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Brumby S., Smith A.
"Train the trainer" model: Implications for health professionals and farm family health in Australia
This article presents the Sustainable Farm Families Train the Trainer (SFFTTT) model, a 5-day programme designed to enhance practice among health professionals working with farm families in Australia. This innovative model of addressing farmer health requires health professionals to understand the context of the farm family and encourages them to value the experience and existing knowledge of farmers and their families. Over 120 rural nurses have been trained since 2005. These trainers then successfully delivered programmes to 1000 farm families, with high participant completion, positive evaluation, and improved health indicators. In this article, rural health professionals report changes in how they approach health education, clinical practice, and promotion with farm families and farm workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.112-118. Illus. 18 ref.
Burgus S.K., Madsen M.D., Sanderson W.T., Rautiainen R.H.
Youths operating all-terrain vehicles - Implications for safety education
All-terrain vehicle (ATV) use has increased in recent years. ATV injuries and deaths have also increased, particularly among youth. This article describes a survey taken during a farming convention aimed at identifying safety-related behaviors, injuries, and effects of ATV safety training among youth. There were 624 participants aged 12 to 20 with a median age of 16; 56% were male and 69% lived on a farm. Data were collected on whether or not the young persons had received safety training, took passengers, wore helmets, drove on unpaved roads and had been involved in accidents. Gender differences were found in behaviors and injury rates (males 37%, females 20%). ATV safety training appears to improve behaviours. Gender differences in operation, behaviors and injuries should be considered in ATV safety training.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.97-104. 16 ref.
Sixth international symposium: Another milestone in agricultural-rural health and safety
This editorial introduces a special issue of the journal devoted to the 30 papers presented at an international symposium on agricultural safety held in Saskatoon, Canada, from 19 to 23 October 2008. The theme of the symposium was "public health and the agricultural rural ecosystem" (PHARE).
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.80-81
Naidoo S., Kromhout H., London L., Naidoo R.N., Burdorf A.
Musculoskeletal pain in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain in 911 women working in small-scale agriculture in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. In total, 67% of women reported chronic musculoskeletal pain. The 12-month prevalence of pain ranged from 63.9% to 73.3% and the prevalence of specific chronic pain lasting more than three months ranged from 42.8% to 48.3%. Older age, carrying heavy loads, working with hands above shoulder height, and frequently squatting and kneeling were associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Ergonomic interventions including improved and adapted work techniques and tools should be considered to reduce the prevalence of pain among these workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.202-209. 35 ref.
Myers J.R., Layne L.A., Marsh S.M.
Injuries and fatalities to U.S. farmers and farm workers 55 years and older
Data from two national surveillance systems were analyzed with respect to fatal and non-fatal injuries occurring to United States farmers aged 55 years and older. Older farmers and farm workers averaged more than 26,000 lost-time injuries annually, with an injury rate of 4.5 injuries/100 workers compared to an overall farming injury rate of 4.8 injuries/100 workers. Fatality data show that older farmers accounted for over half of all farming deaths between 1992 and 2004, and had a fatality rate of 45.8 deaths/100,000 workers compared to the overall farming fatality rate of 25.4 deaths/100,000 workers. Most common causes of fatal injury to older farmers were tractors (46%), trucks (7%) and animals (5%). Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.185-194. Illus. 78 ref.
Corriols M., Marín J., Berroteran J., Lozano L.M., Lundberg I.
Incidence of acute poisonings in Nicaragua: A public health concern
The objective of this study was to estimate the cumulative incidence rate of acute pesticide poisoning in the year 2000 among Nicaraguan subjects over 15 years of age. Data on pesticide exposure and health effects were assessed in a nationally representative survey. Based on self-reported cases, one-year incidence rate and the number of expected cases of acute pesticide poisonings in Nicaragua were estimated. Among the 3169 survey respondents, 72 persons who self-reported one episode of acute pesticide poisoning in 2000 were identified. Of these, 65 cases (90%) were related to occupational exposure, five (7%) to domestic exposure and two (3%) to intentional exposure. The highest rate was found among males in rural areas, particularly among farmers and agricultural workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.205-210. 39 ref.
Bernier Herrera F., Hernández Esguevillas V., Posadillo Marín P.
Exposure to vibration during agricultural work
Exposición a vibraciones en trabajos agrícolas [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to determine the level of vibration to which agricultural workers are exposed when carrying out their assigned tasks. Measurements were carried out in 13 Spanish olive and fruit farms, in which 25 workplaces using various portable tools and agricultural vehicles were examined. It was found that the permissible whole-body vibration limits were never exceeded. However, more than half the values measured exceeded the permissible hand-arm vibration limits. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2009, No.51, p.18-25. Illus. 10 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration in agriculture
This information sheet outlines the risk of developing back pain from whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure in agriculture and provides explanations on what can be done to reduce exposure to WBV. Topics addressed: definition of WBV; Control of Vibrations Regulations 2005; limitation of exposure (maintenance, speed limitations, replacement of seats and selection of equipment); monitoring and control; information and training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2009. 4p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais20.pdf [in English]
Costello T.M., Schulman M.D., Mitchell R.E.
Risk factors for a farm vehicle public road crash
In this case-control study, driver, vehicle, public road and farm enterprise characteristics were examined as risk factors of farm vehicle public road crashes. Two hundred North Carolina farms experiencing a public road crash from 1992 to 2003 were compared with a non-crash control group of 185 farms. Five characteristics were associated with increased odds of a crash: non-English speaking drivers (odds ratio OR=3.71); non-family hired help drivers (OR=4.25); type of vehicle (OR=1.39); farm injury history (OR=1.33); younger drivers (OR=1.02). Farms reporting older farm vehicle drivers (OR=0.97), and low farm income (OR=0.29) were less likely to have experienced a crash. Several recommendations are proposed based on these findings.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2009, Vol.41, No.1, p.42-47. 28 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Farmwise - Your essential guide to health and safety in agriculture
During the last ten years almost one person a week has been killed on average in agricultural accidents in the United Kingdom. Many more have been seriously injured or made ill by their work. This guide is aimed at all persons working on farms, whether employer, employee or self-employed, to help identify the causes of injuries and ill health, eliminate hazards and implement prevention measures. The first part covers managing health and safety. The other sections cover specific risks and provide easy-to-follow, practical advice for implementing prevention measures. Replaces CIS 99-1465.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2009. 68p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg427.pdf [in English]
Stingeni L., Bianchi L., Lisi P.
Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from potassium metabisulfite
This article describes the case of a 37-year-old non atopic male agricultural worker with a five-year history of erythema, swelling and scaling on the face. This condition occurred after the grape harvest and persisted through the period of grape fermentation in the wine cellar, during which the patient added potassium metabisulfite to the must to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms and wine oxidation. Patch testing resulted in positive reactions potassium and sodium metabisulfites. When away from work, the dermatitis spontaneously healed in 10 day and there were no relapses when the patient was assigned to other duties in the same vineyard.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2009, Vol.60, No.1, p.52-53. 10 ref.
Prasanna Kumar G.V., Dewangan K.N.
Agricultural accidents in north eastern region of India
An investigation was conducted to characterize the agricultural accidents, their magnitude, causes, severity and economic consequences in a North-Eastern State in India. The accident data for six years from 2000 to 2005 were collected by conducting a survey and personal interview of the victims in 42 villages of four districts. Agricultural accident incident rate was 6.39 per 1000 workers per year. All accidents were non-fatal. Farm implement-related accidents accounted for 40% of the total. Other findings are discussed. Based on the analysis, both passive and active measures are suggested to minimize or prevent the occurrence of agricultural accidents.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.199-205. Illus. 31 ref.
Farmwise: Your essential guide to health and safety in agriculture
Ffermio Diogel: Eich canllaw hanfodol i iechyd a diogelwch mewn amaethyddiaeth [in Welsh]
This major guidance document describes in straightforward terms the principles of health and safety in agriculture. Contents: benefits of preventing accidents (injuries and ill health, their costs and causes); organizing for health and safety; risk assessment; consulting employees; contractors and family workers; training and skills; first aid, emergencies and reporting; preventing falls; building work; workplace transport; selecting and using equipment; maintenance work; workplace safety and welfare; electricity; child and public safety; handling livestock; chainsaws and tree work; COSHH (CIS 00-620) and health; health problems in agriculture (chest problems, zoonoses, skin problems, stress); pesticides and veterinary medicines; manual handling; noise and vibration; personal protective equipment. Previous edition: CIS 99-1465.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2009. 50p. (Web edition: 68p.) Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/welsh/indg427w.pdf [in Welsh]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg427.pdf [in English]
Kallioniemi M.K., Simola A.J., Kymäläinen H.R., Vesala H.T., Louhelainen J.K.
Stress among Finnish farm entrepreneurs
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of stress among Finnish full-time farm entrepreneurs and to compare the results with those for the general working population. A stratified random sample of 1182 farm entrepreneurs gathered from the farm register was surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviews. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the association with background factors. One third (34 %) of the examined farmers had experienced stress. This amount was lower than among the general working population (44 %). The most common factors associated with farmers' stress were problems in social family relationships and mental support. Physical factors such as the strenuousness of agricultural work, illness and a low estimation of their own working ability were also related to stress. Increased stress was also associated with economic problems. The relatively low level of stress observed may indicate that those who have continued within the agricultural sector have the psychological capacity to deal with stressful situations.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2008, Vol.15, p.243-249. Illus. 30 ref.
Stress.pdf [in English]
Crook B., Easterbrook A., Stagg S.
Health and Safety Executive
Exposure to dust and bioaerosols in poultry farming: Summary of observations and data
The poultry industry in the United Kingdom involves a range of activities including laying litter, populating with young birds, depopulating (reducing bird density during growth or removing at the end of the cycle), litter/manure removal, cleaning houses after depopulation, and routine maintenance and housework. The objective of this study was to measure workers' exposure to airborne dust and bioaerosols associated with these tasks in a representative cross-section of commercial poultry production. In total, eleven sampling visits to eight different farms were undertaken. The results showed that, at maximal exposure, poultry workers were exposed to total inhalable dust levels exceeding 10 mg/m3 during most activities. Exposure to airborne bacteria potentially exceeded one million cfu/m3 of air in each of the activities monitored. Maximal endotoxin levels ranged according to task from 30 to more than 38,000 EU/m3. Maximal airborne fungal concentrations ranged from 2,000 to 600,000 cfu/m3. Implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 62p. Illus. 20 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_655.pdf [in English]
Naidoo S., London L., Burdorf A., Naidoo R.N., Kromhout H.
Agricultural activities, pesticide use and occupational hazards among women working in small scale farming in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
South Africa's land policies have increased women's participation in agriculture, but limited information exists about their agricultural activities. In this study, 911 women working in a region of South Africa were surveyed in 2006, gathering data on demographics, agricultural activities, crop production and pesticide. Findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.218-224. Illus. 31 ref.
Loría Bolaños R., Partanen T., Berrocal M., Alvárez B., Córdoba L.
Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: Coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica
In Los Santos, Costa Rica, coffee is mostly harvested by migrant labour from Panama and Nicaragua. This study describes migrants' conditions of work and housing. It involved interviews, observation-based assessments, and a geographic information system to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at 520 farms during 2004-2005. Findings are discussed. Determinants of poor health included widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol. 14, No.2, p.129-137. Illus. 52 ref.
Dessureault P.C., Tellier A.
Auto-surveillance of the thermal stress of young workers assigned to hay storage
L'autosurveillance de l'astreinte thermique des jeunes travailleurs affectés à l'engrangement du foin [in French]
Observations of young workers assigned to hay storage have confirmed extremely high levels of heat stress. Occupational safety and health regulations recommend using the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) to measure heat stress. However, this index is difficult to apply in an agricultural environment, mainly because it requires specialized knowledge and instruments. This study investigated the feasibility of applying an auto-surveillance program intended for young workers. The experiments carried out among these workers have shown that they can ensure their own safety if they monitor their level of heat stress by means of a cardiofrequency meter measuring their heart rate. However, employers must also provide them with the appropriate beverages, encourage them to take breaks and supply them with all the necessary information about their working in hot environments.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. v, 50p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-580.pdf [in French]
Kumar A., Singh J.K., Mohan D., Varghese M.
Farm hand tool injuries: A case study from northern India
Data on agricultural related injuries was collected from nine contiguous villages with a total population of 19,723 persons. In a subsequent second phase of study, 21 additional villages were included and the population covered was 78,890. A total of 576 agricultural injuries were reported in Phase I, among which hand tools accounted for 332 (58%). In Phase II, 54 (19%) injuries were hand-tool related out of total 282 agricultural injuries. There are 1700 injuries related to hand tools per hundred thousand farm workers per year in rural India. Productivity is impaired to the tune of 24,000 days per hundred thousand population because of injuries caused by hand tools on these farms. This article discusses the most frequent mechanisms of injuries and the most frequently-injured body parts according to the type of tool being used and the crop under cultivation.
Safety Science, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.54-65. Illus. 14 ref.
Horiuchi N., Oguchi S., Nagami H., Nishigaki Y.
Pesticide-related dermatitis in Saku District, Japan, 1975-2000
A total of 394 cases of dermatitis caused by pesticide exposures recorded from 1975 to 2000 at the dermatology department of a Japanese hospital are described. Dermatitis cases gradually decreased from 1975 to 2000, presumably accelerated by the phase-out of dermatitis-causing pesticides, including difolatan and salithion. Cases of chronic and solar dermatitides gradually decreased, which may be explained by reductions in the use of allergenic or photosensitive sulfur agents and organophosphates. However, the ratios of chemical burns from irritant pesticides rose in those years. Chemical burns from calcium polysulfide were responsible for most of the severe cases.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.1, p.25-34. Illus. 38 ref.
Crawford J.M., Hoppin J.A., Alavanja M.C.R., Blair A., Sandler D.P., Kamel F.
Hearing loss among licensed pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study
This study evaluated the relationship between hearing loss and pesticide exposure among licensed private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study in Iowa and North Carolina. Among 14,229 white male applicators, 4926 reported hearing loss (35%). Logistic regression was performed with adjustment for state, age, and exposure to noise and solvents. Compared with no exposure, the odds ratio for the highest quartile of exposure was 1.19 for insecticides and 1.17 for organophosphate insecticides. Odds of hearing loss were elevated for high pesticide exposure events (1.38), pesticide-related doctor visits (1.38) or hospitalization (1.81) and diagnosed pesticide poisoning (1.75).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.817-826. 36 ref.
Fragar L., Pollock K., Morton C.
The changing profile of Australian farm injury deaths
This article discusses statistical trends in injury deaths in the Australian agricultural sector between a recent study for the years 2001-2004 and earlier studies. Compared to a study for the years 1982-1984, the recent study shows a 46% reduction overall in tractor-related deaths and a 74% reduction in the number of deaths associated with tractor rollovers. However, all-terrain vehicle deaths have increased strongly from four deaths in 1989-1992 to 51 deaths in the recent study period. Drowning deaths of children under five years old on farms have significantly declined, but remain a significant cause of toddler deaths on farms across Australia. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2008, Vol.24, No.5, p.425-433. 9 ref.
Harley K.G,, Marks A.R., Bradman A., Barr D.B., Eskenazi B.
DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California
This study examined whether exposure to pesticides, including DDT, was associated with longer time to pregnancy (TTP). A total of 402 pregnant women living in a migrant farm worker community were asked how many months they took to conceive. Women reported their and their partners' occupational and home pesticide exposure preceding conception. In a subset of 289 participants, levels of DDT and its decomposition product DDE were measured in maternal serum. No associations were seen with DDT exposure. However, longer TTP was seen among women reporting exposure to agricultural and home pesticides, but not among men. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1335-1342. Illus. 44 ref.
Farquhar S., Shadbeh N., Samples J., Ventura S., Goff N.
Occupational conditions and well-being of indigenous farmworkers
Increasing numbers of indigenous farmworkers from Mexico and Guatemala with unique cultural and linguistic traditions have been arriving in the Pacific Northwest. In this study, multilingual project outreach workers administered surveys to 150 farmworkers in Oregon to assess health, occupational safety and general living conditions. The study confirms the increasing presence of indigenous peoples in Oregon and characterizes differences between indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational and health needs.
American Journal of Public Health, Nov. 2008, Vol. 98, No.11, p.1956-1959. 13 ref.
Calvert G.M., Karnik J., Mehler L., Beckman J., Morrissey B., Sievert J., Barrett R., Lackovic M., Mabee L., Schwartz A., Mitchell Y., Moraga-McHaley S.
Acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in the United States, 1998-2005
The objective of this study was to identify acute pesticide poisoning cases in agricultural workers between the ages of 15 and 64 years that occurred in California from 1998 to 2005. The California Department of Pesticide Regulation and the SENSOR-Pesticides programme provided the cases. Acute occupational pesticide poisoning incidence rates for those employed in agriculture were calculated, as were incidence rate ratios among agricultural workers relative to non-agricultural workers. Of the 3,271 cases included in the analysis, 2,334 (71%) were employed as farmworkers. The remaining cases were employed as processing/packing plant workers (12%), farmers (3%), and other miscellaneous agricultural workers (19%). Findings suggest that acute pesticide poisoning in the agricultural industry continues to be an important problem.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.883-898. Illus. 40 ref.
Salvatore A.L., Bradman A., Castorina R., Camacho J., López J., Barr D.B., Snyder J., Jewell N.P., Eskenazi B.
Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey County, California
The objective of this study was to assess the safety consciousness of farmworkers with respect to pesticide exposure. Behaviours of 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California, were assessed via self-reports. Organophosphorus (OP) exposure was evaluated using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Wearing recommended protective clothing, wearing clean work clothes, and the combination of hand washing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA metabolite levels. However, despite these precautions, participants still had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.782-794. Illus. 57 ref.
Perrotta C., Staines A., Cocco P.
Multiple myeloma and farming. A systematic review of 30 years of research. Where next?
Multiple myelomas have long been linked to farming. However, there was little clarity about the magnitude of the risk, nor about the specific agricultural exposures which contributed to this risk. A systematic review of case-control studies of multiple myeloma published from 1970 to 2007 was therefore carried out. Pooled odds ratios of case-control studies were 1.39 for working as a farmer, 1.47 for pesticide exposure, 2.19 for exposure to DDT, 1.69 for exposure to herbicides and 1.87 for working on a farm for more than ten years.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, No.27, 7p. Illus. 36 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-27.pdf [in English]
Seidler A., Hammer G.P., Husmann G., König J., Krtschil A., Schmidtmann I., Blettner M.
Cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities: A cancer-registry based ecological study
The objective of this study was to investigate the cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities. Age-adjusted incidence ratios were calculated for communities in several areas under wine cultivation on the basis of the Rhineland-Palatinate cancer-registry. Standardized cancer incidence ratios were computed using German incidence rates as reference. A statistically significant positive association with the extent of viniculture can be observed for non-melanoma skin cancer in both men and women, and additionally for prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in men. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, June 2008, Vol.3, No.12, 11p. 42 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-12.pdf [in English]
Giannandrea F., Settimi L., Figà Talamanca I.F.
The use of personal protective equipment in pregnant greenhouse workers
The objective of this study was to determine the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among pregnant greenhouse workers in Italy and to identify risk factors related to the non-use of appropriate preventive measures. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to 232 Italian female greenhouse workers regarding their use of PPE and the outcomes of their first pregnancy. Although most pregnant women used at least one form of PPE while working, there were differences in rates of PPE use according to social status. Overall, the protection was inadequate in the south of Italy and among the less educated. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.52-57. 29 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/52 [in English]
Kawakami T., Van V.N., Theu N.V., Khai T.T., Kogi K.
Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: Building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.
This article describes the implementation of the WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) in the farming sector in Vietnam. From 2004 to 2007, 480 WIND volunteers trained 7922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments, control of hazardous chemicals and welfare facilities.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.455-462. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_455.pdf [in English]
Lee K., Lim H.S.
Work-related injuries and diseases of farmers in Korea
Korean farmers are the victims of various work-related injuries and diseases, including injuries from farming machinery and tools, pesticide poisoning, peasant syndrome, vinyl house disease, respiratory diseases, infectious and skin diseases. Zoonoses including brucellosis and tsutsugamushi disease are on the increase, as well as musculoskeletal problems due to awkward postures, repetitive work and long working hours. Moreover Korean farmers themselves do not pay much attention to these problems and farmers are not considered a priority by health care facilities since the number of people involved in farming has strongly declined during the last few decades and the average age of this population has dramatically increased. This article reviews the current status of work-related injuries and diseases among Korean farmers and provides basic data for future studies.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.424-434. 95 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_424.pdf [in English]
McCauley L.A., Lasarev M., Muniz J., Nazar Stewart V., Kisby G.
Analysis of pesticide exposure and DNA damage in immigrant farmworkers
This study was designed to use the comet assay to describe the association of markers of DNA damage in oral leukocytes with biomarkers of pesticide exposure. It involved 134 farmworkers working in berry crops in the U.S. State of Oregon and 55 non exposed controls. It also examined the extent of DNA damage in young workers compared to adults and the effect of work histories, lifestyle factors, and diet on markers of DNA damage. Tail intensity and tail moment were significantly higher for agricultural workers compared to controls. However no parameter was significantly associated with years spent working in agriculture, age, sex, body mass index, diet, and alcohol or tobacco use. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility for using the comet assay in biomonitoring studies of farmworkers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.4, p.237-246. Illus. 33 ref.
Biofuels and North American agriculture - Implications for the health and safety of North American producers
This article reviews the papers presented at a conference on safety and health related to the production of biofuels, held in Omaha, United States, 14-17 November 2007. The exposures experienced by workers included distiller's grains and bio-processing byproducts, spent catalyst, solvents, brine, microbial agents, genetically modified organisms and effluents. Other issues discussed included change in cropping patterns and resultant use of different seeding and harvesting technologies, pests and the intensive rural traffic resulting from the transport of large quantities of biomass and grain.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.4, p.219-224. Illus. 15 ref.
Park E.K., Duarte Tagles H., Gee S.J., Hammock B.D., Lee K., Schenker M.B.
Recruiting strategy and 24-hour biomonitoring of paraquat in agricultural workers
Agricultural workers in Costa Rica were recruited to participate in a 24-hour urine collection for paraquat exposure assessment and compare the 24-hour sampling to end-of-shift sampling. Participants included 187 workers from coffee, banana, and palm oil plantations exposed to paraquat, and 54 unexposed workers from the same plantations. This study showed that it was possible to reliably obtain 24-hour urine samples from a farm worker population. Furthermore, comparison between the paraquat levels in end-of-shift and 24-hour urine samples demonstrated that for this compound, end-of-shift urine samples are a reliable substitute for 24-hour collections.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.4, p.207-217. Illus. 28 ref.
Deboy G.R., Jones P.J., Field W.E., Metcalf J.M., Tormoehlen R.L.
Estimating the prevalence of major disability within the U.S. farm and ranch population
The objective of this literature survey was to estimate the prevalence of major disability among farmers in the United States, together with the effect of disease and injury on that disability rate. A systematic methodology was developed to combine results from the most recent surveys and censuses. Findings show that estimates of the disability population in the farm, ranch, and agricultural labor sector, ranges from 1.04 million to 2.23 million individuals, depending upon which surveys and censuses are used. Primary reasons identified for the inability to provide a more precise population size include lack of consistent survey methodologies and definitions. This makes it difficult to determine the number of individuals in the farm and ranch population who would benefit from disability services.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.3, p.175-190. 44 ref.
LaBrash L.F., Pahwa P., Pickett W., Hagel L.M., Snodgrass P.R., Dosman J.A.
Relationship between sleep loss and economic worry among farmers: A survey of 94 active Saskatchewan noncorporate farms
Farm work involves seasonal peak busy periods with long hours of work and potential sleep loss. Social, technological and economic changes, and depressed commodity prices, have resulted in financial stress. The objective of this study was to examine the association between hours of sleep and economic worry among a population of farmers and their family members. It involved 195 persons from 94 active farms in two rural areas of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, who were interviewed by questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. During peak agricultural seasons, 31.6% of owner/operators reported less than six hours of sleep per night compared to 6.3% during the nonpeak season. A significant relationship (odds ratio 3.59) was observed between daily cash flow worry and impaired sleep during peak busy seasons.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.3, p.149-154. 24 ref.
Carrabba J.J., Scofield S., May J.
On-farm safety program
Rates of fatal occupational injuries in New York State agriculture far outstrip the average for all American workers. The New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health sponsored a safety programme to reduce farm worksite hazards and to enhance understanding of safe farm practices. A survey of 124 farms identified hazards that may lead to farm injury and suggested improvements to correct those hazards. Safety training sessions were conducted in 271 farms to increase safety knowledge and influence adoption of safe work practices. During follow-up phone surveys conducted with 97 of the participating farms, 77 (79%) reported having made safety improvements. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.3, p.139-148. 15 ref.
Bretveld R., Kik S., Hooiveld M., van Rooij I., Zielhuis G., Roeleveld N.
Time-to-pregnancy among male greenhouse workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether time-to-pregnancy (TTP) is prolonged in 694 male greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides in comparison with 613 non-exposed controls. Data were collected through self-administrated questionnaires with detailed questions on TTP, as well as on lifestyle (smoking habits, coffee and alcohol consumption, etc.), work tasks, and occupational exposures of the men and their partners in the six months before conception of the most recent pregnancy. TTP was compared between male greenhouse workers and non-exposed controls. The crude analyses did not show a decreased overall fecundability among greenhouse workers compared to the non-exposed reference group. However, when fecundability was assessed for primigravidous couples, duogravidous couples, and multigravidous couples separately, greenhouse workers were found to be less fecund when trying to conceive their first pregnancy. Among couples who already experienced one or more pregnancies, no association was seen between pesticide exposure and TTP after adjustment for confounders.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 21 ref.
Ageing issues and agricultural health and safety
Full issue on ageing of farmers in the United States. Topics: report on a conference on the ageing of the farming community; study on the use of medical and dental services by the forming community in two States; state of health and work capacity of older farmers; economic and social implications of the ageing farm population; occupational safety and health implications of the ageing farm population.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.2, p.65-131 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Kim K.Y., Ko H.J., Kim H.T., Kim C.N., Kim Y.S., Roh Y.M.
Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in confinement nursery pig houses. A control pig house was used for comparison, where no feed was supplied during the experimental period. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, airborne fungi and ammonia were found to be significantly higher in the pig house with feeding than in the control pig house. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increases the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to operations involving no feeding.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.138-143. Illus. 25 ref.
Sam K.G., Andrade H.H., Pradhan L., Pradhan A., Sones S.J., Rao P.G.M., Sudhakar C.
Effectiveness of an educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India
Pesticide poisoning is common in developing countries because farmers are often uninformed, illiterate and consider it impractical and expensive to use protective equipment, especially in tropical climates. This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational interventions among formers in areas having high occurrence of pesticide poisoning. Two villages in South India were selected for a public education program on safe handling of pesticides. Structured individualized training was provided to 74 pesticide handlers. Knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire assessments were conducted at baseline, immediately after training and after one month of training. The intervention was found to significantly improve the KAP scores.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.787-795. Illus. 21 ref.
MacFarlane E., Chapman A., Benke G., Meaklim J., Sim M., McNeil J.
Training and other predictors of personal protective equipment use in Australian grain farmers using pesticides
The objective of this study was to investigate patterns of use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce pesticide exposure in a sample of Australian farmers and also to assess possible predictive factors. A cross-sectional survey of 1102 farmers was conducted by means of a questionnaire. Up to 40% of the farmers reported routinely using no PPE at all when exposed to pesticides. In multivariate analyses PPE use appeared to be most strongly associated with younger age and farm chemical training. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.141-146. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing accidents to children on farms
Over the past 10 years, 31 children under the age of 16 died in work-related incidents in agriculture in the United Kingdom. During the same period, many children have also suffered injuries such as leg amputations and serious burns. The most common causes of death or injury were: falling from vehicles; strikes by vehicles; contact with machinery; driving vehicles; falls from heights; drowning; asphyxiation, poisoning, fire and contact with animals. Aimed at farmers, this booklet provides practical guidance on reducing risks to children and young persons on the farm, identifying operations that are too hazardous for children and young persons and complying with United Kingdom legal requirements. Replaces CIS 00-1567.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2008. 19p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as10.pdf [in English]
Nicol A.M., Kennedy S.M.
Assessment of pesticide exposure control practices among men and women on fruit-growing farms in British Columbia
Exposure to pesticides can be reduced by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) or by implementing alternative pest control techniques, such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to explore the prevalence of these practices among a total of 380 men and women involved in fruit growing in British Columbia, Canada. Among the 119 workers who applied pesticides, 63% indicated that they usually wore PPE during application. Individual equipment use varied. Gloves were worn most frequently (84%), followed by a spray suit (77%) and breathing protection (75%). Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.217-226. 42 ref.
Nouaigui H., Hamzaoui H., Bassalah K., Aschi S., Dupupet J.L., Le Bâcle C., Moreau B., Martinez F., Benzarti M.
National conference on: The promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing: Common challenges
Colloque national sur: la promotion de la santé et de la sécurité au travail dans le secteur de l'agriculture et de la pêche - Défi commun [in French]
Collection of papers presented at a national conference on the promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing (13-14 May 2008, Tunis, Tunisia). Topics include: situation in Tunisia; regulations; occupational accident and disease statistics; vocational training; monitoring of exposure in the agricultural sector; management of biological hazards; safety of farm equipment; presentation of the European handbook for the prevention of accidents at sea and the safety of fishermen; risks of zoonoses and their prevention.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, July 2008, No.46, p.1-40 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Salvatore A.L., Bradman A., Castorina R., Camacho J., López J., B. Barr D.B., Snyder J., Jewell N.P., Eskenazi B.
Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey County, California
The relationship between self-reported behaviours and agricultural pesticide exposures were assessed in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Wearing recommended clothing, wearing clean work clothes, hand washing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA levels. Despite these protective behaviours, however, participants had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Further efforts are needed to reduce the exposure disparities experienced by farmworkers and decrease the potential for ``take home'' exposures to farmworkers' families.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.782-794. Illus. 57 ref.
Occupational exposure to organic dusts and cancer among Finnish workers: Special emphasis on the food industry and agriculture
Organic dusts are a major cause of occupational diseases of the respiratory tract. The food industry and agriculture are significant sources of organic dust. In this cohort study on the risk of cancer due to exposure to organic dust, several computerized databases in Finland were linked, based on either individual or group-level key variables. This enabled the identification of two cohorts, a first comprising all Finns born between 1906 and 1945 with past or present activity in the food industry, the second comprising all persons active in farming in 1978. Occupational exposures were estimated using the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). It was found that occupational exposures were unlikely to be a major risk of cancer among either food industry workers or farmers. Other findings are discussed.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2008. 83p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 21.60.
http://acta.uta.fi/pdf/978-951-44-7500-9.pdf [in English]
Mayton A.G., Kittusamy N.K., Ambrose D.H., Jobes C.C., Legault M.L.
Jarring/jolting exposure and musculoskeletal symptoms among farm equipment operators
Vehicle vibration exposure has been linked to chronic back pain and low-back symptoms among agricultural tractor drivers. The objectives of this study were to assess driver whole-body vibration (WBV) exposures and recommend interventions to reduce the risk of back-related injuries, particularly relative to vehicle jarring/jolting. Field data and health and work history were collected from equipment operators carrying out various tasks with different models of tractors. Ninety-six percent of participants reported having to bend or twist their necks, 24% reported neck symptoms and 64% reported back symptoms. Recommendations included: specifying a seat that better isolates operators from jars/jolts; maintaining the seat suspension; replacing worn or damaged cushions; using larger diameter tires; using a swivel seat to reduce the stress on the neck; improving efforts to educate operators of the adverse effects of WBV exposures.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.758-766. Illus. 38 ref.
Buckley J.P., Sestito J.P., Hunting K.L.
Fatalities in the landscape and horticultural services industry, 1992-2001
Although landscape and horticultural services workers have high injury and illness rates, little is known about fatalities in this industry. Census and population survey data were analyzed to determine fatality rates and causes of landscaping deaths from 1992 to 2001. There were 1101 fatalities during the 10-year period in the United States, with an average fatality rate of 13.50 deaths per 100,000 full-time employees. In 2001, the landscaping fatality rate was 3.33 times the all-industry rate. The leading causes of death were transportation incidents (27%), contact with objects or equipment (27%), falls (24%), exposure to harmful substances and environments (18%), and assaults and violent acts (4%). The fatality rate for African American landscapers was 1.51 times the rate for white workers. Fatalities were also common among self-employed and young workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.701-713. Illus. 38 ref.
Bahloul A., Roberge B., Gravel R.
Feasibility of the study on fermentation gases and on ventilation in a reduced scale silo
Faisabilité de l'étude sur les gaz de fermentation et sur la ventilation en silo à l'échelle réduite [in French]
Occupational safety and health regulations classify as enclosed areas the feed silos used in agricultural environments. Serious and often fatal accidents occur in these silage reservoirs. To take into account the risks posed by conventional tower silos, this study considered using scale models for their study. The report of this preliminary research describes how a laboratory specimen of a scale model was developed for estimating the feasibility of using such miniature versions and of modifying them as needed. By measuring gases and other parameters, the silage fermentation process was followed in this experimental structure. Based on data from prior ventilation tests on corn silage fermentation gases, the design of the scale model silo was improved.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vi, 25p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-553.pdf [in French]
Report IV - Promotion of rural employment for poverty reduction
Rapport IV - Promotion de l'emploi rural pour réduire la pauvreté [in French]
Informe IV - La promoción del empleo rural para reducir la pobreza [in Spanish]
More than 3,000 government, worker and employer leaders met in Geneva at the International Labour Conference in June 2008 to discuss various issues including rural poverty reduction. Approximately 3.4 billion people, slightly under half of the world's population, now live in rural areas. Climate change, soaring food prices, and the use of farm products for fuel are today key issues in the global debate on agricultural production. Rural markets and the world economy have been affected by globalization, whose costs and benefits have not been equitably distributed either between countries or within them, and by increased urbanization. Clearly, the employment challenges of today's burgeoning cities cannot be met without addressing the need for full and productive employment in rural areas. Agricultural growth is highly effective in reducing poverty, but the pattern and distribution of growth will determine the degree to which it translates into job creation and poverty reduction. This report was prepared as a discussion paper for the conference. A specific chapter deals with international labour standards and OSH issues.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2008. v, 135p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_092056.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_091721.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_092055.pdf [in French]
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