Mining and quarrying - 1,961 entries found
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Lega D., Antonelli B.M., Campopiano A., del Gaudio M., Fioravanti F., Incocciati E., Ramires D.
Exposure to airborne dust in the quarrying industry in Lazio
Indagine sull'esposizione a polveri aerodisperse nel comparto estrattativo del Lazio [in Italian]
The aim of this study was to evaluate exposure to respirable dust during quarry work. It involved twelve enterprises in the Lazio region of Italy extracting various types of materials found in the area. Personal air samples were taken and data were grouped according to the task being carried out. Results show that workers assigned to certain tasks, in particular rotohammer and vertical cut operators were exposed to dust levels in excess of permissible values, requiring the use of personal protective equipment. Various measures are proposed for lowering dust levels: constant wetting of the piece being worked, the use of enclosures and the installation of appropriate ventilation systems.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2005, Vol.1, No.2, p.95-105. Illus. 8 ref.
McMillan G., Nichols L.
Osteoarthritis and meniscus disorders of the knee as occupational diseases of miners
This literature survey was conducted to determine whether kneeling or squatting for prolonged periods among coal miners is associated with an increased risk of injury or degenerative disease of the knee joint. Nineteen published papers were reviewed, the majority of which focused on osteoarthritis as the outcome. There was sufficient evidence to conclude that work involving kneeling and/or squatting is associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis of the knee. In some of the more recent epidemiologically sound studies, frequent or prolonged kneeling or squatting was found to double the general risk of osteoarthritis of the knees compared to the general population. This may be of particular importance in welfare and medico-legal situations. There was also evidence to suggest that lifting of loads, in combination with kneeling/squatting was associated with an excess risk of osteoarthritis above that attributed to kneeling/squatting alone.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.62, No.8, p.567-575. 60 ref.
Coal dust explosion hazard and efficiency assessment of preventive action in Polish hard coal mines
Zagrożenie wybuchem pyłu węglowego oraz ocena skuteczności działań profilaktycznych w polskich kopalniach węgla kamiennego [in Polish]
The coal dust explosion hazard was investigated in mine workings and coal processing plants. Results of these investigations are discussed. Examples of catastrophic coal dust explosions in the Polish coal mining industry are described and current standards and regulations are listed.
Główny Instytut Górnictwa, Plac Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland, 2005. 236p. Illus. 190 ref.
Mutetwa B., Chikonyora M., Dozva R., Mazibuko D.
The evaluation of chrysotile asbestos fibre levels in major chrysotile cement manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe mines chrysotile asbestos and manufactures asbestos cement pipes and sheets, brake linings and gaskets. The objective of this study was to assess exposure levels in the chrysotile manufacturing industries. A total of 40 personal and environmental samples were collected at two manufacturing sites. Only one area was found to have fibre levels above the acceptable limit of 0.2 fibres/ml set voluntarily by the Zimbabwean industry and all samples were below the proposed threshold limit value of 0.5 fibres/ml.
On Guard, Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.7-11. 8 ref.
Campbell M., Thomas H., Hodges N., Paul A., Williams J.
A 24 year cohort study of mortality in slate workers in North Wales
The mortality of a cohort of slate mining and quarrying workers in North Wales was studied, together with that of a contemporaneous control group, with follow-up from 1975 to 1998. The survey involved 726 slate workers and 529 age matched controls. A clear excess of death rate was found among slate workers compared with controls, after adjusting for age and smoking habits. Hazard ratio for all deaths was 1.24. The excess was mainly due to respiratory disease and pneumoconiosis. The hazard ratio for respiratory deaths was 1.85. It is likely that the excess of deaths in the exposed group was due to exposure to slate dust. The accuracy of pneumoconiosis as a cause of death is questionable due to the lack of confirmation from radiographic data.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.55, No.6, p.448-453. 10 ref.
Mulenga E.M., Miller H.B., Sinkala T., Hysong T.A., Burgess J.L.
Silicosis and tuberculosis in Zambian miners
Silicosis and tuberculosis (TB) are significant mining-related illnesses in developing countries. This study examined annual cases of these diseases in Zambian miners, including comparison of periods before (1960-1970) and after (1992-2002) the arrival of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The Occupational Health and Safety Research Bureau of Zambia reported 2114 cases from 1945 to 2002. Of these, 22.7% were silicosis, 65.4% TB, and the remaining 11.9% silicotuberculosis. While silicosis cases decreased from 28.6% to 12.4% with the arrival of HIV/AIDS, there was a large increase in TB cases (37.1% to 86.1%), with a corresponding decrease in silicotuberculosis cases (34.3% to 1.6%). Although silicosis remains an occupational health issue in Zambian miners, the most significant problem appears to be the marked increase in cases of TB.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.259-262. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1103_Mulenga.pdf [in English]
10 years of occupational safety and health management in the mining sector
10 lat zarządzania bezpieczeństwem i higieną pracy w górnictwie [in Polish]
Proceedings of a conference on occupational safety and health management in the mining sector held in Ustrón, Poland, 30-31 May 2005. Topics covered include: the role of the State Mining Authority in occupational safety management in the mining sector; implementation of occupational safety management systems; existing mine safety management systems; and the integration of science and education in the area of occupational safety and health.
Główny Instytut Górnictwa, Plac Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland, 2005. 95p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
This booklet provides guidance in the form of a check-list with illustrations showing the correct and the wrong way to act. Topics include: health and safety management; materials handling and musculoskeletal disorders; prevention of slips and trips; transport safety; and protection against falls from height.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2005. 12p. Illus.
Angotzi G., et al
World at work: Marble quarrying in Tuscany
Contents of this article on the marble quarrying industry in the Apuanian Alps region of Italy: description of the industry and work processes; occupational hazards (accidents; climate and lighting; noise; mechanical vibration; dust; exhaust fumes and gases; adverse ergonomic factors); preventive measures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.62, No.6, p.417-421. Illus. 10 ref.
Bagatin E., et al.
Non-malignant consequences of decreasing asbestos exposure in the Brazil chrysotile mines and mills
This study investigated the consequences of improvements in the workplace environment over six decades (1940-1996) among 3634 asbestos miners and millers with at least one year's exposure. Workers completed a respiratory symptoms questionnaire and were subjected to chest radiography and a spirometric evaluation. The study population was separated into three groups according to the period in which they worked between 1940 and 1996, during which time occupational hygiene was progressively improved and exposures controlled. Improvements were generally observed for lung symptoms, pleural anomalies and lung function among the more recently exposed groups, after correcting for smoking and latency.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.62, No.6, p.381-389. Illus. 32 ref.
Brown T.P., Rushton L.
Mortality in the UK industrial silica sand industry: 2. A retrospective cohort study
This study evaluated the mortality of employees in the United Kingdom silica sand industry exposed to respirable crystalline silica (RCS). A retrospective cohort mortality study followed all workers to 2001 with at least one year's employment at one of seven silica sand producing quarries between 1950 and 1986. Each worker was assigned a job category. Cumulative exposure to RCS was estimated using a job-exposure matrix (see CIS 06-633). A total of 764 deaths were identified in the 2703 cohort members. The overall mortality rate for the cohort was lower than would be expected in the general population. Mortality from all cancers was slightly decreased. Mortality was not raised in any job category. Mortality from lung cancer and other causes did not show a trend with cumulative exposure to RCS, in contrast with a number of studies that have shown positive findings in similar and related industries.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2005, Vol.62, No.7, p.446-452. 36 ref.
Brown T.P., Rushton L.
Mortality in the UK industrial silica sand industry: 1. Assessment of exposure to respirable crystalline silica
The objective of this study was to develop a job-exposure matrix from respirable crystalline silica (RCS) measurements in United Kingdom industrial silica sand workers. A total of 2429 personal RCS dust samples and 583 static samples were collected using cyclone samplers at seven quarries between 1978 and 2000. The data were analysed to evaluate the effect of quarry, job, and year on RCS concentrations. The overall geometric mean RCS concentration was 0.09mg/m3. Silica flour and dry job categories tended to have the highest exposure. 13.3% of all samples exceeded the United Kingdom maximum exposure level of 0.3mg/m3. RCS levels generally decreased over time.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2005, Vol.62, No.7, p.442-445. Illus. 20 ref.
Dave S.K., Beckett W.S.
Occupational asbestos exposure and predictable asbestos-related diseases in India
Surveys of asbestos-exposed workers in India have identified significant occupational exposures, early pleural and parenchymal changes on chest radiograph and decrements in lung function. Based on knowledge of past and current exposures to asbestos in industry, a future occurrence of clinical asbestos-related diseases including pleural changes, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchogenic carcinoma and diffuse malignant mesothelioma can be predicted. These cases of asbestos related disease are expected to occur in asbestos-exposed workers from mining, milling and manufacturing as well as in those with secondary exposures to asbestos-containing materials, including construction and maintenance workers, users of asbestos-containing consumer products, and the occupants of asbestos-containing buildings.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.48, No.2, p.137-143. Illus. 20 ref.
Chen W., Hnizdo E., Chen J.Q., Attfield M.D., Gao P., Hearl F., Lu J., Wallace W.E.
Risk of silicosis in cohorts of Chinese tin and tungsten miners, and pottery workers (I): An epidemiological study
This study examined the risk of silicosis among male cohorts of silica dust-exposed Chinese tin miners, tungsten miners and pottery workers and assessed whether gravimetric measurements of respirable silica dust sufficiently determine the risk of silicosis or whether other factors of exposure may play a significant role. Cohorts were selected from 20 mines and potteries. The cohorts included 4,028 tin miners, 14,427 tungsten miners and 4,547 pottery workers who had similar onset of employment and duration of follow-up. For a given exposure level, the risk of silicosis was higher for the tin and tungsten miners than for the pottery workers. The observed differences in the risk of silicosis among the three cohorts suggest that silica dust characteristics, in addition to cumulative respirable silica dust exposure, may affect the risk of silicosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 21 ref.
Safety rules and regulations on mine sites - The problem and a solution
A survey of safety attitudes was conducted at 33 mine sites in Australia and other countries, involving almost 500 mineworkers. The questionnaire survey investigated the opinions of the mining workforce on safety rules and regulations generally and in relation to their specific jobs on the mine site. The insights provided by the mineworkers enabled a set of principles to be developed to guide mine management and regulators in the development of more effective rules and regulations. In particular, it was noted that management should not continue to produce more and more rules and regulations to cover every aspect of mining, since detailed prescriptive regulations, safe work procedures, and voluminous safety management plans will not "connect" with a miner.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol.36, No.1, p.39-50. Illus. 14 ref.
Paques J.J., Germain L.
Safety of computer-operated mine hoists
Sécurité des machines d'extraction commandées par systèmes programmables [in French]
The recommendations contained in this report are the result of a process to analyse the risks associated with the control and monitoring systems of mine hoists using programmable control systems. Based on the experience of users, manufacturers and inspectors of the Quebec Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (Commission pour la santé et la sécurité du travail - CSST), this process took into account the experiences in the mining environment, together with applications of programmable control technologies in other types of industries. The recommendations address the general structure of control and monitoring systems, specific components and periodic tests and verifications.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 22p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 4.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RF-412.pdf [in French]
Ostiguy C., Asselin P., Malo S., Nadeau D., DeWals P.
Management of occupational manganism - Consensus of an experts' panel
Prise en charge du manganisme d'origine professionnelle - Consensus d'un groupe international d'experts [in French]
In response to a request from the Quebec Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (Commission pour la santé et la sécurité du travail - CSST), a literature review was undertaken on the possible health effects (mainly to the nervous system) resulting from occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air of mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the CSST by workers exposed to this substance during operations to weld steel to manganese. This report describes the process of manganese assimilation by the body, its biomarkers and its various health effects. It also compares the standards and recommendations for guidelines of various organizations. Current Quebec standards are similar to American, British and Australian standards. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field favour making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. vii, 56p. 202 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-416.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-417.pdf [in English]
State administration of work safety - State administration of coal mine safety SAWS - SACMS
Guo Jia An Quan Sheng Chan Jian Du Guan Li Ju - Guo Jia Mei Kuang An Quan Jian Cha Ju [in Chinese]
Booklet presenting two Chinese occupational safety and health administrations: the State Administration of Work Safety and the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety. Contents: management; organization; main functions; functions of the Office of the Work Safety Committee of the State Council; provincial work safety bureaux; provincial coal mine safety bureaux; affiliated organizations.
State Administration of Work Safety - State Administration of Coal Mine Safety, 21 Hepingli Beijei, Beijing 100713, China, no date. 47p. Illus.
Occupational radiation protection in the mining and processing of raw materials
This guide updates previous guidance and extends its coverage to include activities involving all raw materials for which radiation protection measures need to be considered, as well as additional guidance on authorization of mining and processing activities, inspection and compliance. Its main purpose is to provide practical guidance on meeting the requirements of the basic safety standards as they relate to the radiation protection of workers in the mining and processing of raw materials, and thus to facilitate the preparation and adoption, by Member States, of national and local regulations rules and work procedures in this area of industrial activity. It is aimed at regulatory bodies, operators of mines and mineral processing facilities, safety and health committees, workers and their representatives, and safety and health professionals.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2004. 95p. 26 ref. Price: EUR 21.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
IAEA_Safety_Standards_Series_Safety_Guide_No. RS-G-1.6.pdf [in English]
Coal dust explosion hazard in coal mining industry
Zagrożenia pyłowe w górnictwie [in Polish]
The combustible and explosive properties of coal dust and the coal dust explosion hazard are described. The circumstances and the effects of gas and dust explosion and the explosions that took place - the thereof have been described. The means of coal dust fighting and the ways of explosion fighting have been pointed out.
Główny Instytut Górnictwa, Plac Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland, 398p. Illus. 177 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Salt flats
Revista do trabalhador: Salinas [in Portuguese]
This videotape examines the various hazards faced by workers in salt flats and shows how they may be avoided using collective measures and personal protective equipment.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca. 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 11min.
Vibration in operating heavy haul trucks in overburden mining
The objective of this study was to examine the vibration experienced in the lumbar and cervical column of drivers of heavy haul trucks used in overburden mining. Vibration levels were measured on the seat pan of a new and an old truck of two different models and different carrying capacities and at the 3rd lumbar and 7th cervical vertebral levels of 14 drivers. The vibrations were compared with ISO standards and it was observed that heavy haul trucks frequently generated vibrations in excess of ISO standards in overburden mining operations, representing a health hazard to the driver.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2004, Vol.35, No.6, p.509-520. Illus. 21 ref.
An attempt at the standardization of natural hazards assessment in mining
Próba standaryzacji oceny zagrożeń naturalnych w górnictwie [in Polish]
This article describes a method for calculating new relative indices for assessing the occurrence of natural hazards in mining. Use of the hazard index and the hindrance index allows mines to be classified according to their potential exposure to the effects of natural hazards. On the basis of computed index values, a classification has been made of those mines in which no fatal accident was noted for the period 2001-2003.
WUG Bezpieczeństwo Pracy i Ochrona Środowiska w Górnictwie, 2004, Vol.123, No.11, p.14-16. 2 ref.
Asbestos-related pleural disease due to tremolite associated with progressive loss of lung function: Serial observations in 123 miners, family members, and residents of Libby, Montana
The community of Libby, Montana was recently the focus of national attention following a widespread amphibole contamination associated with vermiculite mining and processing. Patients who had occupational and non-occupational exposure to asbestos in Libby were evaluated for progressive loss of pulmonary function. Of the 123 patients evaluated, the average annual age-corrected losses were 3.2% for vital capacity, 2.3% for total lung capacity and 3.3% for carbon monoxide diffusion. All these patients had predominantly pleural changes with minimal to no interstitial disease. The study demonstrates a progressive loss of pulmonary function in patients exposed to tremolite asbestos.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.219-225. Illus. 27 ref.
Churchyard G.J., Ehrlich R., teWaterNaude J.M., Pemba L., Dekker K., Vermeijs M., White N., Myers J.
Silicosis prevalence and exposure-response relations in South African goldminers
The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of silicosis among black migrant contract workers on a South African goldmine and to investigate exposure-response relations with silica dust. 520 miners were interviewed and had chest radiographs taken. Silicosis was defined as a radiological profusion of 1/1 or greater according to the ILO classification. Mean length of service was 21.8 years. The mean air concentrations of respirable dust and quartz were 0.37mg/m3 and 0.053mg/m3 respectively. The prevalence of silicosis was 18.3-19.9% depending on reader. Significant trends were found between the prevalence of silicosis and length of service, mean intensity of exposure and cumulative exposure. These workers developed silicosis while exposed to a quartz concentration below the recommended occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 0.1mg/m3. This confirms a mounting body of evidence that this OEL is not protective against silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.61, No.10, p.811-816. Illus. 20 ref.
Ulm K., Gerein P., Eigenthaler J., Schmidt S., Ehnes H.
Silica, silicosis and lung-cancer: Results from a cohort study in the stone and quarry industry
A cohort study among workers compensated for silicosis between 1988 and 2000 from the stone and quarry industry in Germany was initiated. The cohort consisted of 440 workers who were followed up until the end of 2001. A detailed assessment of the jobs of all workers was carried out. During the follow-up 144 workers died, compared with 74.35 expected cases based on the mortality rates of the general population from Germany, leading to a standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.94. Lung cancer was the cause of death in 16 cases (SMR 2.40). All workers had a peak exposure above 0.15mg/m3, the current threshold value. The cumulative exposure was above 2mg/m3-years and the average exposure was 0.10mg/m3 or higher. In order to reduce the risk of lung cancer among workers in the stone and quarry industry, current levels of exposure to silica should be reduced.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2004, Vol.77, No.5, p.313-318. Illus. 26 ref.
Duchaine C., Cormier Y., Mériaux A., Pageau P., Chabot M., Israël-Assayag E., Goyer N., Cloutier Y., Lazure L.
Air quality and respiratory health of workers in Quebec peat processing plants equipped with dust control systems
Santé respiratoire des travailleurs et qualité de l'air des tourbières du Québec possédant des systèmes de dépoussiérage [in French]
Although peat bogs are one of Quebec's important natural resources, few scientific data exist on these workplaces which employ approximately 700 workers. These workers are exposed to high concentrations of microorganisms that could affect their respiratory health. In this study, the biological contaminants contained in the peat moss and their effects on health are identified and the air quality in processing and packaging plants equipped with dust control systems is evaluated, together with the health status of the workers. The results show that the levels of exposure to various contaminants often exceed the permissible limits. For various reasons, the control systems at source do not maintain the dust emissions at acceptable levels. The report concludes with a series of recommendations to improve the working conditions in peat bogs.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. v, 132p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: CAD 10.70. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-363.pdf [in French]
Le R., Laliberté P.
Design of a hearing protector that suppresses dominant noise
Conception d'un protecteur auditif à suppression de bruits dominants [in French]
Miners generally work with noisy tools and equipment in enclosed areas that are prone to echoing. To protect themselves against ambient noise, they wear conventional hearing protectors such as earmuffs or earplugs. However, these protective accessories mask out all types of signals, including voices and alarms. The aim of this project was to develop a device capable of attenuating the noise from tools and equipment while allowing voice and alarm signals to be heard. Two prototypes of hearing protectors fitted with electronic circuits were developed and tested. Results obtained in the laboratory with a pure sound showed some promise. However, results obtained in practical situations were disappointing. More advanced research will be required for the concept to be of practical use.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iv, 34p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-361.pdf [in French]
Płóciennik M., Madera F.
Hell inside a copper plant
Piekło w hucie [in Polish]
The organization and procedures involved in the rescue and fire extinguishing action during a fire in the copper plant "Legnica" are described. Proper procedures to be applied in similar disasters in the future are defined.
Przegląd Pożarniczy, 2004, No.11, p.12-14.
The accident rate of coal mine workers in a period of restructuring, taking into account employment and age structures
Wypadkowość pracowników kopalń węgla kamiennego w okresie restrukturyzacji z uwzględnieniem struktury zatrudnienia i struktury wiekowej [in Polish]
Survey of employment and age-structure evolution in Polish coal mines during a 10-year period. Absolute numbers and frequency of accidents in coal mines are analysed with reference to employment levels and the age structure of miners.
WUG Bezpieczeństwo Pracy i Ochrona Środowiska w Górnictwie, 2004, No.12, p.22-29. 12 ref.
Bigby D., Kent L.
Health and Safety Executive
Rock reinforcement and testing
Fully encapsulated tendons and rockbolts provide safe and effective reinforcement for the relatively deep coal mines in weak strata generally worked in Europe. However, once a fully grouted tendon and rockbolt system has been installed, there is no way of determining whether it remains intact. Reinforced roadways also suffer the risk of deterioration over time and gate roadway stability can be jeopardized in the area of enhanced stress near the retreating/advancing face. If rockbolting is going to fulfill its potential for transforming European coal mining, appropriate instrumentation and strategies need to be developed to overcome these problems. This report presents work leading to a proposed integrated strategy including the in situ testing of the integrity of reinforcing tendons and grout, quality management, improved instrumentation and practical risk assessment procedures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 150p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr241.pdf [in English]
Bigby D., Kent L., Hurt K.
Health and Safety Executive
Safe application of mine roadway support systems
The aims of this research into the safe application of underground mine support systems were to provide a detailed technical input for development and/or revision of the appropriate approved codes of practice, guidance documents and British and European standards and to produce a Coal Mine Roadway Support System Handbook. The research was designed to improve understanding of the performance and application of recently-developed roof support and reinforcement systems, and included the development of numerical modelling techniques and geotechnical monitoring systems. A laboratory testing technique was also developed for performance measurement of support systems for incorporation into new standards. The conclusions and recommendations are included in the manual, published separately.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. ix, 195p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr229.pdf [in English]
Attfield M.D., Costello J.
Quantitative exposure-response relationship for silica dust and lung cancer in Vermont granite workers
Exposure evaluation data for the years 1924 to 1977 were analysed in conjunction with mortality data to examine quantitative exposure-response for silica, lung cancer and other lung diseases in a cohort of granite workers in the U.S. state of Vermont. The findings indicated a clear relationship of lung cancer, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, non-malignant lung disease and kidney cancer with cumulative exposure. An exposure to silica of 0.05mg/m3 from age 20 to 64 was associated with a lifetime excess risk of lung cancer for white males of 27/1000. The results of this study of workers exposed almost exclusively to silica and no other major occupational confounding exposures indicate a clear exposure-response for lung cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2004, Vol.45, No.2, p.129-138. Illus. 27 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Coal mine roadway support system handbook
The purpose of this report is to provide a useful reference for mining engineers who wish to obtain information on the more innovative support systems that have become available in Europe in recent years. It therefore does not include details of arch type supports and focuses rather on rock reinforcement systems and their related accessories. Where possible, it provides information on the history of application, results of testing and appropriate applications for the various support systems. In most cases, it includes photographs of the systems to help in identification and understanding their construction, and information on how the system's performance can be properly monitored.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 67p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr229a.pdf [in English]
Landen D., Wilkins S., Stephenson M., McWilliams L.
Noise exposure and hearing loss among sand and gravel miners
The objectives of this study were to describe workplace noise exposures, risk factors for hearing loss and hearing levels among sand and gravel miners, and to determine whether full shift noise exposures resulted in changes in hearing thresholds from baseline values. A total of 317 sand and gravel miners were interviewed regarding medical history, leisure-time and occupational noise exposure, other occupational exposures and use of hearing protection. Audiometric tests were performed before the work shift and immediately after the work shift. Full shift noise dosimetry was conducted. It was found that overall, sand and gravel workers have excessive noise exposures and significant hearing loss, and demonstrate inadequate use of hearing protection. Well-designed hearing conservation programs, with reduction of noise exposure, are clearly needed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2004, Vol.1, No.8, p.532-541. Illus. 17 ref.
Heat illness in the U.S. mining industry
Heat illness is relatively common in the underground mines of South Africa and Australia, but there have been no studies of heat illness in the mining industry of the United States. Mine Safety and Health Administration accident, injury, illness and employment data were used to study heat illness reported from 1983 to 2001. 538 cases of heat illness were reported, none of which were fatal. 427 cases (79.4%) occurred in the months of June, July and August. Incidence rates in underground mining ranged from 0.00275/106 person-hours for coal mining to 0.168/106 person-hours for metal mining. In surface mining, they ranged from 0.0265/106 person-hours for coal to 0.0644/106 person-hours for stone. Finally in mills and preparation plants, they ranged from 0.0255/106 person-hours for coal to 0.417/106 person-hours for stone.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.351-356. 25 ref.
Sari M., Duzgun H.S.B., Karpuz C., Selcuk A.S.
Accident analysis of two Turkish underground coal mines
In this study, historical accident records of two Turkish underground coal mines, one conventional and one mechanized, were collected and statistically analysed in order to determine the effect of mining methods on productivity and safety. Safety and productivity both improved with mechanization, with a greater improvement being found for productivity, however. Comparison of accidental injury profiles of the systems revealed that the most risky area shifted from the face areas in the conventional mine to development areas in the mechanized mine. Hence, production workers were less likely to be injured in the mechanized system than in the conventional one. Workers of the age group 35-40 had a higher accident rate in both systems.
Safety Science, Oct. 2004, Vol.42, No.8, p.675-690. 13 ref.
Golbabaei F., Barghi M.A., Sakhaei M.
Evaluation of workers' exposure to total, respirable and silica dust and the related health symptoms in Senjedak stone quarry, Iran
This research project was conducted in a marble quarry located in the northeast of Iran. Time-weighted averages of total dust, respirable dust and crystalline silica concentration in workers' breathing zone were monitored by using both gravimetric and XRD methods. The results showed that the employees working in the hammer drill process had the highest exposure to total and respirable dust (107.9±8.0mg/m3, 11.2±0.77mg/m3), while the cutting machine workers had the lowest exposure (9.3±3.0mg/m3, 1.8±0.82mg/m3). The maximum concentration of α-quartz in total and respirable dust were found to be to 0.670±8.49x10-2 and 5.7x10-2±1.6x10-2mg/m3 respectively, among workers of the hammer drill process. The prevalence of skin and respiratory symptoms were higher in hammer drill workers, however, respiratory symptoms showed no significant prevalence. Regarding the average age of workers (31.6±1.9yr) and average of their work history (3.8±1.0yr), these results were predictable.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.42, No.1, p.29-33. Illus. 17 ref.
Neurophysiological anomalies in brainstem responses of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners
Brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAER) were measured as biomarkers of mercury-induced neurological impairment in children of Andean gold miners living in the Ecuadorian gold mining settlement of Nambija, where mercury (Hg) exposure is prevalent. Thirty-one children in the study group were found to have a mean blood mercury (HgB) level of 23.0µg/L, which was significantly higher than the mean HgB level of a reference group of 21 Ecuadorian children (4.5µg/L) and in excess of the health-based biological limits for the U.S. (10µg/L). Brainstem neural conduction times suggested that some of the Hg-intoxicated children in the study group have subtle neuro-physiological anomalies that may be more manifest at higher BAER stimulus rates, and that the Hg-exposed children of gold miners are at risk for neuro-developmental disabilities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.87-95. Illus. 37 ref.
Ostiguy C., Malo S., Asselin P.
Synthesis of scientific knowledge on the health risks following occupational exposure to manganese
This review documents current knowledge on the potential occupational health effects, mainly on the central nervous system, following occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air in mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the Quebec Occupational Safety and Health Commission (CSST) by workers exposed to this substance during welding operations involving steel containing manganese. The report describes processes of assimilation of manganese by the body, its biomarkers and its effects on health. It also compares different organizations' standards and guideline recommendations. Current Quebec standards are similar to those of the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field recommend making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. 38p. 211 ref. Price: CAD 6.42.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-349.pdf [in English]
Bertrand J.P., Bourgkard E., Chau N., Pham Q.T.
Use of masks, respiratory symptoms and lung function among coal miners
Port du masque, symptômes respiratoires, fonction pulmonaire des mineurs de charbon [in French]
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of masks, respiratory symptoms and lung function among coal miners. Subjects consisted of 395 miners aged between 28 and 42, exposed for more than five years to coal dust and whose pulmonary radiograph was classified 0/0 according to the 1980 ILO international classification of pneumoconiosis. Methods included administering the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) questionnaire, evaluating cumulated dust exposure and conducting lung function tests. Four groups were determined according to their degree of mask use. It was found that the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was not significantly linked with the degree of mask use. However, the proportion of miners with chronic bronchitis was lower among miners who had a high degree of mask usage.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.7-8, p.495-501. 16 ref.
The asbestos war
Asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal disease. This issue on asbestos-related problems covers following aspects: the fight to ban asbestos; scientific controversy; statistics of malignant mesothelioma in Australia; legal actions for compensation in South Africa and France; history of asbestos mining in Southern Africa; cross-country comparative overview of the asbestos situation in ten Asian countries; asbestos-related morbidity in India; impact of asbestos waste around the Roro hills, India, on the neighbouring population's health; asbestos situation in Japan, Korea, Mexico and Belgium; globalization and the transfer of a hazardous industry.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.9, No.3, p.173-298 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/0903_KazanAllen.pdf (Introduction) [in English]
Bigby D., Cassie J.
Health and Safety Executive
Stability and support of sides of mine roadways
This report addresses a number of areas which required research efforts in order to improve the mining industry's ability to support roadway sides safely. These have included developing an improved appreciation of the failure mechanisms involved and an improved understanding of how coal rib reinforcements behave in situ. There was also a need to develop rib stability risk assessment tools and instrumentation which would allow rib conditions to be monitored and assessed, and appropriate remedial action to be taken to prevent rib falls. Work under the project has contributed to the drafting of a revised British Standard on Strata Reinforcement Support System Components used in Coal Mines - Part 1 (BS7861:1). The project has also developed improved methods of numerical modelling and stress analysis of mine ribsides and pillars including assessment of in situ stress through the detection of the Kaiser Effect.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xviii, 204p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr153.pdf [in English]
Quarrying CD-ROM - 2003
StBG rom - 2003 [in German]
Published by the German mutual insurance against occupational accidents in quarries, the purpose of this CD-ROM is to improve the organization of occupational safety and health in the quarrying sector. Topics addressed include: enterprises having received the award for occupational safety and health promotion and their achievements; list of useful contacts; sheets for calculating various prevention criteria; library of safety symbols; worksheets and forms; information concerning machinery used in the building products industry; occupational safety and health regulations.
Steinbruchs-Berufsgenossenschaft (StBG), Theodeor-Heuss-Straße 160, 30853 Langenhagen, Germany, 2003. CD-ROM.
Health and Safety Executive
This booklet comments the safety issues to be addressed in quarries. The following topics are covered in the form of a check-list with illustrations showing the correct and the wrong way to act: design; management; training; workforce involvement; management structure; continuing development; electricity; conveyors; lifting and handling; access on/off vehicles; sheeting; all-round visibility; excavation; edge protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2003. 8p. Illus. 6 ref.
Buchanan D., Miller B.G., Soutar C.A.
Quantitative relations between exposure to respirable quartz and risk of silicosis
The objective of this study was to gain a more detailed knowledge of the relations between exposure to quartz and risks of silicosis in coal miners. Detailed data on working times at different quartz concentrations were combined to produce exposure profiles for 371 male miners aged 50-74 who had provided a chest radiograph. Results indicated that cumulative quartz exposure at higher concentrations resulted in proportionally greater risks of abnormalities. A cumulative exposure of 1g.h/m3 at quartz concentrations greater than 2mg/m3 was estimated to have equivalent risks to 3g.h/m3 at lower concentrations. Quantification of the risks of silicosis should take account of variations in quartz exposure intensity, particularly for exposure to concentrations of greater than 1 or 2mg/m3, even if exposure is for relatively short periods. The risks of silicosis over a working lifetime can rise dramatically with even brief exposure to such high quartz concentrations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.60, No.3, p.159-164. Illus. 25 ref.
Decree No.9 of 29 July 2003 on the minimum requirements for safety and health at work in the extractive industries through drilling [Bulgaria]
Naredba N°9 ot 29 juli 2003 g. za minimalnite iziskvanija za osigurjavane na bezopasnostta i zdraveto na raboteštite pri dobivane na podzemni bogatstva črez sondirane [in Bulgarian]
This Decree provides for detailed safety rules in the extractive industries that rely on drilling, with special provisions for extraction at sea.
Dăržaven vestnik, 5 Sep. 2003, No.79, p.29-35.
http://law.dir.bg/reference.php?f=n9tsp-03 [in Bulgarian]
Coggiola M., Bosio D., Pira E., Piolatto P.G., La Vecchia C., Negri E., Michelazzi M., Bacaloni A.
An update of a mortality study of talc miners and millers in Italy
While talc containing asbestiform fibres is considered a human carcinogen, only limited data are available on non-asbestiform talc. To provide further evaluation of the matter, an analysis of an Italian cohort of talc miners and millers was updated. The cohort consisted of 1,795 men who had worked for at least one year in the mine or in the factory between 1946 and 1995. Vital status and death certificates were obtained from registration offices in the municipality of death or of birth. Employment, termination of employment and detailed job history were obtained from personnel records at the plant. No excess was found for total cancer mortality, nor mortality for lung cancer. No case of mesothelioma was reported. There was a significant excess mortality from non-neoplastic respiratory diseases (SMR 228.2), mainly silicosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2003, Vol.44, No.1, p.63-69. 26 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Mines rescue arrangements: Future options
The objective of the work described in this report was to examine alternative structures for the provision of mine rescue arrangements in the United Kingdom and to assess their relative merits against credible scenarios for the future of the coal mining sector. It involved face-to-face interviews with various government bodies and with all the coal mining enterprises currently operating in the country. Findings are discussed. Topics addressed: current rescue provisions in the United Kingdom; financial income of the Mines Rescue Service Limited (MRSL); views of mine owners and of MRSL staff; potential effects of future changes in United Kingdom coal production; summary position of mines rescue in the United Kingdom; mines rescue organizations in other countries; other rescue organizations in the United Kingdom; potential future options; conclusions and recommendations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vii, 66p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2002/crr02448.pdf [in English]
Barnett T., Fantan T., Mbakile B., Whiteside A.
The private sector responds to the epidemic: Debswana - a global benchmark
La riposte du secteur privé à l'épidémie: Debswana - une référence mondiale [in French]
This case study describes the development of an HIV/AIDS management policy in the Debswana diamond mining company in Botswana. An institutional audit of the susceptibility and vulnerability of the company to HIV/AIDS was carried out and the findings were used as the basis for the development of an effective HIV/AIDS strategy. Key issues identified in the audit included the identification of critical posts, a review of employee benefits, the provision of antiretroviral drugs, pre- and post-employment testing strategies and a revision of the management information system to take into account HIV/AIDS.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), 20 avenue Appia, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, Sep. 2002. 48p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://data.unaids.org/Publications/IRC-pub02/JC769-Debswana_en.pdf [in English]
http://data.unaids.org/Publications/IRC-pub02/JC769-Debswana_fr.pdf [in French]
Breuer J., Höffer E.M., Hummitzsch W.
Rate of occupational accidents in the mining industry since 1950 - A successful approach to prevention policy
This paper discusses the decrease in occupational accident insurance claims in the German mining industry over the last five decades. It shows that this process is above all the result of a prevention policy involving collaboration between companies and the body responsible for the legal accident insurance scheme in the mining industry. A system such as the German accident insurance scheme, combining prevention, rehabilitation and compensation, enables successful and modern safety and health measures.
Journal of Safety Research, 2002, Vol.33, No.1, p.129-141. Illus. 5 ref.
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