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CIS 96-226 Aks S.E., Erickson T., Branches F.J.P., Naleway C., Chou H.N., Levy P., Hryhorczuk D.
Fractional mercury levels in Brazilian gold refiners and miners
A study of 30 subjects working in or living near a gold mining and refining region of Brazil revealed that those with recent exposure (less than 2 days since last exposure) had higher blood and urine mercury levels than those with intermediate exposure (less than 60 days) or remote exposure (greater than 60 days). The remote exposure group showed the highest fraction of organic mercury and also reported more symptoms than the other groups. Results indicate a significant exposure to mercury; symptoms may be persistent and low levels of blood and urine mercury do not exclude remote or cumulative toxicity.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1995, Vol.33, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 95-2049 Working conditions, morbidity and injuries in industry
Sostojanie uslovij truda, zabolevaemosti i travmatizma na proizvodstve [in Russian]
Overview of trends in the Russian Federation compiled by the editorial staff of the monthly journal of the State Mining and Engineering Inspectorate (Gosgortehnadzor). Although the absolute number of accident victims fell from 432,400 (8,390 deaths) in 1990 to 303,800 (6,779 fatalities) in 1994, this was due to reductions in the workforce. The rate of fatal accidents increased from 0.121 to 0.133 per 1000 workers, and the number of cases of first-time compensation for invalidity rose from 52 cases per 10,000 persons to 76 in the same period. More than 30% of the fatalities are due to failure to respect safety rules in transport. Industry-specific data for the last 5-10yr are given for the coal, chemical and construction materials industries. Regulations have been strengthened, and thousands of inspections are carried out every year by Gosgortehnadzor, alone and jointly with other inspectorates (numbers and outcomes are given). However, the resources are still inadequate.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1995, No.11, p.2-12. Illus.

CIS 95-1939 Convention 176 and Recommendation 183 concerning safety and health in mines [ILO]
Convention 176 et Recommandation 183 concernant la sécurité et la santé dans les mines [OIT] [in French]
Convenio 176 y Recomendación 183 relativos a la seguridad y la salud en las minas [OIT] [in Spanish]
Contents of Convention 175 concerning safety and health in mines, adopted the 22 June 1995: definitions; scope and means of application; preventive and protective measures at the mine (responsibilities of employers, rights and duties of workers and their representatives, cooperation); implementation; final provisions. Contents of Recommendation 183, adopted at the same time: general provisions; preventive and protective measures at the mine; rights and duties of workers and their representatives; cooperation; other provisions.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1995. 8+7p. (Convention 176) [in English] (Convention 176) [in French] (Convenio 176) [in Spanish] (Recommendation 183) [in English] (Recommandation 183) [in French] (Recomendación 183) [in Spanish]

CIS 95-1733 Weeks J.L.
Estimating possible fraud in coal mine operators' samples of respirable dust
In the US, coal mine operators are required to sample miners' exposure to respirable dust on a regular basis. A method was developed for the screening of all operator samples for detecting possible instances of fraud. The method relies on the occurrence of very low concentration (VLC) samples, i.e. concentrations ≤ 0.1mg/m3, more frequently than expected. Out of 1983 continuous mining section samples examined, there were 147 VLC-50 sections, i.e. for which the proportion of VLC samples exceeded 50% (vs. 7.3 expected, O/E 0 20.1, based on the assumption that the occurrence of VLC samples could be described with the binomial probability distribution). These 147 sections occurred more frequently than expected in small as opposed to large mines. For sections using conventional mining techniques, 19 out of 175 were VLC-50 vs. 0.9 expected (O/E = 20.8). On the other hand, in mines with longwall sections and in those with bituminous and anthracite hand-loading sections the observed number of VLC-50 sections was not significantly different from the expected. It is suggested that investigation for fraud should be restricted to continuous and conventional-technique coal mines with VLC-50 sections.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.328-332. 26 ref.

CIS 95-1727 Seixas N.S., Hewett P., Robins T.G., Haney R.
Variability of particle size-specific fractions of personal coal mine dust exposures
This study estimated the ratio of the tracheo-bronchial dust fraction to the fraction collected by a respirable-dust sampler for various job classifications in coal mining. These ratios can then be applied in epidemiologic studies to existing respirable dust measurements to estimate thoracic mass concentrations for evaluation of the relative importance of the respirable and thoracic dust fractions to obstructive lung disease. Particle-size distribution data (180 samples in all) from 4 underground coal mines in the US were used. No significant differences were found when the samples were grouped by occupation, proximity of work to the mine face or by the type of mining technology in use. Differences between samples from one of the mines and the others might be attributed to the use of diesel equipment for haulage, which contributed to the fine aerosol fractions. Results suggest that estimates of occupation-specific tracheo-bronchial dust fractions are not likely to produce better exposure-response information than estimates of respirable dust concentrations collected by traditional techniques.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.243-250. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 95-1187 Health and Safety - The Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations implement in Great Britain certain provisions of Directive 92/91/EEC (see CIS 93-23), concerning the minimum safety and health requirements in mineral-extracting industries through drilling. Matters covered: information to and general duties of the operator; notification to HSE of the commencement of drilling operations and of the abandonment of boreholes; drawing up of a "health and safety document"; additional health and safety requirements; health surveillance. In schedule: requirements to be included in notifications.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1995. 10p. Price: GBP 2.40.

CIS 95-1174 Health and Safety - The Quarries Miscellaneous Health and Safety Provisions Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations implement in Great Britain the provisions of Directives 92/104/EEC (see CIS 94-758) and 92/91/EEC (see CIS 93-23) concerning the minimum requirements for improving safety and health in surface and underground mining and in the mineral-extracting industries through drilling, respectively. Matters covered: safety instructions and the drawing up of a "health and safety document"; escape and rescue facilities; communications, warning and alarm systems; health surveillance; written instructions; smoking and the use of open flames; protection against fires, explosions and toxic gases; traffic routes, outdoor workstations and indication of danger areas; means of evacuation and escape and safety drills; natural and artificial lighting; sanitary installations. In schedules: notification form for cessation of activity; additional health and safety requirements on employers and owners.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1995. 7p. Price: GBP 1.95.

CIS 95-1173 Health and Safety - The Mines Miscellaneous Health and Safety Provisions Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations implement in Great Britain the provisions of Directive 92/104/EEC (see CIS 94-758) concerning the minimum requirements for improving safety and health in surface and underground mining. Matters covered: safety instructions and the drawing up of a "health and safety document"; health surveillance; protection against fires, explosions and toxic gases; provision of emergency lighting and personal lamps; operating plans for rockbursts and gas outbursts; handling of flammable materials and hydraulic fluids. The two 1956 Coal and other Mines Rules, concerning working plans and abandonment plans respectively, are revoked.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1995. 7p. Price: GBP 1.95.

CIS 95-949 Attfield M.D., Seixas N.S.
Prevalence of pneumoconiosis and its relationship to dust exposure in a cohort of U.S. bituminous coal miners and ex-miners
Information on radiographic evidence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is presented for a group of 3,194 underground bituminous coal workers and ex-miners examined between 1985 and 1988. Prevalence of CWP was related to estimated cumulative dust exposure, age and rank of coal. Miners of medium to low rank coal who worked for 40 years at the current federal dust limit of 2mg/m3, are predicted to have a 1.4% risk of having progressive massive fibrosis on retirement. Higher prevalences are predicted for less severe categories of CWP. Miners in high rank coal areas appear to be at greater risk than those mining medium and low rank coals. Ex-miners who said that they left mining for health-related reasons had higher levels of abnormality compared to current miners.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.137-151. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 02-28 Order No.434 of 24 Aug. 1994 of the President of the Council of Ministers concerning the introduction and use of extraction machines, equipment, materials, tools and devices in coal mines [Poland]
Rozporządzenie Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 24 sierpnia 1994 r. w sprawie dopuszczania do stosowania w zakładach górniczych maszyn, urządzeń i materiałów oraz środków strzałowych i sprzętu strzałowego [in Polish]
Regulation implementing provisions of the Geological and Mining Code (1994, Law No.96) relating to the safe introduction and use of machinery and equipment in coal mines.
Dziennik Ustaw, 31 Aug. 1994, No.92, p.1734-1737.

CIS 97-914 Whorton M.D., et al.
Reproductive effects of sodium borates on male employees: Birth rate assessment
The purpose of the study was to investigate potential reproductive effects of sodium borates on occupationally exposed male employees at a large mining and production facility in California (USA). There was a highly significant excess of offspring fathered by the male employees. There was no evidence of a relation between exposure and this excess of offspring, nor were there any temporal differences during the period of observation (>30 years). Conclusion: under the conditions studied, there were no adverse reproductive effects of high borate doses as reported from oral ingestion studies in animals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.51, No.11, p.761-767. 22 ref.

CIS 97-439 Mining - Mines safety checklist pack
This manual is written for Indian miners taking safety-related training courses. It covers the preparation of safety check lists. The following areas are covered by check lists: general inspection; mine inspection; haulage; flame-proof equipment; winding installations; cap lamps; safety lamps; self rescuers; fitting of winders and shafts; accident inspection; underground mines.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. 47p.

CIS 97-438 Mining - Compendium of reference material
This manual, aimed at workers participating in training courses in India, consists of two parts. Part 1 covers Organization and Policies for Safety, containing the text of Indian Recommendations for Safety in Mines (6th, 7th and 8th Conference), information on company and trade union safety policies as practiced in India, the recommended format for Safety Committee Agenda and Minutes and relevant excerpts from ILO Instruments dealing with mining safety. Part 2 contains technical recommendations on mine safety, covering four topics: monsoon preparation; heat hazards; noise; courts of enquiry (after an accident).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. 92p.

CIS 96-2163 Koskela R.S., Klockars M., Laurent H., Holopainen M.
Silica dust exposure and lung cancer
This study evaluated the possibility of a direct association between silica dust exposure and lung cancer. Cancer morbidity and mortality were followed in 1940-1989 in a cohort of 1,026 granite workers employed at three main sites in Finland and compared with that of census-based target populations from the same regions. The cytotoxicity of different granite fractions and their capacity to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human leucocytes were studied in vitro. The cancer morbidity and mortality figures of the three different granite areas, combined with the found differences in biological activity of granite dusts and a hypothesis that there is a cancer-inducing mechanism for ROS, point to a direct role for quartz in cancer induction.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1994, Vol.20, No.6, p.407-416. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 96-1333 Gallo V., Marangoni O., Bernardini I., Raffaelli D., Lenzi M., Fogacci D., Landuzzi A., Masi G.
Intervention plan in the quarrying industry - Occupational health and safety and environmental hygiene aspects
Piani d'intervento nel comparto attività estrattive: Cave e impianti - Aspetti di igiene e sicurezza sul lavoro e igienico-ambientali [in Italian]
Review of data obtained from a survey of the OSH situation in quarries near Bologna (Italy). Health risks and safety measures were examined in detail, with particular attention to dust, noise, vibration, accidents and air quality. In annex: questionnaire sheet used in the survey.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.7, No.1, p.42-67. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 96-1025 Kampmann B., Piekarski C.
Calculation of the permissible length of exposure in workplaces with extreme climatic conditions according to the standard ISO 7933
Berechnung von zulässigen Expositionszeiten für klimabelastete Arbeitsplätze durch die Norm ISO 7933 [in German]
The length of exposure to heat in anthracite mining is calculated according to the standard ISO 7933 (see CIS 90-1357) in function of various types of clothing and various air velocities. In addition, the workloads which would allow 300, 360 and 480 minutes of work in the moist and hot climate of anthracite mining are calculated according to the standard. Results are presented in the form of graphs identifying those workplaces where environmental conditions lead to intolerable increases in body temperature. A comparison of predictions with measurements reveals the shortcomings of the standard. It is recommended that the mathematical model on which the standard is based be improved with the help of new data from field measurements.
Institut für Arbeitswissenschaften der Ruhrkohle AG, Wengeplatz 1, 44369 Dortmund, Germany, 1994. 65p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 96-8 Mines Rescue Act 1994 [Australia - New South Wales]
Among the provisions of this Act (assented to on 10 May 1994, commenced on 8 July 1994) the following are of relevance to OSH (the only parts microfiched by CIS): establishment of a Mines Rescue Board of New South Wales for coal mines; establishment of a Mines Rescue Brigade for the State; role of the Board in the staffing and training of rescue personnel; notification of dangerous events in coal mines. Mines Rescue Act 1925 is repealed.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.2, 4p. (pages numbered 59,021 - 59,024).

CIS 95-2102
HM Inspectorate of Mines - Safety in Mines Research Advisory Board
1994 annual report to the Health and Safety Commission
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 16p. ###

CIS 95-1940 Order of the President of the Superior Mining Council of 20 June 1994 regarding plans for the operation of mining establishments [Poland]
Zarządzenie prezesa Wyższego Urzędu Górniczego z dnia 20 czerwca 1994 r. w sprawie planów ruchu zakładów górniczych [in Polish]
Entry into force: 2 Sep. 1994. This order defines requirements to be met by underground and opencast mines, as well as by establishments that extract material by drilling, to ensure that adequate safety, health and environmental measures are included when such establishments plan their operations. Three annexes give specific requirements for each category of establishment, with sample reporting forms.
Monitor Polski, 20 July 1994, No.38, p.449-479.

CIS 95-1565 Decree No.94-784 of 2 Sep. 1994 completing the General Regulation on Extractive Industries introduced by Decree No.80-331 of 7 May 1980, as modified; Decree No.94-785 of 2 Sep. 1994 modifying the chapter on flammable dust of the General Regulation on Extractive Industries ... [France]
Décret n°94-784 du 2.9.94 complétant le règlement général des industries extractives institué par le décret n°80-331 du 7 mai 1980 modifié; Décret n°94-785 du 2.9.94 modifiant le titre: Poussières inflammables, du règlement général des industries extractives [France] [in French]
Contents of the first of these decrees concerning dust in mines and quarries: reduction and measurement of dust levels in these industries; information and medical examination of workers; exposure monitoring; supplementary measures to be taken in open-air mines and other surface installations with respect to exposure to alveolar silica dust. The second decree concerns flammable dust in underground coal-mines. Summary: general provisions; personnel; classification of jobs; general protective measures; dust neutralization by schistification (with exposure limits); neutralization by application of hygroscopic salts; neutralization by water; installation of dust barriers; ventilation. In annex: ministry circulars dated 2 Sep. 1994 concerning the application of Decrees 94-784 et 94-785.
Journal officiel de la République française, 8 Sep. 1994, 126th year, No. 208, p.12978-12994.

CIS 95-1769 Fu H., Gu X., Jin X., Yu S., Wu K., Guidotti T.L.
Lung cancer among tin miners in Southeast China: Silica exposure, silicosis and cigarette smoking
Incidence of lung cancer was studied among miners in Dachang tin mine (China), known to have relatively high levels of suspended dust (silica and other potential carcinogens) and low radon levels. Among the risk factors for excess mortality from lung cancer, only the years spent drilling underground and the cumulative smoking index (product of daily cigarette consumption and number of years smoking) were independent contributors to risk; no interaction between the two was observed. The presence of silicosis did not contribute to predicting the risk independently of the years spent underground.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.26, No.3, p.373-381. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1737 Simonato L., Moulin J.J., Javelaud B., Ferro G., Wild P., Winkelmann R., Saracci R.
A retrospective mortality study of workers exposed to arsenic in a gold mine and refinery in France
In a mortality study among employees of a French gold mining and refining company, a twofold excess of lung cancer was found among both miners and smelters, mainly concentrated among workers who had experienced exposure to past levels of arsenic, radon and silica. The consistency of the results in the mine and the refinery are suggestive of a carcinogenic risk from both soluble and insoluble arsenic, although the potential role of other factors cannot be dismissed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1994, Vol.25, No.5, p.625-633. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1791 Dimich-Ward H., Bates D.V.
Reanalysis of a longitudinal study of pulmonary function in coal miners in Lorraine, France
Data from a 1985 study of pulmonary function in coal miners from the Lorraine region of France were re-analyzed. The miners had relatively high average rates of decline in forced expiratory volume during one second (FEV1) and in forced vital capacity (FVC). These rates were greater in workers who had died during the study period and smoking affected the rapidity of decline. Similar estimates of decline resulted irrespective of the statistical method used. Retired workers who had never smoked showed a decreasing rate of decline in FEV1, while smokers showed an increasing rate of decline after retirement.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1994, Vol.25, No.5, p.613-623. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 95-1767 Carta P., Cocco P., Picchiri G.
Lung cancer mortality and airways obstruction among metal miners exposed to silica and low levels of radon daughters
A study of miners in two Sardinian metal mines showed an increased mortality for nonmalignant chronic respiratory diseases in both mines. Among underground miners from mine A (low silica and high radon levels), there was a slight excess of lung cancer mortality which increased with duration of underground employment; highest lung cancer mortality was observed in underground miners with an obstructive ventilatory impairment. Deaths from lung cancer in mine B (higher silica and lower radon levels) were less than expected. Results suggest a slight association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to radon daughters. Impaired pulmonary function may be an independent predictor of lung cancer and an important risk factor.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1994, Vol.25, No.4, p.489-506. 92 ref.

CIS 95-1790 Tarchi M., Orsi D., Comba P., De Santis M., Pirastu R., Battista G., Valiani M.
Cohort mortality study of rock salt workers in Italy
In a mortality study of 487 rock salt workers in Volterra, Italy, two cases of pleural mesothelioma and two malignant brain tumours were detected. Among males, mortality for all cancers was significantly increased; observed mortality for malignant tumours of the digestive and respiratory systems was higher than expected. In women, two cases of malignant ovarian cancer were observed. Increased mortality from lung and pleural tumours was consistent with exposure to asbestos, which has also been shown to play a role in the development of ovarian tumours. Limitations of the study are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.25, No.2, p.251-256. 14 ref.

CIS 95-1273 Hand and arm vibration syndrome: Detection and prevention
La maladie du marteau pneumatique: détection et prévention [in French]
Videotape on the detection and prevention of vibration disease ("white finger disease") among miners with prolonged exposure to vibrating tools.
The Mining Association of Canada, 1105-350 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ont. K1R 7S8, Canada. No date. Videotape (length: 10min). Free. ###

CIS 95-1425 Tomášek L., Swerdlow A.J., Darby S.C., Plaček V., Kunz E.
Mortality in uranium miners in West Bohemia: A long term cohort study
For a complete abstract on a related subject by the same authors, see CIS 93-1008.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1994, Vol.51, No.5, p.308-315. 30 ref. ###

CIS 95-1388 Leigh J., Driscoll T.R., Cole B.D., Beck R.W., Hull B.P., Yang J.
Quantitative relation between emphysema and lung mineral content in coalworkers
The relationship between quantified emphysema and measured lung content of coal and silica was investigated in the lungs of 264 deceased underground coalworkers who had been exposed to mixed coal and silica dust. Lung specimens obtained at postmortem and inflated and fixed under standard conditions were used to quantify the extent of emphysema and then to measure the amount of coal and silica present in the lungs at the time of death. These data were combined with clinical and other pathological information from the subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that the extent of emphysema (E score) had a strong positive quantitative relation with coal content of the lungs (p<0.0003), age (p<0.0001), and smoking (p<0.0001). There was a significant negative interaction of uncertain biological importance between coal content of the lungs and smoking. In lifelong non-smokers emphysema was particularly strongly related to coal content and age. The relation was basically unchanged by adding a lung silica content term. Emphysema score was highly negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second. Degree of lung fibrosis was highly positively associated with lung silica content (p<0.0003). These results provide strong evidence that emphysema in coalworkers is causally related to lung coal content. The role of silica in development of emphysema, however, remains unclear.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1994, Vol.51, No.6, p.400-407. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 95-1171 Notification on work with extraction of mineral materials [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om arbejde med udvinding af mineralske materialer [in Danish]
This notification came into force 15 Nov. 1994 as the implementation of European Union directives 92/91/EEC (CIS 93-23) and 92/104/EEC (CIS 94-758). It states the rules and obligations on work on the surface, as well as underground, in connection with quarries, mining and other extraction of minerals. The notification does not apply to work at sea. The employer is obliged to prepare a written evaluation of hazards in the workplace. Protection against these hazards is to be addressed accordingly. The obligations of several employers at the same site are outlined. Landslides are to be prevented, escape routes must be available. Drilling operations must be surveyed for hazardous substances in the air. Workplaces in confined spaces must be supplied with appropriate amounts of fresh air.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 11 Nov. 1994. 5p.

CIS 95-1361 Recent developments in the coalmining industry
Evolution récente dans le domaine de l'industrie charbonnière [in French]
This ILO report was prepared for discussion at the Thirteenth Session of the Coal Mines Committee, January 1995. Part 1 reviews some of the main trends and developments in the coal industry since the Twelfth session of the Committee in 1988. These include aspects of mine safety: review of accidents and fatalities; risk assessment and safety audits; the Du Pont approach to safety; research and development; mine rescue; problems of small-scale mines; the future of mine safety. Part 2 describes action taken by member countries and by the ILO in the light of conclusions reached at previous meetings.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. v, 108p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 17.50.

CIS 95-948 Laraqui C.H., Harourate K., Belamallem I., Benaichcouch R., Benhaymoud N., Hebbada R., Verger C.
Occupational medicine in the mining sector in Morocco
Médecine du travail dans le secteur minier au Maroc [in French]
The mining sector is one of the mainstays of the Moroccan economy, employing 60,000 persons, more than half of whom in phosphate mining. Occupational medicine and occupational health hazards in the sector are reviewed. There are 36 industrial medicine departments, with 47 medical practitioners and 124 nurses for 44,000 workers (72% of the total workforce). In 1990, only 38% of these departments submitted their yearly activity report to the medical labour inspectorate, the work of which, for this sector, is entrusted to mining engineers. Although statistics from the central department of the medical labour inspectorate for the period 1975 to 1990 show a 70% decrease in occupational accidents, they also show a 100% increase in notified occupational diseases, 95% of which were cases of silicosis in 1991.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.470-473. 10 ref.

CIS 95-560
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational health and safety performance overviews, selected industries - Issue No.2
This document contains data on occupational injuries and diseases compiled from workers' compensation claims in Australia for the financial year 1991-92. The statistics do not cover all occurrences of injuries and diseases but highlight potential problem areas. Data are reviewed for the construction industry, the mining industry and the restaurants, hotels and clubs industry. The analysis shows: injuries by occupation, by age group, nature, location and mechanism of injury, time of accident and compensation costs.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Aug. 1994. vii, 35p. Illus.

CIS 95-598 Landau K., Brauchler R., Brauchler W., Ballé W., Blankenstein U.
Prediction of work-related diseases
Prognose arbeitsbedingter Erkrankungen [in German]
A 130-item questionnaire for analyzing mental and physical strains and a 355-item questionnaire for determining physical reactions to work strain are outlined. The questionnaires were applied to predicting the health risks of operating earthmoving equipment, fork-lift trucks, locomotives and passenger cars in bituminous coal mining. A total of 348 drivers in bituminous coal mines located along the Rhine river in Germany were included. Cross cluster analyses were performed to determine the relationships between the two data sets. For example, a close relationship was found for chronic diseases of the lumbar spine and vibrations which were perceived by the drivers.
Arbeit - Zeitschrift für Arbeitsforschung, Arbeitsgestaltung und Arbeitspolitik, 1994, Vol.3, No.1, p.19-39. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 95-644 Lindecke B.
Diesel engine emissions - Results of a research project
Dieselmotoremissionen - Ergebnisse eines Forschungsvorhabens [in German]
In the period between March 1991 and August 1993 the particulate emissions from diesel engines were determined in underground potash and salt mines. From the results a mathematical method was derived for predicting the soot emission and exposure levels in underground mines caused by diesel engines. The accuracy of the mathematical model was confirmed by measurements. The prediction method which can be used in all mines is less costly than measurements for which a glass fibre filter for sampling and coulometry for analysis are used. This measurement method was found not to be applicable in coal mines because of interference by the coal dust.
Kali und Steinsalz, Sep. 1994, Vol.11, No.7, p.224-230. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 95-12 Mines Inspection Act 1901 - Mines Inspection General Rule 1994 [Australia - New South Wales]
This General Rule was made under the Mines Inspection Act 1901 (CIS 92-1066) and commenced on 1 Sep. 1994. It was gazetted on 31 Aug. 1994. It concerns: Occupational Safety and Health Policies; manager's and supervisor's responsibilities for mine safety; control of persons; dangerous working places (inspection, action to be taken); Check Inspectors chosen from among workers at the mine; prohibition and testing for alcohol and drugs; welfare facilities; medical screening; safety apparel and protective devices; safety and stability of mine workings; provisions relating to explosives and energy sources; ventilation; hazardous substances; buildings and structures; equipment and machinery; shafts and winding; emergency procedures and first aid. The Mines Inspection General Rules 1901 are repealed.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.2, 12p. (pages numbered 58,941 - 58,984).

CIS 95-339
Health and Safety Executive
Managers' guide to safe coal cleaning and control of pedestrians at opencast coal sites
This data sheet provides guidance on safety during the cleaning of coal by workers using hand shovels during coaling operations. Contents: risk assessment and deciding whether coal cleaners are required; identification of hazards (falls of ground or coal, falls of workers, working within the swing radius of the excavator bucket); minimizing the risks (effective supervision, communication systems, control of coal lorries); legal aspects.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1994. 2p. 8 ref.

CIS 95-241 Woskie S.R., Shen P., Eisen E.A., Finkel M.H., Smith T.J., Smith R., Wegman D.H.
The real-time dust exposures of sodium borate workers: Examination of exposure variability
An assessment of the short term and daily dust and boron exposures of workers in a sodium borate production facility was undertaken. Over 430 person-days of personal exposure measurements were made, resulting in more than 10,000 15-minute average dust concentration measurements. In most jobs the "within-day" variability accounted for over 50% of the total variability in exposure levels. The implications of these findings for control strategies are discussed. Based on boron measurements, a substantial portion of total dust air sample is nonborate material such as cigarette smoke, vehicle exhaust, ambient dust or hydration mass. Thus, even in an environment where sodium borate is being packaged, total dust measurements are an overestimate of the actual borate exposure level.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1994, Vol.55, No.3, p.207-217. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 95-9 Mines and Minerals (Safety, Health and Environmental) Regulations, 1994 [Belize]
Regulations issued under the authority of the Mines and Minerals Act, 1988. They were gazetted on 30 Apr. 1994, Principal provisions concern: general provisions (including maximum hours and minimum age of employment, approvals, inspections, appointment of mine manager, supervision of workers, mine plans, elimination of hazards, worker training, safety and health committees, right to refuse dangerous work); environmental protection, reclamation and mine abandonment; safety in exploration; mine design and planning; machinery and equipment; electrical apparatus; buildings and structures; dumps, dams and lagoons; explosives; personnel safety and emergency preparedness; hoists and shafts; industrial hygiene; offences and penalties.
Government Printery, Belize, 1994. vi, 88p.

CIS 95-227 Kishi R., Doi R., Fukuchi Y., Satoh H., Satoh T., Ono A., Moriwaka F., Tashiro K., Takahata N., Sasatani H., Shirakashi H., Kamada T., Nakagawa K.
Residual neurobehavioural effects associated with chronic exposure to mercury vapour
To find the residual effects of long-term exposure to mercury vapour, neurobehavioural tests were given to ex-mercury miners about 18 years after the end of mercury exposure. Seventy-six male ex-mercury miners who had been exposed to high concentrations of mercury vapour (>1.0mg/m3) and with a history of mercury intoxication were compared with controls matched for age (within three years), sex, and education. Although the extent of the workers' symptoms caused by mercury poisoning, termed erethismus mercurialis, decreased considerably after the end of exposure, matched paired comparison showed that performances of motor coordination, simple reaction time, and short-term memory had deteriorated significantly in the exposed group. These results suggest that there are slight but persistent effects on neurobehavioural function, especially on motor coordination, among mercury miners even more than 10 years after the end of exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.35-41. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 94-2148 Simpson G.C.
Promoting safety improvements via potential human error audits
The development of a Potential Human Error Audit as a means of targeting accident prevention initiatives in the British coal industry is described. The framework for the audit is based on elements selected from research and the findings of disaster enquiries: the distinction between active and latent failures; classification of human errors as either unintentional or deliberate and skill based, rule based or knowledge based; the concept of performance shaping factors. An overview of the findings of such audits is presented. Post audit improvements at one colliery resulted in an 80% improvement in the accident rate.
Mining Engineer, Aug. 1994, Vol.154, No.395, p.38-42. 7 ref.

CIS 94-1811 Regulations concerning mining safety [Chile]
Reglamento de seguridad minera [in Spanish]
This compendium of mining legislation contains 11 texts: Decree 72 (1985) - Regulation on mining safety (see also CIS 88-1420); Resolution 210 (1988) establishing categories for the breaching of the Regulation on mining safety; Resolution 575 (1993) authorizing training courses for experts in risk prevention in the mining industry; Decree 745 (1992) - Regulation on minimum requirements for hygienic and environmental conditions in workplaces (see also CIS 87-364); Decree 86 (1970) on the construction and operation of tailings settling tanks; Decree 185 (1991) on the operation of equipment emitting sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and arsenic; Decree 77 (1982) on the control of weapons and explosives; Decree 73 (1992) on the use of explosives in mining enterprises; Decree 379 (1985) on basic safety requirements for the storage and handling of liquid fuels based on petroleum; Decree 226 (1982) on safety requirements of installations and locales where fuel is stored; Resolution 1851 (1993) on the qualifications of safety experts in the mining industry.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565, Correo Central, Santiago, Chile, 1994. 179p.

CIS 94-2059 Tóth J., Lakatos J.
A thermodynamic model for coal gas outbursts
A thermodynamic model for coal-methane outbursts is described based on laboratory modelling of results of gas/coal outbursts and sorption properties of gas/coal systems. The basic idea of the model is that a potential barrier exists between two equilibria in coal/gas systems; when this barrier is crossed, a considerable amount of energy is released. Development of protection processes requires exact and continuous measuring of the potential barrier and determination of its distribution. An instrument for such measurement is under development.
Mining Engineer, June 1994, Vol.153, No.393, p.359-361. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 94-1084 Berchem-Simon O.
Commission of the European Communities
Ergonomics action in mining - The results of the fifth ECSC programme
L'action ergonomique dans les mines - Les résultats du cinquième programme CECA [in French]
This collection of research studies presents the results of the fifth ergonomics programme of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) aimed at improving health safety and quality of life in underground mining which was completed during the period 1987 to 1992. Some 32 projects are described, they include: handling systems in coal mines; introduction of computerization and automation; information presentation in monitoring and control systems; design of mining machinery to facilitate maintenance; lighting design; improved hearing protection; development of protective cabins for miners exposed to severe stress; safety and technical training; physical and postural stress associated with loading and unloading of mine materials; reduction of biomechanical damage risk in open-cast mines; practical training in ergonomics for managers; underground communications; risk perception and hazard awareness; determining physiological demands of work in difficult conditions.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1994. xiv, 301p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: ECU 33.00.

CIS 94-1036 Sagisaka M., Noda K., Shiota K.
Development of environmental monitoring system for disaster prediction
A computer-based monitoring system for coal mine safety is described. The system incorporates handling of time series data, linkage of data from scattered sensors and a variety of monitoring items. Prevention of spontaneous combustion or fires is achieved by continuously monitoring the carbon monoxide concentration gradient. A new method is proposed for predicting outbursts of gas and coal and the prevention of gas explosions is achieved by monitoring methane data.
Mining Engineer, Feb. 1994, Vol.153, No.389, p.213-218. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 03-116 Ergonomics for the control of sprains and strains in mining
Contents of this training manual: manual handling; hazard recognition; rough rides; evaluation of seating on mining vehicles. In annex: glossary; checklists (on manual handling, seating and the ergonomics of mining equipment).
AusInfo Government Info Shops,, Australia, 1993. 36p. 14 ref. [in English]

CIS 96-2109 McDonald J.C., Liddell F.D.K., Dufresne A., McDonald A.D.
The 1891-1920 birth cohort of Quebec chrysotile miners and millers: Mortality 1976-88
A cohort of some 11,000 men born 1891-1920 and employed for at least one month in the chrysotile mines and mills of Quebec, was established in 1966 and has been followed ever since. This paper presents the results of analysis of mortality for the period 1976 to 1988 inclusive compared to that of the general public in Quebec. In many respects the standard mortality ratios (SMRs) 20 years or more after first employment were similar to those for the period 1951-75. The SMR for lung cancer, however, rose from 1.25 to 1.39 and deaths from mesothelioma increased from eight (before review) to 25. Of the 33 deaths from mesothelioma in the cohort to date, 28 were in miners and millers and five were in employees of a small asbestos products factory where commercial amphiboles had also been used. Preliminary analysis also suggests that the risk of mesothelioma was higher in the mines and mills at Thetford Mines than in those of Asbestos.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.50, No.12, p.1073-1081. 17 ref.

CIS 96-1334 Ley F.X., Wild P., Moulin J.J., Prévot P., Kam G., Schaffer P.
Mortality of Alsace potash miners: Historical cohort study of 13,099 persons
La mortalité des mineurs de potasse d'Alsace: une étude prospective historique portant sur une cohorte de 13.009 sujets [in French]
A cohort of 13,099 workers from Alsace potash mines was followed up between 1977 and 1987 in order to assess the effect on mortality of the working conditions mainly characterized by an exposure to heat. The causes of death were ascertained through a triangular procedure between the potash mines, INSERM and INRS. This procedures yielded 95% of causes of death. Within cohort A, which was made up of workers working during the follow-up, two exposure groups were defined, those having ever worked underground (EU) and those having never worked underground (NU). The SMR for all causes in this cohort was equal to 0.90 (550 cases) and no SMR by specific cause proved to be in significant excess. The relative risk (RR) showed an excess mortality by digestive disease in the EU group, mainly due to an excess of deaths by cirrhosis. No other RR was significant. Nevertheless, analyzing mortality from ischaemic disease showed that the RR was significantly increased both with duration of employment and age. This raises the issue of the long-term effect of the working conditions in the potash mines on the cardiovascular system.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, de médecine du travail et de sécurité sociale, 1993, Vol.54, No.1, p.13-20. 16 ref.

CIS 96-667 Chau N., Benamghar L., Pham Q.T., Teculescu D., Rebstock E., Mur J.M.
Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France) - Relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality
An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. In this study the cohort included 1,178 workers selected at random from all the 5,300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow-up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980 and 1985. The study confirmed the excess of lung and of stomach cancer. It is considered that the risk of lung cancer in the Lorraine iron miners was mainly due to dust, diesel engine exhaust fumes and explosives although the role of low exposure to radon daughters could not be totally excluded.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.50, No.11, p.1017-1031. 96 ref.

CIS 96-864 Seixas N.S., Robins T.G., Attfield M.D., Moulton L.H.
Longitudinal and cross sectional analyses of exposure to coal mine dust and pulmonary function in new miners
The association between exposure to dust and pulmonary function was studied by longitudinal and cross-section analyses in a group of US underground coal miners beginning work in or after 1970. The cohort included 977 miners examined both in round two (R2)(1972-75) and round four (R4)(1985-88) of the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis. The results indicated a rapid initial (at R2) loss of FVC and FEV1 in association with cumulative exposure of the order of 30mL per mg/m3-years. After some 15 years since first exposure (at R4), a statistically significant association of cumulative exposure with FEV1 of about -5.9mL per mg/m3-years was found. These results indicate a significant non-linear effect of exposure to dust on pulmonary function at dust concentrations present after regulations took effect. The initial responses in both the FVC and FEV1 are consistent with inflammation of the small airways in response to exposure to dust.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.50, No.10, p.929-937. 30 ref.

CIS 95-2252 Sakakibara H., Suzuki H., Momoi Y., Yamada S.
Elbow joint disorders in relation to vibration exposure and age in stone quarry workers
Angles of maximum active motion in elbow extension and flexion were measured in 74 male workers of a stone quarry in Japan. In addition, antero-posterior and lateral radiographs of both elbows were taken. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the influences of age and vibration caused by power-driven hammers and tools on the diagnosed elbow joint disorders. It was found that the duration of operation of power-driven hand tools contributed significantly to the elbow joint disorders while there was no significant relationship to the age of the workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.1, p.9-12. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1875 Horten W.
Importance to occupational safety - The measurement of blastholes and working surfaces in quarries
Bedeutung für die Arbeitssicherheit - Vermessung von Bohrlöchern und Abbauwänden in Steinbrüchen [in German]
The exact depth and inclination of blastholes in quarry mining can be determined by insertion of glass or carbon fibre rods to which a measuring unit with sensors is attached. The measured data are transferred to a personal computer for determination of the appropriate charge. The ejection of rocks by too high energy can be avoided. The height and unevenness of the working surface of a quarry can be measured from a distance with a theodolite that is coupled to a range finder. Accidents caused by falling rocks can thus be prevented.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Jan.-Feb. 1993, Vol.103, No.1, p.9-19. Illus. 13 ref.

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