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Agriculture - 1,538 entries found

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2000

CIS 02-760 What went wrong? A film about industrial accidents on the farm
In this videotape of a programme which was showns on television in 2000, four farm workers explain occupational accidents which they experienced and their consequences. The advice given to these farm workers by a safety and health specialist is also presented.
Sectoral Working Environment Councils Farm to Table, Jordbrigets Arbejdsmiljøudvlag, Torsøvej 7, 8240 Risskov, Denmark, 2000. VHS/PAL video, duration: 27 min.

CIS 02-673 Tüchsen F., Jensen A.A.
Agricultural work and the risk of Parkinson's disease in Denmark, 1981-1993
This study examined the possible association between agricultural and horticultural work and subsequent incidence of Parkinson's disease. Cohorts of 2,273,872 men and women, aged between 20 and 59 years, identified in the Central Population Register of Denmark were followed. All first-time hospitalizations with Parkinson's disease were recorded. A high risk of Parkinson's disease was found for the men and women in agriculture and horticulture (134 cases, standardized hospitalization ratio (SHR) 132). Significantly high risks were found for farmers (79 cases, SHR 130) and for all men in agriculture and horticulture (109 cases, SHR 134).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.359-362. 13 ref.

CIS 02-709 Kristensen P., Andersen A., Irgens L.M.
Hormone-dependent cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes in farmers' families - Effects of climatic conditions favoring fungal growth in grain
The impact of grain farming and climate on late-term abortion among female farmers, male genital birth defects among their sons, and hormone-dependent cancer among male and female farmers and their adult children was investigated. 246,043 male and female farmers born between 1925 and 1971 and 264,262 of their offspring were identified from the Norwegian national registers. Categories of high exposure were associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and cancer among female farmers, the strongest occurring for late-term abortion (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.6). Exposure associations for ovarian and breast cancer, and male genital defects, were more moderate. Endometrial cancer was associated with grain farming (OR 2.0). Exposure associations for cancer were strongest for pre-menopausal, parous women. The results are consistent with hormonal effects of inhaled mycotoxins during pregnancy.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.331-337. 24 ref.

CIS 02-706 Engel L.S., O'Meara E.S., Schwartz S.M.
Maternal occupation in agriculture and risk of limb defects in Washington State, 1980-1993
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth records from the state of Washington (USA) for the years 1980 through 1993. The exposed group, consisting of 4466 births to mothers employed in agriculture, was compared with 2 reference groups. The outcome of interest was limb defects (syndactyly, polydactyly, adactyly, and "other limb reductions" as listed in the birth record). An elevated risk of limb defects was observed for the exposed group in comparison with the reference groups. These results support the hypothesis that maternal occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals may increase the risk of giving birth to a child with limb defects.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.193-198. 10 ref.

CIS 02-350 ACTA Crop protection index 2000
Index phytosanitaire ACTA 2000 [in French]
Alphabetical listing of approx. 2600 insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, nematocides, herbicides and rodenticides commercially sold in France. For each active substance, the analytical section provides information on its toxicity, uses, conditions of use, distributor, international formulation code and concentrations. A list of authorized substances by crop and application and an alphabetic listing by trade name and active constituent are included.
Association de coordination technique agricole, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, France, 36th ed., 2000. 644p. Illus. Index. Price: FRF 160.00 (VAT included).

CIS 02-288 Cebulska-Wasilewska A., Wierzewska A., Dyga W., Drąg Z., Siffel C., Horváth M., Au W.
Induction of DNA and cytogenic damage in lymphocytes of Polish workers exposed to pesticides
This paper presents preliminary data from the Polish subgroup of a joint research program (Greece, Hungary, Poland, and Spain) investigating the relationship between exposure to agrochemicals and the induction of genotoxicity in human cells. Blood samples were collected from male donors (50 persons in a reference group and 50 persons in a group occupationally exposed to pesticides). The collected samples were analysed for the induction of DNA strand breaks and of chromosome damage. Analysis of the data from the interviews revealed that the occupationally exposed group showed significantly higher frequency of some health problems (cardiovascular disorders, kidney, neurological and dermatological problems, infections). The exposed group also had higher levels of DNA damage and sister chromatid exchanges compared to the reference group. It was also found that cigarette smoking played an important role influencing the biomarker response. Although the farmers in Poland have been using safety devices when handling pesticides, more rigorous procedures need to be employed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.272-287. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 02-186 Petrelli G., Figà-Talamanca I., Taggi F.
Recall of reproductive history in agricultural workers
The relationship between reproductive damage and occupational and environmental toxic substances has been investigated in retrospective epidemiological studies by means of time to pregnancy. This measure has been validated in several studies conducted on working populations, in particular among women. This paper attempts to evaluate the agreement between recalls of the husband and wife on reproductive history among agricultural workers. The study was carried out in an agricultural area of central Italy and involved 164 farmers, aged 20-55, licensed to handle pesticides, and their wives. Detailed data on reproductive history were collected by personal interview. Subsequently the farmers' wives were interviewed by telephone. On the basis of the results, it can reasonably be affirmed that the male's recall can be considered as acceptable to study the reproductive history in this agricultural population.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.265-271. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-305 Fayomi B., Affedjou B., Affognon A., Toko I.
Use of pesticides and clinical symptoms among children working in cotton fields in Aplahoué (Republic of Benin)
Utilisation de pesticides et symptômes cliniques chez les enfants travaillant dans les champs de coton à Aplahoué (République du Bénin) [in French]
In Benin, children are involved in the protective treatment of cotton alongside adults. Consequently, they handle organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 1999 in the sub-prefecture of Aplahoué, situated in the southern part of the country. It highlighted the fact that during spraying, more than half the children did not take wind direction into account. They exhibited skin, neurological and respiratory clinical symptoms. On experiencing these symptoms, more than a third of the children resort to self-medication with dangerous products. With the use of pesticides, the issue of child labour takes a critical dimension in Benin. It is therefore urgent to take appropriate steps to put an end to this practice.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.2, p.147-154. 17 ref.

CIS 01-1584
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social
Official Mexican Standard - Agricultural activities: Installations, equipment and tools - Safety conditions [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana - Actividades agrícolas: instalaciones, maquinaría, equipo y herramientas - Condiciones de seguridad [México] [in Spanish]
Contents of this standard: scope (all workplaces in Mexico where agricultural activities take place); definitions; obligations of employers and workers; safety conditions; safety procedures for equipment and tools; first aid; verification systems
Internet copy, 2000. 8p. 3 ref.
http://www.stps.gob.mx/04_sub_prevision/03_dgsht/normatividad/normas/nom_007.htm [in Spanish]

CIS 01-1852 Thelin A., Stiernström E.L., Holmberg S.
Psychosocial conditions and access to an occupational heath service among farmers
To determine whether membership in an occupational health service programme is linked to psychosocial risk factors, a study was conducted on 364 farmers or persons engaged in agriculture affiliated to occupational health care services, and 548 non-affiliated. The study was based on information collected via questionnaires and standardized interviews. There were clear differences in psychosocial patterns between the groups. Those with occupational health care were more frequently married, and had more education and more social contacts than did those without such care. Eating times were more regular and meals were better in those with occupational health care. Karasek-Theorell's indices for psychological demands and decision latitude at work were also higher in this group. Better-educated farmers and those with larger farms were more often members of an occupational health care programme. In addition, this group had fewer psychosocial risk factors.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.208-214. 39 ref.

CIS 01-1442 Amadori S.
Farming: Legal framework - Statistics
La actividad agraria. Marco legal - Estadísticas [in Spanish]
Farming is one of the most dangerous occupations worldwide. In Argentina, there are two main farming sectors: the first, characterized by subsistence agriculture and low levels of training, the second, using highly automated processes, attaining high productivity with fewer workers. Subcontracting labour, which includes the employment of migratory workers, poses its own challenges. In order to improve working conditions, several social service bodies related to occupational health have developed regulations for health and safety in agriculture, which contributed to the issuing of Decree No.617/97 (CIS 98-382). The main chapters of these regulations are reviewed. The article also presents accident statistics for the agricultural sector for 1999 by branch, causal agent and type of accident, as well as statistics on occupational diseases and cases of pesticide poisoning. 103 fatal occupational accidents were registered during 1999 in the agricultural sector.
Salud Ocupacional, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.XVIII, No.78, p.4-9. Illus.

CIS 01-1441 Rasmussen K., Carstensen O., Lauritsen J.M.
Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms
In a study of farm accidents and injuries in Denmark, 393 farms with employing 1,597 persons participated in a 1-year self-registration of work-related incidents. 479 occupational accidents were reported, of which 389 resulted in an injury. Persons below the age of 50 had an approximately double risk compared with those over 50 years of age. Summer and autumn had a double relative incidence compared with winter and spring. Among farm owners, 35% experienced at least one injury per year, while this was the case for 17% of farm laborers. When adjusting for work hours, the increased frequency of injuries among farm owners was reduced to a factor of 1.5. Animal-related work was the most common cause of injury. Repair and maintenance of field equipment was found to be the most dangerous task.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.82-89. 15 ref.

CIS 01-1440 Hwang S.A., Gomez M.I., Stark A.D., Lowery St. John T., Pantea C.I., Hallman E.M., May J.J., Scofield S.M.
Safety awareness among New York farmers
This study was conducted to assess the health status and safety practices among year-round adult farm workers and residents and included a telephone interview survey of 1,727 persons from 552 farms in the state of New York (US). Significant predictors of making substitutions in the use of chemicals and major changes to equipment include younger age, more persons on the farm and higher gross sales. Having training is associated with having more than a high school education. Among all participants, the perception that personal protective equipment is useful is associated with being younger, male, an owner-operator or worker, and having at least a high school education. These findings suggest that older and less educated farmers should be targeted for health and safety programmes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.71-81. 19 ref.

CIS 01-1093 Top on the agenda: Health and safety in agriculture
Au premier rang de l'ordre du jour: la santé et la sécurité dans l'agriculture [in French]
El punto más importante de la agenda: Salud y seguridad en la agricultura [in Spanish]
Collection of articles on working conditions, safety and health in agriculture for discussion at the June 2000 Session of the International Labour Conference. Main topics covered: provision of occupational safety and health services to workers in agriculture; improvements in standards of protection of waged workers and farmers, public health and of the environment; the role of trade unions in agriculture; safety and health issues of agricultural women; training, education and information in Uganda; the problem of pesticides in Asia; accidents and disease prevention in South America; panorama of accidents and diseases in rural work in Brazil; minimum age for employment. In annexes: ILO Conventions and Recommendations of direct relevance to safety and health in agriculture and other existing ILO Conventions and Recommendations of direct relevance to agriculture.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. vii, 113p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 15.00 (EUR 9.00).

CIS 01-1151 Kanerva L., Alanko K., Pelttari M., Estlander T.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Compositae in agricultural work
A 36-year-old non atopic man working as an agricultural substitute worker fir the past 12 years developed severe vesicular dermatitis on the back of his hands and milder dermatitis on his lower arms, upper chest and face. In his work, he had fed cattle with hay contaminated with weeds such as Compositae (Asteraceae), and had also been exposed to many agricultural chemicals. Away from work he was symptom-free. Patch tests with various Compositae showed a strong positive reaction. It was concluded that the patient had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Compositae and it was recommended that he should change to a job where no exposure to such substances would occur.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2000, Vol.42, No.4, p.238-239. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-1085 Abell A., Juul S., Bonde J.P.E.
Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers
This study examined the possibility that work in greenhouses with potential exposure to pesticides entails a risk for reduced fecundity in terms of increased time to pregnancy. 1,767 female members of the Danish Gardeners Trade Union were interviewed by telephone, and data were obtained on the 492 most recent pregnancies among women who were employed at the time when they stopped contraception. The pregnancies were classified according to job characteristics. The adjusted fecundability ratio for workers in flower greenhouses compared to other union members was 1.11. Among workers in flower greenhouses, the handling of cultures many hours per week, the spraying of pesticides, and the non-use of gloves was related to reduced fecundability.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.26, No.2, p.131-136. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 01-809
Health and Safety Executive
Managing confined spaces on farms
Fatal accidents occur during work in confined spaces involving persons not aware of the presence of a dangerous atmosphere. Risks include loss of consciousness from poisonous gases or lack of oxygen, asphyxiation from free-flowing solids, drowning in liquids or serious injury by fire or explosion. Examples of confined spaces in agriculture include slurry pits, effluent-treatment tanks and silos. This information sheet provides guidance on managing the risks from confined spaces and on meeting the requirements of United Kingdom regulations. Contents include: managing the risks; avoiding work in confined spaces where possible; safe working methods in specific work environments (sealed moist grain tower silos, indoor silage clamps, slurry storage systems, forage tower silos). Replaces CIS 99-648.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2000. 4p. 2 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais26.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-883
Health and Safety Executive
Common zoonoses in agriculture
This data sheet describes United Kingdom legal requirements for the control of the risk of zoonoses in humans, and provides guidance on precautions: occupational hygiene practices when working with livestock; use of personal protective equipment; provision of separate washing and eating facilities for farm visitors. Symptoms, treatment and control of some common zoonoses are outlined. Replaces CIS 97-1012.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Nov. 2000. 6p. 2 ref.

CIS 01-791 McCurdy S.A., Carroll D.J.
Agricultural injury
MEDLINE and NIOSHTIC were reviewed to identify studies of occupational injury among agricultural populations in the United States. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of identified studies and from contacts with experts in the field. US data indicate up to approximately 780 deaths and 140,000 cases of nonfatal disabling injuries in 1998. The risk of agricultural injuries is approximately 5-10/100 persons per year, but is higher in certain risk groups, such as males and cattle workers. Injuries most often involve falls, machinery and animals. Underlying reasons include the wide range of activities, hazards and dispersed work places in agriculture; a seasonal hired workforce that often has brief tenure, poor English skills and a distrust of officialdom; and a history of exemption regarding occupational health and safety regulations. Prevention should focus on engineering controls, regulatory approaches and education.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.463-480. 111 ref.

CIS 01-790 Sprince N.L., Lewis M.Q., Whitten P.S., Reynolds S.J., Zwerling C.
Respiratory symptoms: Associations with pesticides, silos, and animal confinement in the Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project
A population-based study was carried out in the state of Iowa (United States) in order to assess associations between symptoms of airway disease and several farm exposures, including to pesticides, grain dust, substances encountered in connection with animal confinement and in silos. A total of 385 farmer participants provided questionnaire responses concerning demographic, respiratory symptom, smoking and exposure information. The most frequently reported respiratory symptoms were flu-like symptoms in connection with dusty work (22%), dyspnoea (21%) and phlegm (15%). Applying pesticides to livestock was associated with significantly increased odds of phlegm (OR=1.91), chest ever wheezy (OR=3.92) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.93). Conventional vertical silos were significantly associated with increased odds of chest ever wheezy (OR=2.75) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.40). There were also significant associations between several respiratory symptoms and the presence of animal confinement facilities on the farm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.455-462. 19 ref.

CIS 01-822 Sri-Akajunt N., Sadhra S., Jones M., Burge P.S.
Natural rubber latex aeroallergen exposure in rubber plantation workers and glove manufacturers in Thailand and health care workers in a UK hospital
The aim of this study was to estimate airborne natural rubber latex (NRL) concentrations for three occupational exposure groups, rubber plantation workers and NRL glove manufacturers in Thailand and health care workers in the UK. Two rubber plantations (110 workers), three NRL glove manufacturing factories (583 workers) in Thailand and one UK hospital (490 workers) were selected for the study. A preliminary workplace survey was carried out. Personal sampling was conducted and NRL aeroallergens were measured by an inhibition assay with NRL-specific IgE antibodies from NRL-sensitized people. The highest geometric mean NRL aeroallergen concentration was found in the glove manufacturing factories (7.3µg/m3), followed by the rubber plantations (2.4µg/m3) and the hospital (0.46µg/m3). The highest exposure to NRL aeroallergens is likely to occur in the manufacturing factories. Exposure to aeroallergens for the plantation workers was considered to be moderate and that of health care workers to be low.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2000, Vol.44, No.2, p.79-88. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 01-580
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to farmers; Advice to teachers
This information sheet provides advice to farmers and others responsible for open farms on how to reduce health risks to visitors, particularly to children. A supplementary sheet is aimed at teachers. The main hazard is a transmission of animal microorganisms to humans; E. coli O157 in particular can cause severe illness in young children. Main topics covered: legal requirements for open farms; risk assessment; risk control; farm layout and access areas to visitors; animal contact; eating areas; washing facilities; visitor information and signs; staff training and supervision; livestock management procedures; manure and compost; laying out a "no contact" farm. Additional sources of advice to farmers are provided. Replaces CIS 98-676.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. 4p. + 1p. (Supplement).
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais23.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-456
Health and Safety Executive
Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and horticulture - 1999-2000
This is a report on the 44 reportable fatal injuries occurring in the agricultural sector (comprising farming, forestry and horticulture and associated industries) in Great Britain from April 1999 to March 2000. Statistical data are given by region, by main activity in the agricultural sector and by accident cause. Short descriptions of each fatal accident are provided. An analysis of the trend of fatal and non fatal injuries for the period 1986/87 to 1998/99 and case studies showing what went wrong and how the accident could have been avoided are presented. Previous report: see CIS 00-143.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. v, 54p. Illus.

CIS 01-80
Health and Safety Executive
Handling and stacking bales in agriculture
This brochure gives practical advice to all those involved in the handling and stacking of baled fodder or straw. It details most of the common causes of bale accidents and gives advice on how to avoid them. Contents: bale loading and unloading equipment; loading trailers; transport of bales; stacking and destacking bales; different types of stacks (square, rectangular, round, high-density bales); inspection of stacks; other hazards (children's safety, health risks due to manual handling). Replaces CIS 93-187.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., July 2000. 15p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 01-253 Avenel Audran M., Hausen B.M., le Sellin J., Ledieu G., Verret J.L.
Allergic contact dermatitis from hydrangea - Is it so rare?
Eight cases of allergic contact dermatitis from the ornamental plant Hydrangea macrophylla observed in Angers, France, during a period of 15 years are reported and compared to other cases described in literature. Allergic contact dermatitis from hydrangeas appears to be an occupational dermatosis among nursery workers, presenting as a chronic eczema involving the hands and especially the first 3 fingers. Differential diagnosis from irritant contact dermatitis may be difficult. Patch tests with the stem as well as the leaf of hydrangeas gave strong positive reactions in all patients, and hydrangenol, the allergen of hydrangea, when tested, always also gave a positive reaction. Sensitization seems to occur after prolonged contact with the plant, which could explain the relative frequency in Angers, a city that provides almost 90% of hydrangea seedling production in France.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2000, Vol.43, No.4, p.189-191. 15 ref.

CIS 00-1567
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing accidents to children on farms
Since most farms are homes as well as workplaces, there is a constant presence of children around the worksite. Between 1986 and 1999, there were 67 fatalities and 400 serious injuries involving children as a result of agricultural work in the United Kingdom. The most common causes of death or injury were: strikes by vehicles; drowning and asphyxiation; strikes by moving objects; falls from heights; accidental contact with machinery; fire. Aimed at farmers, this booklet provides practical guidance on reducing risks to children and young persons on the farm, identifying operations that are too hazardous for children and young persons and complying with United Kingdom legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 14p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as10.pdf [in English]

CIS 00-1579
Health and Safety Executive
Manual handling solutions for farms
Approximately 80% of persons who work in agriculture suffer from back, neck and limb disorders, and some are permanently disabled. Many of these injuries are caused by poor manual handling practices. This booklet describes some of the practical measures that farmers can adopt to reduce the likelihood of suffering from back or muscle disorders. Examples are provided for the following farming tasks: handling spare tractor wheels; handling bagged products; lifting chemical and oil containers; handling of animals; bale handling.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 11p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as23.pdf [in English]

CIS 00-1361
International Labour Office (ILO)
Safety and health in agriculture
Sécurité et santé dans l'agriculture [in French]
Seguridad y salud en la agricultura [in Spanish]
Leaflets containing statistics and other information on occupational safety and health in agriculture. Topics covered: workers in agriculture (distribution worldwide, different categories of workers, poverty); occupational hazards (accidents, occupational diseases, conditions of work); women in agriculture and the impact of working conditions on their health; legislation on occupational safety and health in agriculture; ILO programme on occupational safety and health in agriculture; proposals for creating a national programme on occupational safety and health in agriculture; ILO conventions and recommendations of direct relevance to safety and health in agriculture adopted since 1919, including the list of countries that have ratified these conventions.
SafeWork, Programme on Safety, Health and the Environment, Labour Protection Department, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, June 2000. 4p, 4p, 2p, 2p, 2p, 4p, 2p (7 leaflets in a folder). Illus.

CIS 00-1419 Smith D.
Old MacDonald had a farm
For fire intervention in rural areas, remoteness is a problem not only because of the distance, awkward access or difficulty in locating the incident but of the potential in the countryside for unrestricted fire spread. An officer of the Devon Fire and Rescue Service gives advice to reduce the risks. A risk assessment should be conducted for any proposed activity. Emergency plans should be put in place. Location cards providing a full address and best access, as well as points of potential water supplies should be kept by the telephone and hazards in and around the premises should be clearly marked. Statistics of serious agricultural industry fires from January-December 1998 and 3 reports on fires in a garden centre and in farms are included.
Fire Prevention, July 2000, No.334, p.24-25; 38-41. Illus.

CIS 00-1431 Beckett W.S., Chamberlain D., Hallman E., May J., Hwang S.A., Gomez M., Eberly S., Cox C., Stark A.
Hearing conservation for farmers: Source apportionment of occupational and environmental factors contributing to hearing loss
Persons working on farms continue to have a high prevalence of hearing loss, despite efforts to promote hearing conservation in agriculture. To develop improved hearing conservation programmes, an analysis for hearing loss was performed in a large, multiphasic survey, the New York Farm Family Health and Hazard Survey. Sources of information used included audiometric, otoscopic and tympanometric examinations, detailed general health and farm exposure interviews; and a second interview that focussed on additional potential determinants of hearing loss. Results show that hearing loss measured by audiometry was significantly associated with age, sex, education, hunting with guns, use of a grain dryer and spraying crops. Hearing conservation programmes for farmers should thus be directed toward reduction in noise exposure, both from occupational and non-occupational sources.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.806-813. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-658 Occupational safety and health in agriculture, forestry and livestock rearing
This CD-ROM includes articles related to agriculture, forestry and livestock rearing from the ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety (see CIS 99-1860), articles on the safety and health of workers in these branches of activity from national and international institutions, ILO codes of practice and booklets on forestry and agriculture and on topics such as chemicals and ergonomics that are critical for safety and health in these industries. It also includes international safety cards on agrochemicals, indexed in alphabetical order, by CAS number and by the risks involved from the chemicals, 3D animations on tractor safety, a video on safety in forestry operations as well as hundreds of photographs, drawings and charts.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. CD-ROM for at least 12-speed CD-ROM drive, Windows 95, 98, 2000 or NT, Internet Explorer 4.x or Netscape Navigator 4.6 (or any later version; a copy of Internet Explorer is provided).

CIS 00-889 Scarth R.D., Stallones L., Zwerling C., Burmeister L.F.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms and risk factors among Iowa and Colorado farmers
385 Iowa and 470 Colorado male principal farm operators were evaluated for depressive symptoms by using the CES-D scale. Risk factors were determined by using weighted multiple logistic regression analyses. Iowa farmers were 1.74 times more likely to have had depressive symptoms than Colorado farmers. Being unmarried (odds ratio = 3.46), having negative life events within the past year (legal problems (4.67), substantial income decline (2.71), loss of something of sentimental value (3.20)) and lower perceived general health status were risk factors for depressive symptoms for male Iowa and Colorado farmers. Higher levels of most risk factors for Iowa farmers, almost twice the frequency of substantial income decline, accounted for the majority of the difference in depressive symptoms between Iowa (12.2%) and Colorado (7.4%). The difference in level of depressive symptoms between Iowa and Colorado farmers was not significant after adjusting for the higher levels of most risk factors for Iowa farmers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.382-389. 25 ref.

CIS 00-729 McGwin G., Scotten S., Aranas A., Enochs R., Roseman J.M.
The impact of agricultural injury on farm owners and workers in Alabama and Mississippi
To assess the consequences of agricultural injury comparing Caucasian and African-American farm owners and workers, 1,244 farmers were observed between 1994-1996 for farming-related injuries. One hundred and thirty-one subjects reported a total of 140 injuries. The majority of injuries were classified as minor or moderate and required medical attention. African-American farm workers tended to have more severe injuries. Nearly all injured subjects experienced acute residual effects (e.g., pain when moving), while persistent effects occurred in about half of the injured subjects, the latter being more common among African-American workers. Losing employment was a frequent nonmedical effect of the injury. African-American workers tended to be more likely to become unemployed and/or be hurt financially. Better medical care facilities for African-American farm workers may allow a reduction of the impact of agricultural injuries in this population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.374-381. 21 ref.

CIS 00-538
Health and Safety Executive
Carriage of passengers on farm trailers
This information sheet is aimed at all persons who use a trailer to move people around on a farm, and sets out the features the trailer should have if it is used for carrying passengers. Main topics covered: requirements for the towing vehicle and the trailer; equipment for trailers used regularly for workers or for carrying members of the public; trailers used for workers on exceptional basis; safety rules; legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 00-479 Ohayo-Mitoko G.J.A., Kromhout H., Simwa J.M., Boleij J.S.M., Heederik D.
Self reported symptoms and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity among Kenyan agricultural workers
The objective was to assess health hazards posed by pesticides on agricultural workers in Africa. Complete data were available for 256 exposed subjects and 152 controls from four regions in Kenya, who were given a structured questionnaire. Prevalence ratios were estimated for symptoms with changes in cholinesterase activity in serum. A significant change in symptom prevalence was found in the controls with a higher prevalence in the low-exposure period. Analysis of the relation between cholinesterase inhibition and symptoms showed that prevalence ratios were significantly >1 for respiratory, eye and central nervous system symptoms for workers with >30% inhibition. The results suggest a relation between exposure and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, acetylcholinesterase activity, and respiratory, eye, and central nervous system symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.57, No.3, p.195-200. 33 ref.

1999

CIS 03-694 Bargieł H.
Use of personal protective equipment in the agricultural sector
Środki ochrony indywidualnej do stosowania w rolnictwie [in Polish]
Contents of this booklet on personal protective equipment in the agricultural sector: dangerous chemicals to which agricultural workers are exposed; methods of choosing personal protective equipment; types and use of personal protective equipment; methods of maintenance and storage. It also includes a list of the different types of personal protective equipment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 118p. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 03-305 Somavía J., He F., Chen S., Nguyen A.N., Dang Q.N., Saiyed H.N., Bhatnagar V.K., Kashyap R., Maroni M., Colosio C., Fait A., Visentin S., Kangas J., Tuomainen A., Lehtinen S., Fulekar M.H.
Pesticides
This issue is primarily devoted to the theme of pesticides. Contents: health effects of pesticide exposure and approaches to prevention; good practices in the use of pesticides in agricultural production; impact of pesticide use in India; health effects of occupational exposure to pesticides in developing countries and strategies for prevention; occupational exposure and biological monitoring of pesticides. Other topic: problems relating to the import of hazardous wastes and their handling in ports in India.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 1999, Vol.6, No.3, p.59-83 (whole issue). Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 02-226 Calver R., McGrath A.
Managing farm safety: The key in future risk management on farms
The agricultural industry is constantly facing changes which produce a level of economic and psychological uncertainty for farmers. Occupational safety and health training is necessary to eliminate or minimize risks which may be faced in a changing environment. The Victorian Farmers Federation (VFF) in Australia has successfully developed strategies to reduce the level of uncertainty and produce cultural change among Victorian farmers. The VFF is principally working to raise farm safety awareness and put in place practical risk management systems through the Managing Farm Safety programme, codes of practice, Farm Safety Action Groups, the Farmsafe Alliance and Farmsafe Victoria. The strategic direction is, however, guided by the risk management principles underlying the Managing Farm Safety programme. The overall endeavour is to educate farmers in the principles of risk management. Through practical risk management strategies, farmers and their families can avoid the emotional and economic costs of death, injury and loss of productivity.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1999, Vol.15, No.5, p.465-470. 13 ref.

CIS 02-225 Sandall J., Cooksey R., Reeve I., Kaine G.
Australian farmers' perceptions of farm health and safety hazards
In terms of occupational injuries and fatalities, farming is one of the three most dangerous occupations in Australia. On average, approximately 250 people are killed on Australian farms annually, while approximately 1,250 people are seriously injured. In terms of workers compensation payouts, the cost of farm injuries to the Australian farming industry has been estimated to amount to AUD 400m every year. In recent years, considerable resources have been directed at investigating the nature and scale of occupational health and safety problems among farmers. As a result of this work, the need to develop health and safety programmes that are suited to the unique working conditions of farmers has been recognised. In this article, a multidimensional psychometric approach is used to illustrate how an understanding of farmers' perceptions of the risks associated with health and safety hazards might contribute to the development of such programmes.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1999, Vol.15, No.5, p.449-464. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 02-307 Pomorska K.
General evaluation of risk associated with the use of pesticides and other chemical substances on animal breeding and plant production farms
The general characteristics of chemical risk on farms in Poland are presented. The paper describes the risk associated with the natural occurrence of chemicals (such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide) in the process of animal breeding and the risk connected with the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Pesticides are briefly described taking into consideration toxicity classes and toxic effects. Exposure to pesticides is presented for individual methods and related activities. Finally, the risk of exposure to pesticides in orchards and greenhouses is discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.449-457. 17 ref.

CIS 02-443 Perkiö-Mäkelä M.
Influence of exercise-focused group activities on the physical activity, functional capacity, and work ability of female farmers - A three-year follow up
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise-focused group activities on female farmers' physical activity, functional capacity, and work ability over a period of 3 years. Physical activity increased more in the intervention group (n = 62) than in the control group (n = 64) during the first year. By the third year, physical activity had almost returned to the pre-intervention level. In the 3-year follow-up examination, muscular endurance and cardio-respiratory fitness had improved in the intervention group, and there were more instances of decreases in musculoskeletal symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. The index used to measure perceived work ability showed no changes over the 3-year period. It can be concluded that group activities focused on leisure-time physical activity and work habits can be recommended as health promotion measures for farmers.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.381-394. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1712 Adekoya N., Myers J.R.
Fatal harmful substances or environmental exposures in agriculture, 1992 to 1996
Data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries surveillance system from 1992 through 1996 were analysed to allow a better understanding of exposures to harmful substances or environments that resulted in agricultural work fatalities. There were 357 fatalities as a result of these exposures in the agriculture production and agriculture services sectors, representing 10% of all work-related deaths that occurred in these industry sectors during this period. Contact with electric current represented 52.9% of these fatalities. Agricultural services reported 87 electrocutions, 50 of which occurred among tree trimmers. The events most likely to result in fatalities were contact with overhead power lines (26.3%) and drowning (17.1 %). The overall fatality rate was 2.1 deaths per 100,000 workers. The development of appropriate hazard-awareness training for workers may help prevent future deaths in these industry sectors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.699-705. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 01-1372 Rescalvo Santiago F.
Manual on the prevention of occupational hazards in agriculture
Manual de prevención de riesgos laborales en agricultura [in Spanish]
Training manual on the prevention of hazards linked to agricultural activities. Contents: most common hazards encountered when working in the agricultural sector; prevention of hazards during the handling and use of agricultural machinery; hazards related to the use of chemicals (pesticides and fertilisers) in agriculture, and their prevention; hazards linked to exposure to weather and to extreme climatic conditions, and their prevention; manual handling of loads.
IBERMUTUAMUR, Ramírez de Arellano 27, 28403 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 64p. Illus.

CIS 01-620 Decree No.99-905 of 22 Oct. 1999 concerning joint health, safety and working conditions committees in the workplace [France]
Décret n°99-905 du 22 oct. 1999 relatif aux commissions paritaires d'hygiène, de sécurité et des conditions de travail en agriculture [France] [in French]
This Decree specifies the procedures for the selection and appointment of members of joint OPSH committees at the departmental level. The role of these committees in the organization of safety and health activities and in the evaluation of hazards is also described.
Journal officiel de la République française, 26 Oct. 1999, No.249, p.15983-15984.

CIS 01-502 Murphy H.H., Sanusi A., Dilts R., Djajadisastra M., Hirschhorn N., Yuliatingsih S.
Health effects of pesticide use among Indonesian women farmers - Part I: Exposure and acute health effects
In Indonesia, pesticides are used indiscriminately with very few precautions. In some regions, women are primarily involved in carrying out agricultural tasks. This study examines the different pesticides used in the country, the types of exposure and the signs and symptoms of poisoning among women involved in pesticide spraying, compared to a control group of women not using pesticides. The acute signs and symptoms most frequently observed included tremors, eye irritation, running nose, excessive sweating, dry throat, nausea, chest pain, numbness and fatigue.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.3, p.61-85. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-443 Castillo D.N., Adekoya N., Myers J.R.
Fatal work-related injuries in the agricultural production and services sectors among youth in the United States, 1992-96
Data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics were used to analyse fatal agricultural work injuries among youth less than 20 years of age from 1992-1996. There were 188 deaths, 23% of which were tractor-related. Eighty-three deaths (44.1%) were reported among individuals engaged in family businesses. The fatality rate for 15- to 19-year-olds was 12.2 deaths per 100,000 full-time equivalents. Youth fatality rates were similar to those of adult workers until the age group of 45-54 years. Non-regulatory approaches to preventing injuries, especially in family businesses, are important given the current form of U.S. child labour laws.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.3, p.27-41. 42 ref.

CIS 01-442 Waits J.B., Wheat J.R.
Preventive agricultural medicine: A medical student's perspective on an important component of rural community health
Farming and keeping livestock are the most dangerous profession in terms of mortality. Despite progress in other areas of occupational medicine, occupational health issues in agriculture have been subordinate to those of manufacturing industry until only very recently. This report tells of a visit to a cotton farm in western Alabama as part of a Rural Medicine rotation by a medical student and includes a focussed literature review on various issues in agricultural health. Pressing health issues for farmers include exposure to toxic chemicals, trauma and injury, respiratory disease, infections, stress and psychiatric illnesses. There are additional issues involving family members. The rural family physician is in a unique position to prevent morbidity and mortality by social action and early diagnosis.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.3, p.11-25. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 01-259
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that has the ability to produce protein parasporal cystalline inclusions, which are toxic to the larvae of certain insect species. It is also a source of genes for transgenic expression of pest resistance. Bt is used in some pesticide formulations, resulting in respiratory and skin exposure to agricultural workers. Field studies indicate no adverse health effects from Bt exposure, and given the mode of action of Bt products, they are unlikely to pose any hazard to humans and vertebrates, or to non-target invertebrates. Contents include: biological properties and analytical methods; mode of action on target insects; habitats; commercial production; effects on animals; exposure and effects on humans; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. xv, 105p. Approx. 320 ref. Price: CHF 27.00 (CHF 18.90 in developing countries).

CIS 00-1702
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of rodenticides on farms and holdings
Topics: agriculture; data sheet; rodenticides; safe working methods; storage; toxic substances; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Jan. 1999. 4p. 5 ref.

CIS 00-1749
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing falls from fragile roofs in agriculture
Topics: agriculture; data sheet; fall arresters; falls from heights; harnesses; ladders; protection against falls from heights; railings; safe working methods; safety belts; strength of materials; United Kingdom; work at height; work on roofs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1999. 3p. 2 ref.

CIS 00-1389 Levy B.S., Levin J.L., Teitelbaum D.T.
DBCP-induced sterility and reduced fertility among men in developing countries
Topics: agriculture; antifertility effects; Nemagon; cohort study; developing countries; ethics; nematocides; pesticides; spermatogenic disturbances; sterility; toxic effects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.115-150. Illus. 104 ref.

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