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2008

CIS 08-1091 Report IV - Promotion of rural employment for poverty reduction
Rapport IV - Promotion de l'emploi rural pour réduire la pauvreté [in French]
Informe IV - La promoción del empleo rural para reducir la pobreza [in Spanish]
More than 3,000 government, worker and employer leaders met in Geneva at the International Labour Conference in June 2008 to discuss various issues including rural poverty reduction. Approximately 3.4 billion people, slightly under half of the world's population, now live in rural areas. Climate change, soaring food prices, and the use of farm products for fuel are today key issues in the global debate on agricultural production. Rural markets and the world economy have been affected by globalization, whose costs and benefits have not been equitably distributed either between countries or within them, and by increased urbanization. Clearly, the employment challenges of today's burgeoning cities cannot be met without addressing the need for full and productive employment in rural areas. Agricultural growth is highly effective in reducing poverty, but the pattern and distribution of growth will determine the degree to which it translates into job creation and poverty reduction. This report was prepared as a discussion paper for the conference. A specific chapter deals with international labour standards and OSH issues.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2008. v, 135p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_092056.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_091721.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_092055.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-1204
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working on glasshouse roofs: Advice for growers
This information note describes the hazards associated with working on glasshouse roofs. It outlines the precautions to be taken before accessing and working on glasshouse roofs, as well as the selection, training and supervision of staff working on such roofs. Advice is also given on appropriate clothing and responsibilities towards contractors. It specifically refers to responsibilities under the Work at Height Regulations 2005. Replaces CIS 95-337.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2008. 4p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais12.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-972 Mehta C.R., Gite L.P., Pharade S.C., Majumder J., Pandey M.M.
Review of anthropometric considerations for tractor seat design
This article reviews the existing information on the tractor seat design that considers anthropometric and biomechanical factors. The anthropometric dimensions of agricultural workers need to be taken into consideration for design of seat height, seat pan width, seat pan length, seat backrest width and seat backrest height of tractors. Based on anthropometric data of 5434 Indian male agricultural workers, the seat dimensions recommended for tractor operator's comfort were as follows: seat height of 380mm; seat pan width 420-450mm; seat backrest width 380-400mm (bottom) and 270-290mm (top): seat pan length 370±10mm, seat pan tilt of 5-7° backward and seat backrest height of 350mm.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May-June 2008, Vol.38, No.5-6, p.546-554. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 08-969 Müller M.L., Coetsee M.F.
Physiological demands and working efficiency of sugarcane cutters in harvesting burnt and unburnt cane
The primary focus of this study was to investigate the differences in energy expenditure and working efficiency of sugarcane cutters harvesting burnt and unburnt sugarcane. Measurements included heart rate and spirometry, and participants recorded their perceived exertion levels. Data for each of the 15 subjects were collected during 30min on two occasions separated by at least one day, harvesting burnt and unburnt cane. Cane cutters used significantly more kilojoules and worked at a higher percentage of their maximum aerobic capacity while cutting unburnt as opposed to burnt cane. Perceived exertion levels recorded during harvesting burnt and unburnt cane did not differ significantly. It was less cost effective to harvest unburnt cane as less cane was cut per time unit. Burnt cane required significantly more cutting strokes per minute than unburnt cane. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar.-Apr. 2008, Vol.38, No.3-4, p.314-320. 24 ref.

CIS 08-834 Vallejos Q.M., Schulz M.R., Quandt S.A., Feldman S.R., Galvan L., Verma A., Fleischer A.B., Rapp S.R., Arcury T.A.
Self report of skin problems among farmworkers in North Carolina
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported skin problems among Latino farm workers and to identify the associated risk factors. A longitudinal surveillance design was used. A total of 304 participants were interviewed several times over a period of five months on their skin problems and on personal and occupational factors. Frequencies and counts were calculated for 13 skin problems. More than one-third of participants reported various skin problems. A number of work and environmental factors were found to be associated with higher rates of skin problems. One of the strongest predictors was working in wet clothes or shoes. Programmes are needed to educate farm workers about measures they can take to decrease their risk of skin problems. Changes in work practices and personal protective equipment provided could help decrease the prevalence of skin problems within this population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.51, n°3, p.204-212. 31 ref.

CIS 08-833 Arcury T.A., Vallejos Q.M., Schulz M.R., Feldman S.R., Fleischer A.B., Verma A., Quandt S.A.
Green tobacco sickness and skin integrity among migrant Latino farmworkers
Green tobacco sickness (GTS) affects approximately one-quarter of all tobacco workers. The primary aim of this analysis was to expand existing knowledge of GTS risk factors among Latino farm workers. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of skin disease among 304 North Carolina Latino farm workers conducted in 2005 (see CIS 08-834). It was found that 18.4% of the farm workers met the GTS case definition. Self-reported rash increased the odds ratio (OR) of having GTS in the bivariate (OR 2.29), and multivariate analyses (OR 3.30). Self-reported itch (OR 3.54) and superficial wounds (OR 2.49) had a significant relationship to GTS in the bivariate analysis. These findings confirm that GTS risk factors include skin integrity. Farm workers with rash and other skin conditions should protect affected areas from exposure to tobacco plants.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.51, No.3, p.195-203. 36 ref.

2007

CIS 12-0304 Solomon C., Poole J., Palmer K.T., Coggon D.
Non-fatal occupational injuries in British agriculture
The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, nature and determinants of non-fatal occupational injuries in the agricultural sector in the United Kingdom. As part of a postal survey, data on lifetime histories of work in agriculture and occupational accidents were obtained from men born between 1933 and 1977 and residing in three rural areas. Associations with risk factors were explored by Poisson regression, and summarized by incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Of the 10,765 responders (response rate 31%), 3,238 reported at least one occupational accident at the ages of 14-64 years, leading to absence from work for three days or more, including 1492 accidents that could be linked to a specific job listed in the history of agricultural work. During 1996-2003, the highest rates of agricultural accidents were from handling, lifting or carrying, falls from heights and injury by animals. After adjustment for calendar period and age, the risk of accidents was elevated in men who had only recently entered agricultural work (IRR 3.7) and in those who carried out forestry (IRR 1.7). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2007, Vol.64, p.150-154. 13 ref.
Non-fatal_occupational_injuries_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 10-0156 OSH-WIND Philippines
This training manual on the ILO WIND (Work improvement in Neighbourhood Development) aimed at agrarian communities in the Philippines contains a variety of information, education and communication materials, including flipcharts, comic strips, posters, booklets and presentations. Originally aimed at rice farmers, the programme has been extended to include other crops (banana, coconut and sugarcane).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. Binder containing a collection of documents. Approx. 140 p. Illus.

CIS 09-692 Silvetti A., Papale A., Draicchio F.
Assessment of risks associated with the manual handling of loads in the fruit-growing and horticulture sectors
Valutazione del rischio da movimentazione manuale dei carichi nei settori agricoli della frutticoltura e orticoltura [in Italian]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks associated with the manual handling of loads in the fruit-growing and horticultural sectors in Italy. Video recordings were processed using the APALYS 3.0 computer application, which allows constructing a three-dimensional postural model of the worker's body during task performance. The model can be observed from several viewpoints. It can predict the compression force on the lumbosacral disc and calculate the NIOSH Lifting Index where applicable. Both the compression forces on the lumbosacral disc and the NIOSH lifting index show that there are risks in the tasks examined. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2007, Vol.3, No.2, p.63-75. Illus. 17 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cfoc2007_02_1_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cfoc2007_02_1_en.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-297 Hoppin J.A., Umbach D.M., Kullman G.J., Henneberger P.K., London S.J., Alavanja M.C.R., Sandler D.P.
Pesticides and other agricultural factors associated with self-reported farmer's lung among farm residents in the agricultural health study
Farmer's lung, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an important contributor to respiratory morbidity among farmers. Using the 1993-1997 data from the Agricultural Health Study, this cross-sectional study of occupational risk factors for farmer's lung was conducted among approximately 50,000 farmers and farm spouses in Iowa and North Carolina using hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age, state, and smoking status. Participants provided information on agricultural exposures, demographic characteristics and medical history via self-administered questionnaires. Approximately 2% of farmers and 0.2% of spouses reported doctor-diagnosed farmer's lung. It is suggested that organochlorine and carbamate pesticides should be further evaluated as potential risk factors for farmer's lung. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.64, No.5, p.334-342. 40 ref.

CIS 09-56 Valcin M., Henneberger P.K., Kullman G.J., Umbach D.M., London S.J., Alavanja M.C., Sandler D.P., Hoppin J.A.
Chronic bronchitis among nonsmoking farm women in the agricultural health study
The purpose of this study was to examine agricultural risk factors for chronic bronchitis among non-smoking women working on farms in the United States. Self-reported data from the 21,541 women in the Agricultural Health Study were used to evaluate occupational risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) of chronic bronchitis for occupational exposures were adjusted for age and State. Applying manure and driving combines were independently associated with chronic bronchitis. Off-farm job exposures associated with chronic bronchitis were organic dusts, asbestos, gasoline, and solvents. Five pesticides were associated with chronic bronchitis after multivariate adjustment and sensitivity analyses: dichlorvos (OR 1.63), DDT (OR 1.67), cyanazine (OR 1.88), paraquat (OR 1.91) and methyl bromide (OR 1.82).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.574-583. 35 ref.

CIS 09-198 Conde J.F., Feldman S.R., Vallejos Q.M., Quandt S.A., Whalley L.E., Brooks T., Cabral G., Fleischer A.B., Arcury T.A.
Cutaneous larva migrans in a migrant Latino farmworker
Migrant farmworkers experience a high incidence of skin disease. This report provides information on the case history of cutaneous larva migrans in a Latino migrant farmworker. Treatment options are reviewed, and information for prevention is discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2007, Vol.12, No.2, p.45-48. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 09-153 Liebman A.K., Juárez P.M., Leyva C., Corona A.
A pilot program using promotoras de salud to educate farmworker families about the risks from pesticide exposure
This paper reviews a successful education effort to minimize pesticide exposure to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families through innovative training curricula, informal participatory educational techniques and culturally sensitive outreach methods. In 2004, lay health educators (promotoras de salud), were trained in pesticide safety and in ways to promote safety information in the farmworker community in New Mexico. Through home visits and small group workshops, the promotoras trained 273 farmworkers and farmworker family members on ways to reduce exposures to pesticides in their homes and at work, with an emphasis on protecting children. The families received a Spanish language comic book that reinforced the pesticide safety information. The project resulted in a significant increase in knowledge regarding the routes of exposure, the vulnerability of children, the signs and symptoms of pesticide poisonings and the ways to minimize pesticide exposures.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2007, Vol.12, No.2, p.33-43. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 08-1384 Veiga M.M., Duarte F.J.C.M., Meirelles L.A., Garrigou A., Baldi I.
Contamination by pesticides and personal protective equipment (PPE)
A contaminação por agrotóxicos e os equipamentos de proteção individual (EPIs) [in Portuguese]
This study analysed the efficiency of personal protective equipment (PPE) used when mixing and spraying pesticides in Brazilian and French farming. Analysis was based on two case studies: the first concerning a tomato crop located in a small rural community in the Southeast of Brazil; the second, a vineyard in France. The findings showed that PPEs used in both cases did not offer proper protection against pesticides, and sometimes even turned into a source of contamination. The study concludes that PPE by themselves cannot eliminate or neutralize unhealthy conditions related to pesticide use, as law demands. It also shows that PPEs have not always been properly designed, selected, used, maintained, stored and disposed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.57-68. Illus. 38 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Ensaio%20Agrotóxicos%20e%20EPIs.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1298 Del Prado-Lu J.L.
Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: A cross sectional study
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine associations between haematological indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cut flower farmers in a region of the Philippines. A total of 102 randomly-selected cut flower farmers underwent comprehensive medical examinations and answered a questionnaire their on work practices and state of health. A majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), fatigue (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Statistical analyses showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were associated with age and the selling of pesticide containers. The number of years of using pesticides, the use of contaminated cloth, the incorrect mixing of pesticides, sex and illnesses due to pesticides were correlated with abnormal MCV. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Sep. 2007, Vol.2, No.9, 8p. 34 ref.

CIS 08-1211 Heutelbeck A.R.R., Janicke N., Hilgers R., Kütting B., Drexler H., Hallier E., Bickeböller H.
German cattle allergy study (CAS): Public health relevance of cattle-allergic farmers
This study involved farmers from all regions of Germany who were reported to the Agricultural Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (Landwirtschaftliche Berufsgenossenschaften) between 1990 and 2002 with a suspected occupational cattle-allergic airways disease. A total of 513 patients were identified considering following parameters: age, gender, onset of airways symptoms related to contact with cattle, beginning of employment disability, total and specific Immunoglobulin E against cattle allergens, and lung function.. Of these patients, 24.8% showed cattle-related symptoms of asthma, 11.7% of rhinitis, and 60% of both asthma and rhinitis. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2007, Vol.81, No.2, p.201-208. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 08-1194
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of the mechanical condition of agricultural vehicles
An investigation was undertaken to assess the mechanical condition of agricultural vehicles in use on farms in the United Kingdom. A detailed examination of 242 tractors and 71 agricultural trailed appliances was carried out to meet the requirements of an inspection according to The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER 98, see CIS 99-1429). Experienced agricultural engineers carried out the examinations and analyzed the results on the scale and nature of defects according to vehicle age and horsepower, region and main farm activity. Close to 70% had faults, some minor and easily correctable by replacing light bulbs, others are more major items such as brake performance, tyre wear and pressures and driver vision items (windscreen wipers, external rear view mirrors).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 37p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr554.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1172 Scarlett A.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration on self-propelled forage harvesters: Evaluation of emission and estimated daily exposure levels
This study was conducted to quantify whole-body vibration (WBV) emission and likely operator daily exposure levels associated with the normal operation of self-propelled harvesters. A survey was distributed to purchasers of recent machines, to determine information concerning typical machine usage and operator perception of WBV levels. Comprehensive WBV measurements were made on six working machines to provide representative samples of WBV time-histories. Frequency analysis of the vibration data and direct observation provided information on the potential and need for reducing operator WBV exposure. WBV emission levels were found to be relatively moderate compared to those encountered upon other agricultural vehicles. Nonetheless, the WBV levels during normal daily operation were sufficiently high to ensure that certain prescribed actions on the part of employers would be required. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 106p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr544.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1135 Swan J.R.M., Blainey D., Crook B.
Health and Safety Executive
The HSE grain dust study - Workers' exposure to grain dust contaminants, immunological and clinical response
This study investigated the role of microorganisms and their associated contaminants in the development of clinical symptoms and immunological response in workers exposed to grain dust. A cohort of 321 workers exposed to grain dust (farmers at 27 farms and dock workers at two ports) was constituted. Workers were subjected to several immunoassay and clinical assessments over two study phases: phase 1 from 1990 to 1993 and phase 2 from 1997 to 2003. It was found that grain workers are exposed to high levels of endotoxin, microorganisms and dust. The levels of endotoxin were greatly in excess of those shown to cause adverse health effects. Exposure levels to grain dust were high, and still frequently over maximum exposure limits. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 98p. Illus. Approx 150 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr540.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1064 Wallaart J., Winder C.
A survey of New Zealand farmers' knowledge about the risks and prevention of occupational respiratory disease
About 10% of the working population of New Zealand is employed in agriculture. Some types of farming appear to have a higher level of occupational respiratory disease than among the general population. In this study, farmers' knowledge about the risks and prevention of occupational respiratory disease was assessed by means of a questionnaire survey. The findings suggest that the level of knowledge is low, despite numerous attempts by government and other agencies to raise awareness in this community. Implications are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2007, Vol.23, No.5, p.469-479. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 08-1063 Verma G., Sharma N.L., Shanker V., Mahajan V.K., Tegta G.R.
Pesticide contact dermatitis in fruit and vegetable farmers of Himachal Pradesh (India)
In this case-control study on pesticide allergic contact dermatitis conducted in Himachal Pradesh, an Indian state with an important fruit and vegetable production, cases included 30 farmers with dermatitis on the face, neck, hands and feet, while controls consisted of two groups of 10 subjects each: group 1 had a history of exposure to pesticides but no dermatitis while group 2 had neither dermatitis nor history of exposure to pesticides. All subjects were patch tested with the 10 most common pesticides used in the region. Positive patch test reactions from pesticides were observed in eight cases, while three group 1 subjects also showed sensitization to several pesticides. No reactions were observed among group 2 subjects. Captan was the most common sensitizer (five patients), two patients were sensitive to propargite. Chlorpyrifos, tree spray oil and thiuram gave a positive reaction in one patient each. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2007, Vol.57, No.5, p.316-320. 25 ref.

CIS 08-1062 Abraham N.F., Feldman S.R., Vallejos Q., Whalley L.E., Brooks T., Cabral G., Earp P., Fleischer A.B., Quandt S.A., Arcury T.A.
Contact dermatitis in tobacco farmworkers
Occupational skin disease is highly prevalent among agricultural workers. Tobacco cultivation and harvest are particularly hazardous for farmworkers. This article describes cases of five migrant Latino farmworkers in North Carolina with contact dermatitis related to tobacco work. These cases showed a characteristic distribution of contact dermatitis: the flexural and medial surfaces of the upper extremities were affected in each case, whereas most cases showed some involvement of the torso and axilla. This pattern most likely reflects a common occupational practice of holding the tobacco leaves under the arm and pressed against the body during harvesting.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2007, Vol.57, No.1, p.40-43. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 08-1092 Rinehart R.
Rooting out child labour from cocoa farms - Paper No.2 - Safety and health hazards
The ILO estimates that about 70 per cent of the world's 218 million child labourers (from 5-17 years old) are working in agriculture, on small family farms or large plantations, missing out on school and exposed to serious hazards and exploitation. This report is part of a series of four reports synthesizing the knowledge and experiences acquired from the project of the ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour entitled "West African Cocoa and Commercial Agriculture Project to Combat Hazardous and Exploitive Child Labour" (WACAP), which was implemented in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea and Nigeria from 2002 to 2006. This report summarizes the findings of studies carried out in the countries covered by the project.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 28p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=6445 [in English]

CIS 08-773 Acuña Esquivel C.R., Forastieri V.
Work improvement in neighbourhood development - Training programme on occupational safety, health and working conditions on small farms
Mejores trabajos para el desarrollo comunitario - Programa de formación en seguridad, salud y condiciones de trabajo en la pequeña producción agrícola [in Spanish]
Aimed at small farms in Central America, this manual proposes solutions for improving working conditions. It was edited within the framework of the WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) programme. Six main themes are reviewed: materials handling and storage; design of tools and workplaces; safety when using machinery; work environment and control of dangerous substances; worker welfare facilities; work organization. The 52 aspects analysed are addressed according to a common format: advantages for workers; possible improvements; promoting cooperation; additional suggestions; points to keep in mind. A checklist allows workers to verify the current situation with respect to each question and to propose improvements. A CD-ROM containing the manual in PDF format is included.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 130p. Illus. + CD-ROM.
http://portal.oit.or.cr//dmdocuments/sst/wind.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 08-861 Paulucci J.C.
Social security and workers in rural regions
La seguridad social y los trabajadores rurales [in Spanish]
This report presents an analysis of work characteristics in rural Argentina, together with the social security coverage available for workers in these regions. Contents: characteristics of work and life in rural regions; specific aspects of work in rural regions (undeclared work, work presenting high risks); finding answers to the problems described; social security system and proposals for improved benefits. In annex: list of occupational diseases recognized in the agricultural sector in Argentina.
Estudios de la Seguridad Social, 2007, No.100, p.15-43. 6 ref.

CIS 08-860 Colosio C., Kawakami T., Khai T.T., Kogi K., Tong L., Kannitha Y., Vanna C., Hamedon T.R., Wang S., Siriruttanapruk S., Lee K.S., Kim K.R., Kim H.C., Kim K.S.
Agriculture
Contents of this collection of articles on occupational safety and health in agriculture of relevance to countries in the Asian-Pacific region: practical application of the work improvement in neighbourhood protection (WIND) programme; participatory approaches to improving safety and health of farmers in Cambodia; occupational safety and health challenges in agriculture in Malaysia; occupational health in agriculture in China; improving occupational health of farmers through primary health care units in rural districts in Thailand; governmental intervention of the Republic of Korea in agricultural safety and health.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2007, Vol.14, No.3, p.50-71 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/033A86C5-E1C2-4593-B940-9BFD522CA995/0/newsletter_3_2007.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-530 Have you heard? Hearing loss caused by farm noise is preventable: Young farmers' guide for selecting and using hearing protection
Aimed at farmers aged below 35 years and their families, this leaflet presents an overview the variety of hearing protectors available and when and how to use them. Contents: fitting formable plugs; fitting pre-moulded plugs; fitting canal caps; tips on using hearing protection; buying hearing protection; common noise levels. See also CIS 08-529.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-176/pdfs/2007-176.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-529 They're your ears. Protect them
This leaflet encourages young farmers to protect their ears from noise. A 25-year-old farmer can often have the ears of a 50-year-old who is not exposed to noise and not even know it. The leaflet is designed to increase the awareness of young farmers below the age of 35 and their families about the relationship between farm noise and the early onset of tinnitus and hearing loss. See also CIS 08-530.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Oct. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-175/pdfs/2007-175.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-659 Lavoie J., Beaudet Y., Lemay S., Belzile M., Côté C., Godbout S., Roseberry K.
Air quality in veal calf barns
Qualité de l'air dans les étables de veaux de lait [in French]
It is now recognized that the air quality in buildings used for animal production can affect the workers' quality of life and health as well as the productivity of the animals. Although this situation is well understood in the context of swine production, no study deals with veal calf breeding, which is expanding. The aim of this project was to characterize and quantify, by season, the chemical substances and biological agents present in the air of veal calf production buildings, to determine the risks to human health in relation to standards and guidelines, and to propose simple guidelines enabling facility managers to improve air quality, if needed. Results of the measurements show that there is no serious air quality issue in veal calf barns.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. 102p. Illus. 76 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-524.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-612
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Panorama of occupational hazards in the agricultural sector
Panorámica de los riesgos laborales en el sector agrario [in Spanish]
Agricultural activity involves important health and safety hazards for workers. In Argentina in 2005, the incidence rate of occupational accidents and diseases in this sector was 113.96 per thousand insured workers. This document presents the statistical trends for accident indicators in agriculture, fishing, hunting and livestock rearing for the period from 2000 to 2005, together with trends in the number of workers and employers covered by the insurance scheme.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, [2007?]. 16p. Illus.
http://www.acopiadorescba.com/upload/compendios/1175784854c.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 08-582 Hoppin J.A., Valcin M., Henneberger P.K., Kullman G.J., Umbach D.M., London S.J., Alavanja M.C.R., Sandler D.P.
Pesticide use and chronic bronchitis among farmers in the agricultural health survey
This study evaluated the role played by pesticides as risk factors of chronic bronchitis, using data from the Agricultural Health Study on lifetime pesticide use among doctor-diagnosed cases of chronic bronchitis from 20,908 pesticide applicators. Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed after age of 19 in 654 farmers (3%). Eleven pesticides were significantly associated with chronic bronchitis, the highest odds ratio being found for heptachlor (OR 1.50). Increased prevalence for chronic bronchitis was also seen for individuals who had a history of a high pesticide exposure event (OR 1.85) and for those who also applied pesticides in off farm jobs (OR 1.40).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.969-979. 44 ref.

CIS 08-363 Injuries to youth on U.S. farm operations, 2004
In 2004, 2.1 million farms were operated in the United States. Nearly one third (650,000) of these farms had youth aged less than 20 years living on them. Young persons suffered a total of 27,600 injuries (3.1 injuries every hour), approximately two thirds occurring to youth who lived on the farm. Between 1995 and 2002, 907 youth died on farms (43 deaths/100,000 youth). Aimed at farmers, this leaflet provides a few basic safety rules aimed at protecting children and young farm workers from general risks as well as from the risks from animals, machinery and water.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug. 2007. 8p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-161/pdfs/2007-161.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-362 Injuries to youth on Hispanic farm operations, 2003
In 2003, 47,200 farms were operated by Hispanics in the United States. A total of 34,500 youth lived on these farms. Young persons suffered a total of 540 injuries (1.5 injuries/day), nearly two thirds of which were to youth who lived on the farm. Between 1995 and 2002, 77 Hispanic youth died on farms. Aimed at Hispanic farmers, this leaflet provides a few basic safety rules aimed at protecting children and young farm workers from general risks as well as from the risks from animals, machinery and water.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug. 2007. 8p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-162/pdfs/2007-162.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-361 Injuries to youth on racial minority farm operations, 2003
In 2003, 57,000 farms were operated by racial minorities in the United States. Altogether 27,400 youth lived on these farms. Young persons suffered a total of 630 injuries (1.7 injuries/day) on farms, about two thirds of which occurred to youth who lived on these farms. Between 1995 and 2002, 81 racial minority youth died on farms (42 deaths/100,000 youth). Aimed at racial minority farmers, this leaflet provides a few basic safety rules aimed at protecting children and young farm workers from general risks as well as from the risks from animals, machinery and water.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug. 2007. 8p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-163/pdfs/2007-163.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-353 Marlenga B., Berg R.L., Linneman J.G., Brison R.J., Pickett W.
Changing child labour laws for agriculture: Impact on injury
Child labour laws are intended to protect young workers from the most dangerous jobs. However, children who work on their parents' farms are exempt from these laws. This study evaluated the potential for preventing the occurrence of farm injuries among children by extending the United States Child Labor Laws to include agriculture as a hazardous occupation. A retrospective series of 1193 farm injuries among children from the United States and Canada was analysed and Hazardous Occupations Orders were systematically applied to each case. A total of 286 (24%) cases of injury involved farmers' children engaged in farm work. Among these children, 33% of those aged younger than 16 years and 36% of those aged 16 or 17 years were performing work prohibited under the Hazardous Occupations Orders. Removing the family farm exemption and raising the age restriction for performing hazardous agricultural work from 16 to 18 years would be efficacious in preventing the most serious injuries experienced by young family farm workers.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 2007, Vol.97, No.2, p.276-282. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 08-329 Sambo L.G., Kisting S., Alli B., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Ansa V.O., Anah M.U., Udoma E.J., Umoh M.S., Gold D., Comlan P., Ezinah F., Nambo Wezet G., Anyunzoghe E.S., Ossoubita B.O., Kibwage J.K., Momanyi G.M., Odondo A.J., Lekei E.E., Akhabuhaya J., Mkalaga H., Clarke E.E., Sutherland D.K.
Infectious diseases
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work; protecting health care workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens; reducing occupational risks to HIV and hepatitis B virus exposure among health care workers in Nigeria. Other topics: addressing psychosocial issues in Africa through the ILO's SOLVE programme; occupational safety and health (OSH) problems among wood processing workers in Gabon; OSH concerns of smallholder tobacco farmers in Kenya; OSH issues in pesticide formulation plants in Tanzania; OSH initiatives aimed at health care workers in Ghana.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2007, Vol.17, No.2, p.31-55 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/6ADDA217-D9CE-4B3A-8E5C-B8C24D795049/0/AfricanNL22007.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-336 Meyer T.E., Coker A.L., Sanderson M., Symanski E.
A case-control study of farming and prostate cancer in African-American and Caucasian men
The objective of this population-based case-control study was to determine the risk of prostate cancer among African-Americans and Caucasians in the USA in the farming sector. Cases included 405 incident prostate cancer cases and 392 controls matched for age, race and region in South Carolina from 1999 to 2001. Data were collected using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Farming was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians (OR 1.8) but not in African-Americans (OR 1.0). Farmers who mixed or applied pesticides had a higher risk of prostate cancer (OR 1.6). Increased risk of prostate cancer was observed only for those farming less than five years. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.64, No.3, p.155-160. 41 ref.

CIS 08-114 Msangi Y.K.
Occupational health and safety in the flower industry: The role of occupational certification systems
The emerging African flower industry is a low-wage occupation mainly employing women. A high proportion of the workforce consists of casual labour. This article describes the various international certification systems and codes aimed at ensuring decent working conditions and fair trade in the flower industry, together with their strengths and weaknesses.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2007, Vol.17, No.1, p.17-19. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/EB2A7062-6171-491B-9D15-201C37386D6A/0/AfricanNewsletter12007.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-159 Hinson A.V., Dedjan H., Fayomi B.E.
Biomarkers, clinical and behavioural indicators of pesticide exposure at community level
Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. It is estimated that each year, exposure to pesticides result in three million severe acute poisonings and 220,000 deaths. In Benin, there were 245 recorded cases of pesticide poisoning and 19 deaths during the period 1998 to 2002. This article describes a cross-sectional study conducted to evaluate clinical and biological indicators of pesticide poisoning. Participants included 76 farmers (men and women) from a cotton-growing region of Benin. Data were collected through interviews, medical examinations and biological sample analysis. Findings are discussed.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2007, Vol.17, No.1, p.14-16. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/EB2A7062-6171-491B-9D15-201C37386D6A/0/AfricanNewsletter12007.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-113 Pule T.A.
Health effects among agricultural workers in Africa
This review of occupational health among agricultural workers in Africa is based on the findings of a survey carried out by the WHO in 2001 as well as on various other sources. Findings are grouped under the following headings: chemical substances (organophosphorus compounds, organochlorine compounds and pyrethroids); physical hazards and ergonomic factors; occupational health services; primary health care approach and access to relevant information.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2007, Vol.17, No.1, p.8-10. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/EB2A7062-6171-491B-9D15-201C37386D6A/0/AfricanNewsletter12007.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-112 Forastieri V.
Providing occupational safety and health services to workers in agriculture
Contents of this article on providing occupational safety and health services to workers in the agricultural sector in Africa: technological development and agriculture; occupational accidents and injuries; occupational and work-related diseases; underreporting; access to health services; coverage of agricultural workers by national legislation and regional standards; trends in social responsibility and certification initiatives in agricultural production; ILO standards on safety and health in agriculture; ILO African regional programme on safety and health in agriculture; challenges in providing safety and health services to agricultural workers.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2007, Vol.17, No.1, p.4-7. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/EB2A7062-6171-491B-9D15-201C37386D6A/0/AfricanNewsletter12007.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-190 Solecki L.
Analysis of annual exposure to noise among private farmers according to production profile
Analiza całorocznej ekspozycji na hałas rolników indywidualnych w zależności od profilu produkcji [in Polish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to noise among farmers on family farms involved in three different types of farming in Poland (agriculture, livestock raising and mixed farming). Two acoustic parameters were determined on the basis of the time schedules of agricultural work activities and dosimetry measurements conducted during a whole year. Findings show that the highest noise exposure occurs on farms with plant and mixed production, whereas the lowest values occurred on animal farms. Measured values were found to considerably exceed standard values.
Medycyna pracy, 2007, Vol.58, No.2, p.97-103. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-124 Hurst P., Termine P., Karl M.
International Union of Food and Allied Workers' Associations.
Agricultural workers and their contribution to sustainable agriculture and rural development
Les travailleurs agricoles et leur contribution à l'agriculture et au développement rural durables [in French]
Trabajadores agrícolas y su contribución a la agricultura y el desarrollo rural sostenibles [in Spanish]
The aim of this report is to provide information, ideas, examples and suggestions to governments, international organizations, development agencies, credit institutions and trade bodies on how they can help increase the contributions of waged agricultural workers to sustainable agriculture and rural development, world food security and sustainable development.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 98p. Illus. 175 ref.
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/af164e/af164e00.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1 Decree No.2007-1121 of 19 July 2007 updating and completing the tables of occupational diseases in the agricultural sector appended to book VII of the rural law [France]
Décret n° 2007-1121 du 19 juillet 2007 révisant et complétant les tableaux des maladies professionnelles en agriculture annexés au livre VII du code rural [France] [in French]
This French decree of 19 July 2007 updates some of the tables of occupational diseases concerning the compensation of occupational diseases in the agricultural sector. It specifically concerns tables No.5 on leptospiroses, No.36 on diseases caused by wood dust, No.46 on noise-induced hearing loss and No.47 on diseases caused by the inhalation of asbestos dust.
Secrétariat général du Gouvernement, Hôtel de Matignon, 57 rue de Varenne, 75007 Paris, France, 2007. Internet document (PDF format). 3p.
http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/imagesJOE/2007/0721/joe_20070721_0167_0026.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-1314 Sprince N., Park H., Zwerling C., Whitten P., Lynch C., Burmeister L., Thu K., Gillette P., Alavanja M.
Risk factors for low back injury among farmers in Iowa: A case-control study nested in the Agricultural Health Study
The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for low back injury among Iowa farmers. Participants in the Iowa Agricultural Health Study were screened to identify 49 male farmers who reported farm work-related low back injury requiring medical advice or treatment in the previous year. They were compared with 465 uninjured male farmer controls. Multivariable modelling identified four risk factors significantly associated with low back injury: age of less than 45 years (odds ratio, OR 3.32), doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR 4.26), education beyond high school (OR 2.12) and difficulty hearing normal conversation, even with a hearing aid (OR 1.98). Future research to assess asthma and difficulty in hearing may be particularly important, since farmers are at increased risk of hearing loss and also come into contact with many inhaled agents that can cause asthma.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2007, Vol.4, No.1, p.10-16. 41 ref.

CIS 07-1389 Testud F., Grillet J.P.
Plant protection chemicals: Acute poisonings and occupational hazards
Produits phytosanitaires: intoxications aiguës et risques professionnels [in French]
This publication is primarily aimed at occupational health physicians involved in the evaluation, prevention and surveillance of hazards resulting from exposure to plant protection chemicals. It is also aimed at clinicians, emergency services and coroners having to deal with cases of acute and chronic pesticide poisoning. It includes an up-to-date summary of toxicological data for the most common active substances used in French agriculture. Based on an analysis of medical literature, it provides guidance for optimizing both the treatment of poisoning patients and the realistic evaluation of the hazards faced by workers exposed to agricultural chemicals.
Editions ESKA, 12 rue du Quatre-Septembre, 75002 Paris, France, 2007. 432p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 120.00.

CIS 07-1432 Preventing worker deaths and injuries when handling Micotil 300®
Prevención de muertes y lesiones de trabajadores por el uso de Micotil 300® [in Spanish]
Cattle farmers, veterinarians and other workers in contact with animals may be exposed to the animal antibiotic Micotil 300® through skin injuries from needlestick accidents, cuts or bites, as well as from contact with animal skin and biological matter. Cardiotoxic effects of Micotil 300®, including a reduced cardiac contractility and tachycardia, can be severe enough to cause death. It is recommended that extreme care be given to following safe drug handling and injection procedures to avoid the possibility of self injection. Although no antidote exists for Micotil 300®, exposed persons should seek immediate medical intervention as the drug's cardiotoxic effects may be reversed.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2007. 4p. 6 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/spanish/niosh/docs/2007-124sp.html [in Spanish]
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions/2007-124/pdfs/2007-124.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1258
Health and Safety Executive
Why fall for it? Preventing falls in agriculture
Falls from heights are one of the main causes of fatal accidents in agriculture. Many accidents occur while agricultural buildings or other structures are being built or maintained. These jobs often require temporary access to height such as ladders, scaffolds or platforms. Falls frequently occur because the equipment used is defective, not appropriate or used incorrectly. The Work at Height Regulations 2005 (see CIS 06-1047) require that all work at height is properly planned, supervised and carried out by persons who are competent to do the job. The case studies used in this booklet are based on actual accidents investigated by the Health and Safety Executive, followed by examples of good practice to help ensure compliance with the law.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2007. 11p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg369.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1152
Health and Safety Executive
Veterinary medicines - Safe use by farmers and other animal handlers
This leaflet provides guidance for farmers and other people who use veterinary medicines (including medicated feeds) as part of their work. It sets out practical steps for the protection of workers' health and safety and for compliance with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023). Update of document abstracted under CIS 98-1425.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev. ed., July 2007. 12p. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as31.pdf [in English]

2006

CIS 11-0235 Kim K.Y., Ko H.J., Kim H.T., Kim C.N.
Effect of spraying biological additives for reduction of dust and bioaerosol in a confinement swine house
This on-site experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare efficiencies of various currently-used biological additives to reduce emissions of dust and bioaerosol in a confinement swine house. The mean reduction rates after spraying as compared to initial level before spraying were 30% for dust, 53% for total airborne bacteria and 51% for total airborne fungi. Other findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.133-138. Illus. 31 ref.
Effect_of_spraying.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0165 Kuye R., Donham K., Marquez S., Sanderson W., Fuortes L., Rautiainen R., Jones M., Culp K.
Agricultural health in The Gambia II: A systematic survey of safety and injuries in production agriculture
This study was undertaken to provide baseline information on the injuries and safety and health conditions in Gambian agriculture. The objective was to produce information to guide the formulation of an agricultural safety and health policy for the country, future investigations, prevention and surveillance of the adverse health effects in agriculture. A cross-sectional survey of 20 farmers, 20 nurses, and 20 agricultural extension workers was conducted in two regions of Gambia. The survey was implemented by the means of questionnaires, walk-through surveys and hazard checklists. Seventy percent of farms reported an injury during the past year. Major sources and contributing factors for the injuries were characterized. Predisposing factors to the injuries were climatic conditions, working in static positions, bending and twisting and carrying heavy objects. Cuts and lacerations were identified as the commonest injury types and the most common sources were hand tools (hand hoe, cutlass, axe and knife) and animal-powered carts. A workshop for the major stakeholders in the country's agriculture was also held to identify problems and possible solutions for health promotion of Gambian farmers.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.119-128. Illus. 37 ref.
Agricultural_health.pdf [in English]

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