Agriculture - 1,538 entries found
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Kuye R., Donham K., Marquez S., Sanderson W., Fuortes L., Rautiainen R., Jones M., Culp K.
Agricultural health in The Gambia II: A systematic survey of safety and injuries in production agriculture
This study was undertaken to provide baseline information on the injuries and safety and health conditions in Gambian agriculture. The objective was to produce information to guide the formulation of an agricultural safety and health policy for the country, future investigations, prevention and surveillance of the adverse health effects in agriculture. A cross-sectional survey of 20 farmers, 20 nurses, and 20 agricultural extension workers was conducted in two regions of Gambia. The survey was implemented by the means of questionnaires, walk-through surveys and hazard checklists. Seventy percent of farms reported an injury during the past year. Major sources and contributing factors for the injuries were characterized. Predisposing factors to the injuries were climatic conditions, working in static positions, bending and twisting and carrying heavy objects. Cuts and lacerations were identified as the commonest injury types and the most common sources were hand tools (hand hoe, cutlass, axe and knife) and animal-powered carts. A workshop for the major stakeholders in the country's agriculture was also held to identify problems and possible solutions for health promotion of Gambian farmers.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.119-128. Illus. 37 ref.
Agricultural_health.pdf [in English]
Characteristics of annual exposure to noise among private farmers on family farms of mixed-production profile
The objective of the study was to evaluate annual exposure to noise among farmers on farms engaged in mixed (crop-animal) production. The study covered 16 family farms of 13-30 ha (20.4 ha on average). The farms were equipped with agricultural tractors (2.4 tractors on average), selected workshop machinery, saws for logging and machines for the production of fodder. The highest values for total monthly exposure to noise were observed in September, October, August, November and April. The high total exposure values obtained in the summer and autumn months (August-November) are associated with the harvesting of cereals and root plants, and soil cultivation. In April, the occurrence of high total exposure values was due to intensive field activities (ploughing, harrowing, and sowing). Other findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.113-118. Illus. 10 ref.
Characteristics.pdf [in English]
Goglia V., Gospodaric Z., Filipovic D., Djukic I.
Influence on operator's health of hand-transmitted vibrations of a single-axle tractor
The operators of the single-axle tractors are especially exposed to hand-arm transmitted vibrations. These vibrations can cause complex vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, collectively named hand-arm vibration syndrome. Among these, the most common disorder is vibration-induced white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). The vibration levels were measured in three tractor working conditions, namely idling, transportation and soil tillage. The frequency-weighted acceleration, given in m/s2, was calculated. Findings are discussed with reference to daily exposure limits recommended by ISO 5349. Results showed that 10% of workers are exposed to a risk of vibration-induced white finger disorder of the hands after relatively short periods (3-4 years), if the tractor is used eight hours per day in soil tillage and transportation at full load. Considering the criteria of the ISO 5349, the daily working time with the single-axle tractor should be limited in order to protect the operator and work schedules should be arranged to include vibration-free periods.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.33-38. Illus. 21 ref.
Influence_on_operator's health.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for guthion - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of guthion is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards are primarily related to the neurotoxic properties of the substance. Its carcinogenic potential has not been established.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 184p. Illus. Approx. 280 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp188.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for dichloropropenes - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of dicholoropropenes is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. IARC has classified 1,3-dicloropropene as being possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 282p. Illus. Approx. 380 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp40.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for diazinon - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of diazinon is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include neurotoxic effects (central nervous system) and pancreatic damage. The carcinogenic potential of the substance has not been established. (Update of CIS 97-210).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 246p. Illus. Approx. 450 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp86.pdf [in English]
Michaelis C., McGuire M
Health and Safety Executive
Scoping study determining the potential of engaging stakeholders in the food supply chain to support and influence farmers to promote health and safety
The incidence rate of fatal and major injuries in agriculture is among the highest of any industry and the prevalence of work-related ill health is the highest of any sector. This represents a significant cost burden to the agricultural sector, besides causing suffering to victims and their families. Reducing the incidence of these events is part of HSE's strategy for building a sustainable, modern farming sector. One of the possible means of influencing farmers' risk taking behaviour is through the food supply chain, by setting up partnerships with wholesalers, cooperatives, food industry representatives and supermarkets. This project was aimed at examining potential synergies for improvement of safety and health management through the food supply chain. It involved phone and face-to-face interviews with farmers and supply chain representatives. Overall, farmers were found to be receptive to OSH issues. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 66p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr507.pdf [in English]
Chiarello P., Scatena Sobrinho P., Campanelli Marçal Vieira M.N., Diez Garcia R.W.
Protein-energy supplements to preserve nutritional status of sugar cane cutters
Sugar cane cutters in south-eastern Brazil are temporarily hired for the harvest period of eight months. They often have minimal benefits and may not receive adequate nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in weight and body composition of sugar cane cutters during harvest with the use of protein-energy and electrolyte supplements. Three products were used daily: a milk drink, a seasoned manioc meal mixture and an electrolyte replacement fluid, adding approx. 400kcal and 28.5g of protein/day. There were small reductions in body mass index and percentage body fat with maintenance of lean mass. There was a significant improvement in hydration status, serum albumin and cholesterol. There were no medical absences related to dehydration. These supplements may have a useful role to play in reducing lean mass losses and maintaining nutritional and hydration status of these workers.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.575-577. 9 ref.
González Villarejo P.M., Ramírez R., Melgarejo G.E., Calle P., Pardo Martínez C.I.
Safety in the agri-food industry
Seguridad en el sector agroindustrial [in Spanish]
Contents of this collection of articles on safety in the agri-food industry: characteristics of work in the agri-food industry; safety and health in the agri-food industry; safe use of pesticides; safe use of tractors; surveillance programme of Columbian farmers implemented by a pesticide producer; vaccination of seasonal and migrant workers in Columbia; good practices in environmental protection in Columbia.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 2006, Vol.52, No.310, p.51-79. Illus. Bibl.ref.
van Balen E., Font R., Cavallé N., Font L., Garcia-Villanueva M., Benavente Y., Brennan P., de Sanjose S.
Exposure to non-arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain
The objective of this case-control study was to estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma in one of four participating hospitals between 1998 and 2002. Controls were selected among other patients and matched to the cases by sex and age. All subjects were interviewed on their job history. Although globally farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, those exposed to non-arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio, OR 1.8). A particularly high risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR 2.8). The risk was also high for exposure to non-arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR 2.4).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.663-668. 36 ref.
Lacasaña M., Vázquez-Grameix H., Borja-Aburto C.H., Blanco-Muñoz J., Romieu I., Aguilar-Garduño C., García A.M.
Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the association between parental occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly. Cases included 151 children born with anencephaly in maternities of three Mexican states, while controls were births without congenital malformations from the same maternities. General information and information on exposures to pesticides were obtained by means of questionnaires. The children of mothers who worked in agriculture in the acute risk period during pregnancy had a significantly greater risk of anencephaly (odds ratio, OR 4.57). The risk of fathers having a child with anencephaly was greater among those who applied pesticides, irrespective of whether it was during or not during the acute risk period (OR 2.50 and 2.03 respectively).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.649-656. 43 ref.
Occupational hearing loss in agricultural settings
Most of the information on hearing loss due to noise in the agricultural sector consists of training materials in the form of brochures and manuals, together with and journal articles published by academic presses, government associations, and professional organizations. However, few books are entirely devoted to the topic of hearing loss in agricultural settings. Recently, many occupational safety and health Web sites have been adding information and links to publications dealing with hearing loss in the agricultural industry. This literature survey focussed on Web-based publications addressing the topic of occupational hearing loss in agriculture briefly describes the information that can be obtained from various selected Web sites.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Information, 2006, Vol.7, No.4, p.57-62. 1 ref.
Douphrate D.I., Rosencrance J.C., Wahl G.
Workers' compensation experience of Colorado agriculture workers, 2000-2004
This study analysed workers' compensation claims data for non fatal injuries among agriculture and agri-business workers in the State of Colorado between the years of 2000 and 2004. High rates of injury claims were found, especially in sectors that involve interaction with animals or livestock. Grain milling operations had a high rate of injury claims among agri-business operations. Injuries related to animals, strains, machinery, falls or slips were the most frequent among all occupations analysed. The development of safety interventions that address the worker-animal interface, fall protection systems, machinery usage and overexertion prevention are recommended.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.49, No.11, p.900-910. 43 ref.
Arcury T.A., Quandt S.A.
Health and social impacts of tobacco production
The objective of this literature survey was to summarize current knowledge about the health and social consequences of tobacco production and to outline research needed to better understand these effects. The health effects of tobacco production include nicotine poisoning (green tobacco sickness), pesticide poisoning, respiratory effects, musculoskeletal and other injuries. Most research has focused on nicotine poisoning. Further research is needed on the effects of tobacco work on the health of women and children exposed to nicotine and pesticides, the effects of chronic nicotine exposure on all tobacco workers, the neurotoxic effects of pesticide exposure and its relationship with mental health, and the effects of growing tobacco on using tobacco. Greater effort is needed to document the social disruption in communities that are economically dependent on tobacco production, particularly those in developing countries.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2006, Vol.11, No.3/4, p.71-81. 61 ref.
Flower K.B., Hoppin J.A., Shore D.L., Lynch C.F., Blair A., Knott C., Alavanja M.C.R., Sandler D.P.
Causes of mortality and risk factors for injury mortality among children in the Agricultural Health Study
Within the framework of the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort, this study examined the causes of mortality among 21,360 children in Iowa and North Carolina between 1975 and 1998. Information for children provided by mothers on self-administered questionnaires was matched to state death registry data. Data on farm and family characteristics were provided by parents in cohort enrolment questionnaires. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, using state mortality data to generate expected deaths. Logistic regression was used to examine parent, child and farm characteristics associated with injury mortality. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2006, Vol.11, No.3/4, p.47-59. 40 ref.
Beseler C.L., Stallones L.
Structural equation modeling of the relationships between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms and safety behaviors among Colorado farm residents
The objective of this study was to use structural equation modelling (SEM) to test the theory that a past pesticide poisoning may act as a mediator in the relationship between depression and safety practices. A cross-sectional survey of farmers and their spouses was conducted in eight counties in north-eastern Colorado. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. SEM showed that poor health, financial difficulties and a history of pesticide poisoning significantly explained the depressive symptoms. Specific depressive symptoms appeared to be significantly associated with animal handling and farm machinery.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2006, Vol.11, No.3/4, p.35-46. Illus. 24 ref.
Carruth A.K., Skarke L., Gilmore K., Brown E.R.
Potential exposure to hazardous work activities: Tractor usage among farmwomen
This study examined the involvement and work patterns of 665 women in Texas and 657 women in Louisiana who were 18 years old and older and whose family participated in farming operations. Surveys were used to gather specific data regarding tractor work patterns, tractor knowledge, sources of information about tractors and demographic information. Among the women, 577 (43.6%) reported driving tractors at least one day a year. This subset was used to describe characteristics of tractors and tractor-related activities. Findings indicate that women learn to drive tractors in their 20s, use husbands as the primary source of their information about tractors, engage in a wide variety of farm activities and acknowledge having limited knowing about driving tractors. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that interventions that target women to become more knowledgeable regarding the injury risks associated with driving tractors need to be designed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2006, Vol.11, No.3/4, p.25-34. 31 ref.
Hard D.L., Myers J.R.
Fatal work-related injuries in the agriculture production sector among youth in the United States, 1992-2002
Youth working on farms face unique risks that are not present for many other young workers, including machinery, large animals, electrical hazards, chemical hazards and excessive noise. This research identified the number and rate of occupational fatalities for youth working in agriculture in the United States for the years 1992-2002. Data were obtained from the Bureau of Labour Statistics. During this period, there were 310 work-related deaths to youth less than 20 years of age. This compares to 1,958 total fatalities for all workers less than 20 years of age for the same time period. The number of fatalities to youth in agriculture has shown a general downward trend over this time period. The rates were nonetheless higher for young workers in agriculture than for young workers in all industries by a factor of 3.6. Fifteen-year olds had the highest fatality rates with the crop production sector having a rate six times that of all 15-year old workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2006, Vol.11, No.2, p.57-65. Illus. 26 ref.
Do pesticides cause childhood cancer?
Various epidemiological studies have reported associations between childhood cancer and either parental or child exposure to pesticides. Reviews published in 1997 and 1998 found evidence to be suggestive but not conclusive. This literature search was conducted to identify and evaluate new research results on this topic issued between 1998 and 2004. Eighteen new studies were identified for this review. Collectively, the studies suggest an increase in the risk of different cancer types associated with exposure to pesticides. However, the evidence is conflicting with regard to cancer types as well as to causative factors across studies. The available literature does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn with regard to pesticides and any type of childhood cancer.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.79, No.7, p.536-544. 32 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/947m8h641366713r/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Sallmén M., Baird D.D., Hoppin J.A., Blair A., Sandler D.P.
Fertility and exposure to solvents among families in the Agricultural Health Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of solvent exposure on the fertility of couples where the male is a licensed pesticide applicator. The couples were enrolled in a cohort between 1993 and 1997. Exposure to solvents was assessed by means of questionnaires on work tasks. The study was limited to couples (wife aged less than 40 years) with an attempt at pregnancy in the last four years. Twenty eight per cent of the 2112 couples were defined as subfertile. Adjusted subfertility odds ratios (OR) for exposure to solvents were calculated with logistic regression. Female exposure (OR 1.42) and male exposure to solvents (OR 1.21 for monthly exposure and OR 1.40 for daily or weekly exposure) were associated with subfertility. To account for potential dual exposure, variables for parental exposure (either parent exposed or both parents exposed) were also defined. Both were strongly associated with subfertility (OR 1.62 and OR 2.10, respectively).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.63, No.7, p.469-475. Illus. 32 ref.
A hantavirus exposure control program for employers and workers
Hantavirus infection is caused by a virus found in some field rodents in Canada and the United States. It is rarely transmitted to humans, but when it is, it can cause severe illness, even death. This booklet is intended for employers and workers who may come into contact with rodents or rodent droppings while at work, primarily in rural areas. Contents: definition of hantavirus, the diseases it causes, how it is transmitted and where it is most likely to be encountered; responsibilities of employers; exposure control plan; respiratory protection; good work practices.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. iii, 17p.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/hantavirus.pdf [in English]
Ngowi A.V.F., London L.
Action on pesticides under the programme on Work and Health in Southern Africa (WAHSA)
Pesticides are increasingly used in developing countries, where they represent a particular hazard because of the vulnerable agricultural populations who are poor, illiterate and in poor health. As a result, the Work and Health in Southern Africa (WAHSA) programme has launched a project aimed at developing skills and resources to manage the health and environmental impact of pesticides in the region. This article reviews the objectives, activities and main achievements of the WAHSA project on pesticides.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, May 2006, Vol.16, No.1, p.15-19. Illus. 39 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/CF7BBB4A-2980-4C03-924E-8943F8F8F6A5/0/African_Newsletter106.pdf [in English]
Khai T.T., Kawakami T., Kogi K.
WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) Programme - How the programme has helped farmers build safe and healthy farms in the Mekong delta area, Vietnam
Agricultural workers include a particularly high proportion of unprotected workers, especially in developing countries. The ILO is promoting the development of a voluntary, participatory and action-oriented training programme called WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) for implementing practical improvements in agricultural households. The principles of the programme are support for local initiatives, multifaceted solutions to suit the local situation and step-by-step progress in the implementation of improvements. This article describes the implementation of a WIND programme aimed at improving occupational safety and health in the agricultural sector in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Mar. 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.10-13. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/40A4C040-6BE7-4DFC-858C-6D16C799DA53/0/Aasian_Pacific_Newsletter_12006.pdf [in English]
Glasscock D.J., Rasmussen K., Carstensen O., Hansen O.N.
Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming
Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study examined psychosocial predictors of farm injuries, while controlling for exposure-related confounders. From a randomly selected sample of farms in Denmark, 393 farmers completed weekly accident registration over 12 months; 310 of these also completed questionnaires on psychosocial factors. Results indicated that farm stressors (including perceived economic problems), stress symptoms, and safety behaviour were predictors of occupational accidents. Higher levels of stressors and stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour were all associated with an elevated risk of injury. In the case of stress symptoms, the relation with accidents occurred via an interaction with safety behaviour. The combination of high levels of stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour was associated with a particularly high accident risk.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.20, No.2, p.173-189. 60 ref.
Jaga K., Dharmani C.
Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review
This literature survey discusses toxic effects on eyes resulting from exposure to pesticides via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact and ocular exposure. Exposure of unprotected eyes to pesticides results in the absorption in ocular tissue and potential ocular toxicity. Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure, including the dose-response relationship, has been studied in different animal species. Cholinesterase enzymes have been detected in animal ocular tissue, with evidence of organophosphorus-induced inhibition. Pathological effects of pesticides have been observed in conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina and the optic nerve. Pesticide exposure has been associated with retinopathy in agricultural workers and wives of farmers who used pesticides. Saku disease has been described in Japan in people living in an area where organophosphorus compounds were used. Pesticide exposure is also associated with abnormal ocular movements.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, May 2006, Vol.11, No.3, p.102-107. Illus. 33 ref.
Tackling hazardous child labour in agriculture - Guidance on policy and practice
This training package comprises a user guide and five guidebooks on a CD-ROM. It is aimed at policy makers to help them plan, formulate and implement programmes to tackle hazardous child labour in agriculture. Contents: background policy information; overview of child labour in agriculture; eliminating hazardous forms of child labour in agriculture; initiatives to tackle hazardous child labour in agriculture; training resources for the guidebooks.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. 291p. Illus. + CD-ROM.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=2799 [in English]
Glasscock D.J., Rasmussen K., Carstensen O., Hansen O.N.
Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming
Stress may be a cause of occupational accidents. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure-related confounders. From a randomly selected sample of 794 farms in Denmark, 393 farmers provided weekly reports of accidents over 12 months and completed a questionnaire on various psychosocial factors. Results indicated that farm stressors (including perceived economic problems), stress symptoms and safety behaviour were predictors of occupational accidents.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.20, No.2, p.173-189. 60 ref.
Arcury T.A., Vallejos Q.M., Marín A.J., Feldman S.R., Smith G., Quandt S.A.
Latino farmworker perceptions of the risk factors for occupational skin disease
Most farm workers in the United States are Latino. Skin diseases are a health problem to which farm workers are particularly vulnerable. Preventive actions must therefore be adapted to farm workers' understanding of such diseases, including their beliefs or knowledge of risk factors. This study used in-depth interviews with 30 Latino farm workers (6 women, 24 men) to determine beliefs and perceptions of the causes of common occupational skin diseases in this population. Results indicate that farm worker beliefs and perceptions of skin disease causation can be integrated into a general model in which perceived risk factors include sun and heat, chemicals, plants, insects, moisture, hygiene and contagion. Each of these factors is moderated by the individual's personal susceptibility. The model suggests that health education is the most important factor for reducing skin disease among farm workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.434-442. Illus. 20 ref.
Morgaine K., Langley J.D., McGee R.O.
The FarmSafe programme in New Zealand: Process evaluation of year one (2003)
A national programme to raise awareness of safety issues for farm workers and reduce farm-related injuries (FarmSafe) has been implemented in New Zealand since 2002. This article describes the implementation of the first stage of this programme in 2003, presents findings from the process evaluation for the first stage, and places this evaluation in the context of a larger and longer-term evaluation programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key members of the five agencies responsible for the programme, with workshop facilitators and with farm workers who had participated in the first stage workshops. The process evaluation showed that the programme was successful in achieving widespread participation in a safety training programme within an industry that is predominantly one of self-employment or small businesses and where there is geographical isolation.
Safety Science, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.359-371. Illus. 27 ref.
Jaga K., Dharmani C.
Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review
This literature survey reviews studies of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure. Cholinesterase enzymes have been detected in animal ocular tissue, with evidence of organophosphate-induced inhibition. Pathological effects of pesticides have been observed in conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina and the optic nerve. Pesticide exposure has been associated with retinopathy in agricultural workers and wives of farmers who used pesticides. Saku disease has been described in Japan among persons living in an area where organophosphates were used. Pesticide exposure is also associated with abnormal ocular movements. Progressive toxic ocular effects leading to defective vision are a serious health concern. Agricultural workers are at high risk of exposure to pesticides and associated ocular toxicity. Primary prevention should include improved eye safety and care in the workplace and effective pesticide regulation.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, May 2006, Vol.11, No.3, p.102-107. Illus. 33 ref.
Occupational non-infectious respiratory diseases due to biological agents - Farming sector and the food industry
Affections respiratoires professionnelles non infectieuses dues aux agents biologiques - Secteurs agricole et agroalimentaire [in French]
The farming sector and the food industry are the main sectors affected by respiratory diseases caused by biological agents. Since the work requires contact with soil, plants, animal-based products, food or organic dust, many tasks involve exposure to moulds, yeasts and bacteria. Diseases encountered include extrinsic allergic alveolitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, asthma and asthma-like syndromes, chronic bronchitis symptoms and obstructive chronic bronchitis. This review article discusses current understanding with respect to medical prevention, technical prevention and compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.225-238. Illus. 77 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2037/$File/TR37.pdf [in French]
Ageing and strenuousness of work in the farming sector
Vieillissement et pénibilité du travail en milieu agricole [in French]
Review of a colloquium on ageing and the strenuousness of work in the farming sector held in Tours, France, on 2 February 2006. Among the topics covered: medical effects of ageing; ageing and work aptitude; work strenuousness; extending the working life; refresher training; statistics of occupational hazards in agricultural settings by age; occupational safety and health programmes; role of insurance institutions.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.2, p.183-191.
The effects of long-term occupational exposure to dust from herbs
The aim of this case-control study was to analyse the health effects of long-term occupational exposure to dust from herbs. Cases consisted of 150 workers occupationally exposed to dust from herbs, namely farmers supplying herbs to a Polish enterprise producing herb-based medicines, together with production workers of the same enterprise. Referents consisted of 50 urban dwellers not exposed to any kind of organic dust. Participants were subjected to questionnaire-based interviews, spirometry and allergological tests. 71.3% of the exposed subjects reported the occurrence of work-related symptoms. A post-shift decrease of spirometric values was observed in the exposed group. A significant relationship was found between the number of work-related symptoms and a decrease in FEV1 values, both before and after work. In allergy tests, the frequencies of positive reactions in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the reference group.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2006, Vol.79, No.2, p.169-175. Illus. 30 ref.
Lee S.A., Adhikari A., Grinshpun S.A., McKay R., Shukla R., Reponen T.
Personal exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms in agricultural environments
In this study, farmers' exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms was assessed using a newly-developed personal sampling system. Particle number and size distribution were measured with an optical particle counter. Simultaneously, particles were collected on a filter and analysed for microorganisms. The field measurements were conducted in animal confinements (swine, poultry and dairy) and during grain harvesting (corn and soybean). Findings are discussed. Results indicate that the increase in the concentration of large dust particles (2-10µm) during grain harvesting was partially attributable to the increase in the concentration of the fungal spores. Overall, the combined exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms was found to be more severe during harvesting than in animal confinements.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2006, Vol.3, No.3, p.118-130. Illus. 48 ref.
Hartman E., Oude Vrielink H.H.E., Huirne R.B.M., Metz J.H.M.
Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers: A case-control study
The objective of this case-control study was to identify and quantify risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers. Risk factors for sick leave claimed between 1998 and 2001 for back or neck/shoulder/upper extremity disorders from 198 and 89 subjects respectively were analysed and compared to 816 controls who did not file any claim in this period. It was concluded that the prevention of sick leave among self-employed farmers should focus on life style (obesity, smoking), reducing physical workload among older farmers and reducing long-term tractor driving. Specific attention should be paid to farmers in contact with animals and to mushroom farmers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.49, No.3, p.204-214. Illus. 39 ref.
Hofmann J., Guardado J., Keifer M., Wesseling C.
Mortality among a cohort of banana plantation workers in Costa Rica
The nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP, Nemagon), widely used in Costa Rica during the late 1960s and 1970s, causes sterility in men and is a possible carcinogen. Mortality among a cohort of Costa Rican banana plantation workers was investigated. The cohort included 40,959 individuals who worked on banana plantations between 1972 and 1979. Employment records were linked with the Costa Rican Mortality Registry to determine outcomes through 1999. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all causes of death. Poisson regression was also used to calculate mortality risk estimates by duration of employment, but provided no additional insight. All-causes SMRs were 0.77 for men (95% CI 0.75-0.80) and 0.90 for women (95% CI 0.80-1.02) relative to national mortality rates. Mortality from septicaemia was significantly higher than expected. Nonsignificant increases in mortality were also observed for testicular cancer, penile cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and Parkinson's disease in men, and for cervical cancer and lung cancer in women.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.321-328. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Hofmann.pdf [in English]
Rodríguez T., Younglove L., Lu C., Funez A., Weppner S., Barr D.B., Fenske R.A.
Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua
Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPY and IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0µg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168µg/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: 1) monitor children's activities during applications; 2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; 3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; 4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.312-320. Illus. 37 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Rodriguez.pdf [in English]
Beyond common sense: A report on the barriers to adoption of safety in the agriculture industry
Report of a study into improving occupational health and safety (OHS) outcomes for Australia's agriculture sector. The study is based on interviews with a small group of farmers and with safety practitioners. Findings indicate that farmers' attitudes towards safety on the farm represent a significant barrier to improvements: there is a general view that injuries are a normal part of farming life and farmers accept a high level of risk. The implications for OHS initiatives are discussed.
Australian Safety and Compensation Council, email@example.com, 2006. 27p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/79D9FB20-F40A-43D3-986F-07F7CDCB5929/0/BeyondCommonSenseResearchReport.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working with bales in agriculture
This booklet provides guidance on safety during work with bales in agriculture. Topics covered: accidents and health hazards linked with handling and stacking bales; training of workers; where to build stacks; preventing falls during stacking and de-stacking; how to stack different types of bales; covering bales; stack maintenance; de-stacking; moving bales; other hazards (fire, overhead power lines, manual handling, dust, vermin, child safety); checklist. Replaces CIS 01-80.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006.11p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg125.pdf [in English]
Chitra G.A., Muraleedharan V.R., Swaminathan T., Veeraraghavan D.
Use of pesticides and its impact on health of farmers in South India
The relationship between extent of pesticide use and signs and symptoms of illnesses due to exposure was assessed in a cross-sectional survey of 631 farmers (537 men and 94 women) in South India. Responses to questionnaires showed that 433 farmers (68.6%) sprayed pesticides themselves and were thus directly exposed. More than 75% used moderately or highly hazardous pesticides; 88% used no protection while handling pesticides. About 50% of sprayers mixed different brands. Retailers were the source of information about pesticides for 56%. The farmers reported excessive sweating (36.5%), burning/stinging/itching of eyes (35.7%), dry/sore throat (25.5%), and excessive salivation (14.1%), all more prevalent among sprayers. Among men, excessive sweating and eye and throat problems were significantly associated with exposure. There is a need to raise farmers' and authorities' awareness of the need to use protective gear when handling pesticides. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.228-233. Illus. 17 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Chitra.pdf [in English]
Manual handling solutions for farms
In agriculture, back, neck and limb disorders are the most common types of ill health. Many of the injuries are caused by poor manual handling practices. This booklet describes some of the practical measures that farmers can adopt to reduce the likelihood of suffering from back or muscle disorders. Examples are provided for the following farming tasks: handling spare tractor wheels; handling bagged products; lifting chemical and oil containers; handling of animals; sheep shearing; bale handling. Replaces CIS 00-1579.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Apr. 2006. 12p. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as23.pdf [in English]
Kawakami T., Khai T.T., Kogi K.
Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development Programme (WIND): Training programme on safety, health and working conditions in agriculture
The Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development (WIND) training programme provides practical responses to the special problems of agricultural safety and health in Asian countries. Building on the ILO's experience gained through the WISE (Work Improvement in Small Enterprises) programme, WIND applies a participatory and action-oriented training approach, designed for rapid and sustainable improvements in farmers' safety, health and working conditions. To ensure relevance, as well as sustainability, WIND is very much reliant on, and responsive to, farmers' own initiatives, knowledge and resources. Contents of this training programme aimed at organizations intending to implement a WIND programme: introduction; action checklist; materials storage and handling; work station design and work tools; machine safety; work environment and control for hazardous agents; welfare facilities; work organization; good examples
Centre of Occupational Health and Environment, Department of Health, Can Tho City, Vietnam, 2005, viii, 130p. Illus.
Work_Improvement_(WIND)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Hendricks K.J., Layne L.A., Goldcamp E.M., Myers J.R.
Injuries to youth living on U.S. farms in 2001 with comparison to 1998
To obtain sustained injury surveillance data for youth on farms in the USA, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed the Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (CAIS) in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The first survey collected data for youth less than 20 years of age in 1998 through a regionally stratified telephone survey of 50,000 farm households. A second survey for 2001 was conducted using the same methodology. In 2001, there were approximately 1.2 million youth living on farms in the United States. These youth suffered an estimated 19,397 injuries (15.7/1,000 household youth). Approximately 60% (11,571) of the household youth injuries were to males. For all household youth, 10-15 year olds experienced the most injuries (49%). In addition to providing estimates of demographics, injuries and injury rates for household youth from the 2001 survey, this article provides a comparison with results from 1998. The comparison shows a decrease of household youth injuries on farms by almost 30% but an increase in the number of injuries to young females.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.4, p.19-26. 12 ref.
Rabinowitz P.M., Sircar K.D., Tarabar S., Galusha D., Slade M.D.
Hearing loss in migrant agricultural workers
This cross-sectional survey of 150 migrant agricultural workers was conducted to assess the prevalence and impact of hearing loss in this population, using a bilingual questionnaire. Pure tone audiometry and tympanometry were performed in a mobile testing van. More than half the subjects had some degree of hearing loss, especially in the higher frequencies. Hispanic males in the sample had significantly greater prevalence of high-frequency hearing loss compared to those in the national Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). More than 35% of respondents complained of subjective difficulty hearing or understanding speech. Even after adjusting for measured hearing loss, Hispanic farm workers were more likely than their English-speaking counterparts to complain of difficulty hearing or understanding speech, suggesting that language barriers could worsen the impact of hearing loss. Risk factors for hearing loss included age, abnormal tympanometry, and exposures to noise and pesticides. The use of hearing protection was rare.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.4, p.9-17. Illus. 20 ref.
Rautiainen R.H., et al.
Cost of compensated injuries and occupational diseases in agriculture in Finland
This study aimed to determine the costs of occupational injuries and diseases in Finnish agriculture based on compensation records. The incidence rates in 1996 were 7.4/100 for injuries and 0.61/100 for occupational diseases. Men had a higher risk of injury (relative risk RR=1.89), but a lower risk of an occupational disease (RR=0.68), compared to women. Costs per person were EUR 75 in 1983, increasing to EUR 215 in 1999. Total costs in 1996 were EUR 23.5 million consisting of medical care (16%), compensation within one year from the incident (37%), compensation after one year from the incident (23%), survivors' pension (3%), impairment allowance (7%), rehabilitation (6%), and other costs (9%). Costs were 0.7% of the national gross farm income and 2.2% of the net farm income. Mean costs of 1996 cases were EUR 1340 for injuries and EUR 6636 for occupational diseases. Injuries represented 92% of the claims and 71% of the total costs, while occupational diseases represented the rest.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.3, p.21-29. Illus. 29 ref.
Pesticide-related illness and injury surveillance - A how-to guide for state-based programs
This guide explains how to define and operate medical surveillance programmes for acute and subacute effects of pesticide exposure. It includes guidelines for case investigation, data collection, outreach, and occupational hygiene education. Additional useful information for use both in the initial phases of developing a surveillance programme and the ongoing implementation of the surveillance system is provided in the appendices. The guide also addresses issues of capturing data on pesticide-related illnesses and injuries in workplace and non-workplace settings.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Nov. 2005. xv, 272p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-102/pdfs/2006-102.pdf [in English]
Myers J.R., Hendricks K.J., Goldcamp E.M., Layne L.A.
Injury and asthma among youth less than 20 years of age on minority farm operations in the United States, 2000 - Volume I: Racial minority national data
This document presents national US data on non-fatal injuries and asthma among youth on farms operated by Hispanic minorities for the year 2000. These data, drawn from a special survey of minority farm operators across the country, indicate that 366 youth were injured during 2000. The causes of these injuries included falls, animals and vehicles such as ATVs. The overall prevalence of asthma was of 87.7 asthmatics per 1000 household youth. This information will serve as a resource to federal, state and local agencies, health and safety professionals and farm safety advocates in their efforts to develop focused and coordinated strategies to prevent youth injuries and asthma on farms.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, July 2005. xv, 273p. 66 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-109/pdfs/2006-109.pdf [in English]
Tractor safety - For the landscaping and horticultural services industry
Seguridad al usar el tractor - Para las industrias de la jardinería y servicios hortícolas [in Spanish]
This document provides support materials for a training course on tractor safety in the landscaping and horticultural services sector. It is composed of six lessons: taking control of one's safety; preparing for safe operation; avoiding rollover accidents; avoiding run over accidents and collisions; moving parts and machinery hazards; highway safety and other hazards. Safety tips and accident reports are included to provide a better understanding of the risks associated with this type of work.
Production Services, Kansas State University, 24 Umberger Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-3402, USA, ca 2005, 40p. Illus.
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/agsafe/training/hort_manuals/ENG/TractorENG.pdf [in English]
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/agsafe/training/hort_manuals/SP/TractorSP.pdf [in Spanish]
Kawakami T., Ton T.K., Kogi K.
Work improvement in neighbourhood development (WIND): Training programme on safety, health and working conditions in agriculture
The work improvement in neighbourhood development (WIND) training programme provides practical responses to the specific problems of agricultural safety and health. It applies a participatory and action-oriented training approach designed for rapid and sustainable improvements in the safety, health and working conditions of farmers. This programme has been implemented in Viet Nam with the assistance of the ILO and other organizations. This training manual presents a check-list for defining actions and priorities in various fields: materials storage and handling, workstation design and work tools, machine safety, work environment and control of hazardous agents, welfare facilities and work organization. 42 checkpoints related to these fields are described, mentioning the benefits for the farmer and possible improvements. Includes photographs showing examples of good organization. Replaces previous edition (CIS 03-1092).
Centre for Occupational Health and Environment, Department of Health, Can Tho City, Viet Nam, 3rd ed. 2005. vii, 130p. Illus.
Anthropometric dimensions of farm youth of the north eastern region of India
The design of improved agricultural machines requires a knowledge of the anthropometric data of the operators. A survey was conducted to collect the anthropometric dimensions of male farmers aged between 20 and 30 years in the north eastern region of India. Thirty-three anthropometric dimensions were measured from 280 male farmers in seven states of the region. These dimensions were compared with those of the northern, central, eastern, southern and western regions of India. It was found that the body dimensions of the farm youth of the north eastern region were mostly lower than those from other regions except southern and eastern regions. They were also compared with those of China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, Britain and the USA. All the dimensions were lower than those from other parts of the world.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 2005, Vol.35, No.11, p.979-989. Illus. 29 ref.
Hiba J.C., Ciciliani A., Cóppola A.
How to improve working conditions and productivity in farming and in the farm-derived products industry - Practical guide
Comment améliorer les conditions travail et la productivité dans les entreprises agricoles et agroindustrielles - Guide pratique [in French]
Cómo mejorar las condiciones de trabajo y la productividad en empresas agrícolas y agroindustriales - Guía par la acción [in Spanish]
This guide for small enterprises in farming and the farm-derived products industry in Argentina explains how to improve working conditions and productivity. It is divided into two sections. The first includes practical advice on the layout of premises and workplaces, work organization, materials handling and transportation, workplace design, safety of tools and machinery, environmental control and welfare facilities. The second part proposes tools for improving productivity (in particular the WISE system), a brief introduction to the most common dangerous chemicals and the efficient use of agrochemicals, together with checklists for implementing the improvements mentioned.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. 196p. Illus.
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