite fibres were detected in every sample but anthophyllite fibres were present only in the sample originating from the dolomite-hosted deposit. In comparison, anthophyllite (71%), tremolite (9%) and chrysotile (10%) were the main fibre types in the lung tissue samples indicating faster pulmonary clearance of chrysotile fibres. The total levels ranged from 2.4 to 148.3 million fibres (over 1µm) per gram of dry tissue, and they were consistent with heavy occupational exposure to asbestos.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2001, Vol.45, No.2, p.145-152. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 03-220 Luque F.B.
Evaluation and compensation of respiratory health damage caused by anthrosilicosis among underground coal miners: Comparative study of Belgium and Spain
Evaluation et indemnisation du dommage respiratoire causé par l'anthraco-silicose chez le mineur de fond: étude comparative Belgique-Espagne [in French]
Approximately 15,000 miners are still employed in coal mines in Spain. Although the last Belgian coal mine ceased operations in 1991, there continue to be claims for compensation for coal miners' pneumoconiosis. There were 1289 such cases during 1998. This thesis compares Belgium and Spain with respect to legislation and medical practices for evaluating invalidity and compensating incapacity resulting from coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
Université libre de Bruxelles, Faculté de Médecine, Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 2001. 181p. Illus. 78 ref.

CIS 02-1361 Ramanathan A.L., Subramanian V.
Present status of asbestos mining and related health problems in India - A survey
At present in India more than thirty asbestos mines are in operation, producing 2800 tons of asbestos per month (mainly chrysotile and tremolite). In addition, a substantial quantity (approx. 70% of industrial consumption) is imported from Canada. The mining and milling and other related processes expose workers to cancer and related diseases. Women are more affected by their exposure in processing units compared to men who generally work in mines. Direct and indirect employment in asbestos mining and industrial processing is around 100,000 workers. The latency period (length of the time between exposure and the onset of diseases) in India is estimated to be 20-37 years. The causes for lung and breathing problems are mainly reliance on obsolete technology and direct contact with asbestos products without proper precautions, because in India asbestos is sold without statutory warning. This paper reviews health effects (such as fibrosis, sequelae, bronchogenic cancer, and malignant mesothelioma) on the Indian workers from asbestos-related activities.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.309-315. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1362 Rojas M., Drake P.L., Roberts S.M.
Assessing mercury health effects in gold workers near El Callao, Venezuela
Report on the health status of 40 gold workers in Venezuela with occupational exposure to mercury (Hg). Use of protective equipment was limited, and environmental concentrations of Hg and Hg concentrations in the hair and urine of workers were above occupational guidelines. The workers were found to be generally healthy and without symptoms of mercury poisoning. Despite substantial exposure among a number of subjects, few adverse health effects were found with a possibly connection to Hg exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.158-165. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 02-1226 Yucesoy B., Vallyathan V., Landsittel D.P., Sharp D.S., Matheson J., Burleson F., Luster M.I.
Polymorphisms of the IL-1 gene complex in coal miners with silicosis
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), play a role in the development of silicosis. The study compared 318 histopathologically confirmed pulmonary silicosis patients with controls. Genotyping was carried out through the polymerase chain reaction technique. The proportion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (allele 2 genotype) was higher in miners with silicosis than in controls. This is the first report suggesting that such a genetic polymorphism may confer an increased risk for the development of the disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.286-291. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1271 Stephan S.
Improving the safety culture of the Australian mining industry
Managers, inspectors and employees frequently refer to the state of the safety culture at a particular mine, and a poor accident record is often said to be linked to a poor safety culture. This article attempts to define safety culture and illustrates the importance of considering national, industry and organizational cultural factors when implementing safety management systems. Using the commonly-understood management improvement process of total quality management, the importance of safety management plans and risk assessment processes to improve the safety performance of the mining industry is demonstrated. Significant improvement in industry safety performance can be achieved only through the adoption of socio-technical systems which consider both the engineering and human factors responsible for accidents.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.237-249. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-846 Cocco P., Rice C.H., Chen J.Q., McCawley M.A., McLaughlin J.K., Dosemeci M.
Lung cancer risk, silica exposure, and silicosis in Chinese mines and pottery factories: The modifying role of other workplace lung carcinogens
To explore whether exposure to other lung carcinogens, or clinical features of silicosis, modify or confound the association between silica and lung cancer, data from a nested case-control study conducted in the late 1980s in 29 Chinese mines and potteries were used. The were 316 lung cancer cases and 1,356 controls, matched by decade of birth and facility type. Pooling the 29 work sites, the study showed a moderate association between lung cancer risk and silica exposure. Risk did not vary after excluding subjects with silicosis or adjusting the risk estimates by radiological staging of silicosis. The results suggest that numerous occupational and non-occupational risk factors interact in a complex fashion to modify lung cancer risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.674-682. 32 ref.

CIS 02-837 Graham W.G.B., Vacek P.M., Morgan W.K.C., Muir D.C.F., Sisco-Cheng B.
Radiographic abnormalities in long-tenure Vermont granite workers and the permissible exposure limit for crystalline silica
To study the prevalence of radiographic abnormalities among retired granite workers, 408 x-ray films were examined. Dust exposures were estimated for workers hired after 1940, when the dust-control standard of 10 million particles per cubic foot (equivalent to 0.1mg/m3) was put in place. Dust levels were gradually reduced from 1940 to 1954, after which average quartz exposures stabilized to average approximately 0.05 to 0.06mg/m3; however, about 10% to 15% of samples after 1954 exceeded 0.1mg/m3. Of the 408 x-ray films, 58 were taken on workers hired before 1940, and 25.9% showed abnormalities. 350 x-ray films were taken on workers hired in 1940 or after, and the prevalence in this group was 5.7%. The radiographic changes in workers hired after 1940 are likely to be due to excessive exposures during the first 15 years of dust control. It is concluded that if the exposure standard of 0.1mg/m3 is rigorously observed in the workplace, radiographic abnormalities caused by quartz dust in long-term workers will be rare.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.412-417. 15 ref.

CIS 02-770 Zhuang Z., Hearl F.J., Odencrantz J., Chen W., Chen B.T., Chen J.Q., McCawley M.A., Gao P., Soderholm S.C.
Estimating historical respirable crystalline silica exposures for Chinese pottery workers and iron/copper, tin and tungsten miners
The development of conversion factors and estimates of historical respirable crystalline silica exposure for Chinese workers are described. Ambient total dust concentrations and crystalline silica concentrations in bulk dust were gathered from historical industrial hygiene records. Analysis of the silica content in historical bulk samples revealed no trend from 1950 up to the present. During 1988-1989, airborne dust samples were collected in 20 metal mines and nine pottery factories in China. These data were used to establish conversion factors between respirable crystalline silica concentrations and total dust concentrations. The conversion factors were estimated to be 0.0143 for iron and copper, 0.0355 for pottery factories, 0.0429 for tin mines, and 0.0861 for tungsten mines. The relative merits of using facility-specific conversion factors, industry-wide conversion factors, or a weighted average of the two are discussed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2001, Vol.45, No.8, p.631-642. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-717 Dingsdag D., Gardner D.
Safety performance in coal mining: An examination of some underlying issues
The availability of detailed and reliable data on health, safety and other performance indicators has made the coal mining industry a valuable source of information on possible interrelationships between OHS and productivity. Using this data, it has been possible to demonstrate that a number of factors influence both safety and productivity in the industry. The present article explores some factors that to date have received little attention, including the role of the Joint Coal Board of New South Wales (Australia) and the impact of the production bonus and changes to workers' compensation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.485-489. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-309 Drake P.L., Rojas M., Reh C.M., Mueller C.A., Jenkins F.M.
Occupational exposure to airborne mercury during gold mining operations near El Callao, Venezuela
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a cross-sectional study during gold mining operations near El Callao, Venezuela to assess mercury exposures and mercury-related micro-damage to the kidneys. Mercury was used to remove gold by forming a mercury-gold amalgam. The gold was purified either by heating the amalgam in the open with a propane torch or by using a small retort. 38 workers participated in this study. Mercury exposure was monitored by sampling air from the workers' breathing zones. These air samples were used to calculate time-weighted average (TWA) mercury exposure concentrations. Results showed that 20% of the TWA airborne mercury exposure measurements were above the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 50µg/m3, and 26% exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value of 25µg/m3. Recommendations were made for improving retort design, for ventilation in gold shops, for medical surveillance and for educational programs.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.74, No.3, p.206-212. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 02-431 La Grange M.
HIV/AIDS in the South African mining industry: Health and safety implications
As the global HIV/AIDS epidemic continues unabated, South Africa is experiencing a rapid spread of the virus. The mining industry, in spite of having recognized the risks of the epidemic at an early stage, suffers greatly from the full impact of this disease. In addition to the socio-economic implications of the disease, it has significant consequences for occupational safety and health (impact of the disease on workers' performance, fatalistic or suicidal attitudes, risk of contagion).
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2001, Vol.17, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 02-231 Mitchell D.
The challenges for mining health and safety regulators in the 21st century
Review of current trends in the regulation of health and safety in mining around the world. Trying to predict what changes the future might bring in the longer term is contrasted with the higher degree of certainty obtained from extrapolating current trends 5 to 10 years into the future.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2001, Vol.17, No.1, p.23-30.

CIS 02-355
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling exposure to stonemasonry dust
By breathing stone dust, stonemasons can suffer from diseases such as pneumoconiosis, silicosis and lung cancer. This guidance is aimed at employers of stonemasons, managers in the stoneworking business, suppliers of cut stone, stone tool manufacturers and suppliers, and stone dust control equipment manufacturers. It describes health risks and how dust exposure occurs. It also provides guidance on how to control dust exposure and on occupational health surveillance. Appendices include occupational exposure limits and methods of exposure evaluation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. iv, 72p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 10.95.

CIS 02-437 Kent L., Bigby D.
Health and Safety Executive
Falls of ground risks in coal mines face roadways
To address the risk of ground collapse in roadways of underground coal mines due to failures of roof and face reinforcement, rib behaviour and failure mechanisms were studied with the aid of numerical modelling. The model was then used to assess the effectiveness of various reinforcement systems. A new type of extensometer for rib deformation monitoring was investigated to overcome the current problems with existing instrumentation. The risk assessment technique was developed and used successfully at three sites, providing an objective method for determining rib stability and associated falls of ground risks. A variety of rib reinforcement systems were tested in the laboratory encapsulation to assess their performance with respect to rib failure mechanisms. In conclusion, the risk assessment technique was successfully applied to roadways to indicate stability risks associated with face retreat.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. viii, 69p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 02-230 Daly L., Nouaigui H., Kahouach L., Rammeh H., Ben Laïba M.
Mining industry: Hazards and their prevention
Secteur minier: risques et prévention [in French]
Contents of this review article on occupational safety and heath in the mining industry in Tunisia: mining companies; harmful exposures encountered in the mining sector (darkness and vision problems, heat and heat load, humidity, ventilation, dust, vibration, physical workload, mental workload); occupational diseases (pneumoconiosis, silicosis, other diseases); occupational accidents (landslides, transport accidents, slips and falls, explosions, manual handling, hand tools, other hazards); preventive measures; compensation.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2001, No.16, p.2-23. Illus.

CIS 01-1639 Walle M., Jennings N.
Safety and health in small-scale surface mines - A handbook
Guide sur la sécurité et hygiène dans les petites mines à ciel ouvert [in French]
Guía de seguridad e higiene en minas pequeñas a cielo abierto [in Spanish]
Worldwide, approximately 13 million workers are employed in small-scale surface mines, mostly in the informal sector in developing countries. Occupational safety and health regulations are not always adapted to small-scale surface mining, and may require revision. This booklet sets out a few basic principles for use in the absence of specific regulations, or in conjunction with them. Contents: objectives, scope and definitions; general principles and provisions; mining accidents and dangerous occurrences; hazards in the working environment; health, welfare and hygiene of mineworkers; first aid; personal protective equipment; safety when mining; mechanical equipment; explosives and blasting; mine closures.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. v, 51p. Illus.

CIS 01-1799
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance on the design and construction of safety critical electrical systems at mines
This guidance deals with the design, construction, alteration and adaptation of power supplies to safety-critical plant and equipment at mines. It is intended for managers, electrical engineers, other electrical engineering staff and mine owners. Contents: definitions; identifying hazards and assessing risks; continuity of the electrical supply to the mine, underground equipment and ventilation systems; winding equipment; power supplies to de-watering and firedamp drainage plant and equipment; monitoring and control systems; communication systems.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 32p. Illus. Price: GBP 9.00.

CIS 01-1827
Health and Safety Executive
Safe manriding in mines
Following an incident in 1997 at a mine having two winding systems on one shaft, a number of safety issues were raised that had not been addressed. In view of advances in technology and the wide diversity of winding, signalling and shaft operating systems, there was a need to update recommendations for the safe operation of winding systems. This document is aimed at persons responsible for the safe design, use and management of winding systems in deep mine shafts. Recommendations are made with respect to the equipment used on winding engines, and the application and use of the winding system, including the training of personnel.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 8p. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 01-1730
Mine Health and Safety Inspectorate
Guideline for the compilation of a mandatory code of practice on mine residue deposits
Mine residue deposits (MRDs) constitute a potential pollution and flow failure hazard, with possible health hazards, injury or loss of life. The South African Mines Health and Safety Act (MHSA) requires employers to prepare and implement a code of practice (COP) on any matter affecting the safety and health of employees. These COPs must comply with official guidelines. This document has been compiled to assist employers in the mining industry prepare a COP covering site selection, design, construction, operation, maintenance, modification and decommissioning of MRDs.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 2001. 23p. 9 ref.

CIS 01-1826
Mine Health and Safety Inspectorate
Guideline for the compilation of a mandatory code of practice - Trackless mobile machinery
Haulage and transport accidents are the second largest category of accidents in South African mines. The South African Mines Health and Safety Act (MHSA) requires employers to prepare and implement a code of practice (COP) on any matter affecting the safety and health of employees. These COPs must comply with official guidelines. This document has been compiled to assist employers in the mining industry to prepare a COP for improving safety and health in connection with trackless mobile machinery. Contents include: legal aspects; format and content of the mandatory COP; COP implementation plan.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 2001. 16p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 01-1729
Mine Health and Safety Inspectorate
Aide mémoire for the compilation of guidelines for codes of practice
The South African Mines Health and Safety Act (MHSA) requires employers to prepare and implement a code of practice (COP) on any matter affecting the safety and health of employees. These COPs must comply with official guidelines. This document has been compiled to assist working groups of various South African bodies including the Department for Minerals and Energy (DME), the Mining Occupational Health Advisory Committee (MOHAC) and the Mining Regulations Advisory Committee (MRAC) produce code of practice guidelines in a standard format.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 2001. 16p. Illus.

CIS 01-1719 Annual Report 2000
The fatality and reportable injury rate in the South African mining industry declined during the year 2000, continuing the 16-year general downward trend, and currently stands at 0.71 and 12.72 per thousand workers, respectively. Hearing loss, tuberculosis and silicosis are the major occupational health concerns. Other topics covered in this annual report: mine safety and health reports, safety and health surveys, safety and health equipment, management involvement and internal control, and regional reports, including safety and health reviews, inspections, audits, compliance with legislation, penalties and hazard evaluation.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 26 Feb. 2001. iv, 108p. Illus.

CIS 01-1740
Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC)
CD-ROMs containing general information on the Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC), the annual report for 1999/2000 (see CIS 01-1720), news items on forthcoming events and publications, links to the SIMRAC website and close to 80 research reports on occupational safety and health in the mining industry in South Africa grouped under the headings of general, coal, gold and platinum, health, and other; these are in addition to those already published in the CD-ROM entitled "SIMRAC Volume One" (see CIS 01-1739); reports due to be published soon are also cited.
SIMPROSS (SIMRAC Project Support Services), Private Bag X 63, Braamfontein 2107, South Africa, Jan. 2001. CD-ROM requiring Windows.

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