Inorganic substances - 5,778 entries found
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Montero Simó R.
Hygiene hazards in the jewellery sector
Riesgos higiénicos en el sector de la joyería [in Spanish]
This article describes the steps involved in the manufacturing of precious-metal or costume jewellery and the chemicals used (metals in powder form, smoke and aerosols, acid salts and alkalis). The measures to be taken to limit exposure risks are described. Health hazards linked to chemicals used in jewellery manufacture are summarized in tabular form. Tables presenting threshold limit values for metals and chemicals used in jewellery manufacture are also included.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2001, No.12, p.18-24; 37-39. Illus. 15 ref.
01-1167.pdf [in Spanish]
Health and Safety Executive
Detection of leaks in seals of fan pressurised central heating boilers
The purpose of the project was to define a suitable method for detecting leaks of combustion products from the case and seals of fan pressurized central heating boilers, which can result in carbon monoxide emissions. Several methods were found to have the potential to detect leaks: smoke tubes to produce smoke for flow visualization; flue gas analyser to detect the drop in oxygen concentration due to a leak of combustion products or to determine the flue gas composition; micro-manometers to determine the overpressure inside the boiler casing. Further work is required to determine appropriate test criteria and to develop suitable procedures for use by a service engineer.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 24p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
01-1171.pdf [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01319.pdf [in English]
Seleniuro de hidrógeno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.2mg/m3 or 0.05ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation. Toxicity: irritation of the eyes, throat and respiratory tract; nausea; vomiting; diarrhoea; metallic taste in the mouth; garlic smelling breath; fatigue.
Noticias de seguridad, May 2001, Vol.63, No.5, 3p. Insert.
01-0978.pdf [in Spanish]
Sanderson W.T., Ward E.M., Steenland K., Petersen M.R.
Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers
This article describes a case-control study of lung cancer among workers of a beryllium processing plant in Reading, PA, USA. Cases were identified by mortality follow-up through 1992 of a cohort of male workers. Each of 142 cases was age-race-matched to five controls. The potential confounding effects of smoking were also evaluated. Lung cancer cases had shorter tenures and lower cumulative beryllium exposures than controls, but higher average and maximum exposures. However, after applying a 10- and 20-year lag, exposure metrics were higher for cases. Odds ratios in analyses that lagged 20 years were significantly elevated for those with higher exposure compared to the lowest exposure category. Significant positive trends were seen with the log of the exposure metrics. Increased lung cancer among workers with higher lagged beryllium exposures and lack of evidence for confounding by cigarette smoking, provide further evidence that beryllium is a human lung carcinogen.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.133-144. 37 ref.
01-0830.pdf [in English]
Approval testing of welders - Fusion welding - Part 5: Titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium and zirconium alloys
Epreuve de qualification des soudeurs - Soudage par fusion - Partie 5: Titane et ses alliages, zirconium et ses alliages [in French]
This international standard specifies essential requirements, ranges of approval, test conditions, acceptance requirements and certification of welder performance for the fusion welding of titanium and zirconium. The welding processes referred to in this standard include those fusion welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanized welding. It does not cover fully-mechanized and automatic processes.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 2000. vi, 18p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: CHF 85.00.
03-1253en.pdf [in English]
03-1253fr.pdf [in French]
Biomarkers of lead exposure
This article consists of a literature survey of biomarkers of lead exposure. Blood lead (Pb-B) is representative of soft tissue lead, and most widely used as measures of body burden and absorbed (internal) doses of lead. Urine lead (Pb-U) and plasma lead (Pb-P) increase exponentially with increasing Pb-B under a steady-state situation and reflect recent exposure. Lead in plasma and urine after administration of a chelating agent are useful biomarkers of internal exposure to lead, reflecting the available pool of blood and soft tissue lead. Critical effects in bone marrow arise mainly from the interaction of lead with enzymatic process responsible for haeme synthesis such as the inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the variation in some metabolite concentrations. Activities of pyrimidine nucleotidase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase in blood are also decreased in lead exposure, and nucleotide contents in blood are altered by lead exposure. These effects of lead on humans can be useful as biomarkers.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.127-142. Illus. 141 ref.
03-0291.pdf [in English]
Fine J.M., Gordon T., Chen L.C., Kinney P., Falcone G., Sparer J., Beckett W.S.
Characterization of clinical tolerance to inhaled zinc oxide in naive subjects and sheet metal workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical tolerance to the acute exposure effects of zinc oxide is accompanied by a reduction in pulmonary inflammation and cytokine responses. Never-exposed subjects inhaled 5mg/m3 zinc oxide for two hours during one or three consecutive days and underwent bronchoalveolar lavage 20 hours after the final exposure. Sheet metal workers inhaled zinc oxide on one day and control furnace gas seven days later. Among never-exposed subjects in whom tolerance was induced, neutrophils and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly decreased compared with subjects who underwent only a single exposure. Sheet metal workers were much less symptomatic, but still experienced a significant increase in plasma IL-6. Clinical tolerance to zinc oxide is accompanied by reduced pulmonary inflammation. These results explain why sheet metal workers are not clinically affected by long-term exposure to zinc oxide fumes at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.42, No.11, p.1085-1091 Illus. 20 ref.
03-0295.pdf [in English]
O'Toole M.L., Johnson K.C., Satterfield S., Bush A.J., Koo W.W.K., Klesges R.C., Applegate W.B.
Do sweat calcium losses affect bone mass during firefighter training?
Although vigorous exercise is associated with increased bone mass, recent evidence suggests that loss of calcium in sweat may result in a negative calcium balance and, ultimately, a decrease in bone mass. Anthropometric characteristics, habitual physical activity levels, dietary calcium intake, bone mineral content and bone turnover markers were measured in 42 male firefighter recruits before and after four months of training. During two strenuous mid-training sessions, calcium loss in sweat was measured. At the end of the training period, it was found that bone mineral content increased significantly, as did one marker of bone formation, and were not associated with sweat calcium concentration. This study demonstrates that intense physical exercise that produces high sweat rates do not have an adverse effect on the bone mineral content of healthy young men.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.42, No.11, p.1054-1059. 36 ref.
03-0174.pdf [in English]
Fuller D.C., Suruda A.J.
Occupationally related hydrogen sulfide deaths in the United States from 1984 to 1994
There is no unique code for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Therefore, fatalities due to H2S poisoning cannot always be identified easily. In this investigation, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigation records were reviewed for the period 1984 to 1994 for mention of hazardous substance 1480 (H2S). This allowed the highlighting of the occurrence of 80 fatalities from H2S in 57 incidents, with 19 fatalities and 36 injuries among coworkers attempting to rescue fallen workers. Only 17% of the deaths involved enterprises covered by collective bargaining agreements. OSHA issued citations for violation of respiratory protection and confined space standards in 60% of the fatalities. The use of H2S detection equipment, air-supplied respirators and confined space safety training would have prevented most of the fatalities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.42, No.9, p.939-942. Illus. 15 ref.
03-0294.pdf [in English]
Héry M., Dornier G.
Chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry
Chloramines dans les piscines et l'agroalimentaire [in French]
Thanks to its outstanding bactericidal properties, its low cost and the ease of use of some if its compounds, chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant. In recent years, a large number of questions were addressed to the French National research and safety institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS) by workers engaged in activities using chlorine, in particular in swimming pools and in the food industry. This information sheet was prepared in order to provide answers to the concerns of workers exposed to chlorine and who are often subject to eye or respiratory irritation. Contents: chlorine chemistry and the formation of chloramines, substances which the primary irritants; determination of chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry; current activities of INRS and its collaborating organizations; protective measures that need to be implemented in swimming pools and in the food industry.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2000. 4p. Illus. 7 ref. Can also be found on the site: http://www.inrs.fr/produits/
02-1854.pdf [in French]
Symanski E., Chang C.C., Chan W.
Long-term trends in exposures to nickel aerosols
A evaluation of the long-term changes in exposure levels to nickel aerosols was conducted using data from 10 nickel-producing and nickel-using industries. Significantly negative linear trends were found for exposures in the mining (-7%/yr), smelting (-9%/yr) and refining (-7%/yr) sectors, while exposures in milling showed a positive trend (+4%/yr). Effects of the work environment, process and nature of the job on exposure trends were evaluated. The decline in exposures was greater in workplaces with no ventilation compared with ventilated workplaces, in workers who performed similar rather than diverse tasks, and in North American workplaces compared with workplaces in Europe and Western Australia. These results could be used in the design of prospective sampling protocols and in future retrospective health-effect studies of workers in the nickel industries.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.324-333. Illus. 31 ref.
02-1770.pdf [in English]
Potassium chlorate; Sodium chlorate
Chlorate de potassium; chlorate de sodium [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-126. Acute toxicity: irritation of the gastro-intestinal tract; methaemoglobinaemia; cardiovascular shock; renal insufficiency; reversible hepatotoxic damage; skin and eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the upper respiratory tract and ulceration of the nasal mucosa. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.017-004-00-3; O, Xn, R9, R20/22, S13, S16, S27, 223-269-7 (potassium chlorate); No.017-006-00-9; O, Xn, R9, R22, S13, S17, S46, 231-887-4 (sodium chlorate). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 24 ref.
02-1136.pdf [in French]
Occupational lead poisoning
Le saturnisme professionnel [in French]
Lead poisoning is recognized in Tunisia as a compensable occupational disease. This leaflet highlights the occupations that present exposure hazards to lead and the clinical symptoms of lead poisoning. It offers practical guidance to technical and medical preventive measures, medical supervision, screening and the approach to be adopted by employers in case of lead poisoning.
Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 8p. Illus.
02-1169.pdf [in French]
Gibb H.J., Lees P.S.J., Pinsky P.F., Rooney B.C.
Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production
To assess the risk of lung cancer among chromate production workers, a cohort of 2,357 workers first employed between 1950 and 1974 at a chromate production plant was identified. Work histories of cohort members were compiled from the beginning of employment through 1985, the year the plant closed. Vital status of the workers was followed until 1992. Annual average exposure estimates, based on historical exposure measurements, were made for each job title in the plant for the years 1950-1985. These exposure estimates were used to calculate the cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure of each subject of the study population. Following closure of the plant, settled dust samples were collected, analysed, and used to estimate cumulative chromium exposure for each individual in the study cohort. It was found that cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure was associated with an increased lung cancer risk, while cumulative trivalent chromium exposure was not. The excess risk of lung cancer associated with cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure was not confounded by smoking status.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.115-126. Illus. 24 ref.
02-1236.pdf [in English]
Başaran N., Ündeğer Ü.
Effects of lead on immune parameters in occupationally exposed workers
To assess the immune competence of workers occupationally exposed to lead, several subsets of peripheral lymphocytes, i.e., T, TCD4+, TCD8+, B, NK cells, serum immunoglobulin and complement protein concentrations, chemotaxis, and intracellular killing activity of neutrophils of 25 male storage battery workers were analysed and compared with those of 25 healthy males with no history of lead exposure. The results indicated that industrial exposure to lead resulting in group mean blood lead concentrations of 75±18µg/dL are associated with a significant depression of: T helper lymphocytes, IgG, IgM and C3, C4 complement levels, chemotaxis, and random migration of neutrophils. No correlation was found between the duration of exposure and the altered immune parameters. In conclusion, the immune system can be a target for lead toxicity and elimination of lead hazard in working places is necessary.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.349-354. 36 ref.
02-1339.pdf [in English]
Wong O., Harris F.
Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947-1995
To examine the cancer mortality of male workers exposed to lead in the United States, a cohort of 4,518 workers at lead battery plants and 2,300 at lead smelters was examined. Vital status was ascertained between 1947 and 1995. Site-specific cancer standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), based on the mortality rates of the U.S. male population and adjusted for age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. In addition, a nested case-control study of stomach cancer (30 cases and 120 age-matched controls) was also conducted. Results indicate a significant mortality increase from stomach cancer. A small, but statistically significant mortality increase from lung cancer and from cancer of the thyroid and other endocrine glands was also observed. No increased mortality was found for kidney cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the central nervous system, lymphatic cancer and haematopoietic cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.255-270. 12 ref.
02-1246.pdf [in English]
Lead poisoning in a historical perspective
Lead poisoning was already known in Antiquity. In the 19th century, it reached epidemic proportions during the period of industrialization, and several comprehensive clinical articles appeared in the literature. The clinical picture became clearer at the beginning of the 20th century, at which time preventive efforts were initiated. However, the concept of poisoning remained strictly clinical. During the latter half of the 20th century a new concept emerged: subclinical and early forms became recognized as undesirable effects. This led to a substantial lowering of exposure levels. After the 1920s, environmental pollution by lead caused by the introduction of tetraethyllead in gasoline became an alarming public health problem. Its use became restricted in the 1980s; its effects on blood lead levels are now evident. Current research focuses on the effects of low exposure, often with the aim of defining non-effect levels for different types of effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.244-254. 54 ref.
02-1338.pdf [in English]
Landrigan P.J., Boffetta P., Apostoli P.
The reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of lead: A critical review
Lead is a known reproductive toxin, causing reductions in sperm count and fertility in males and an increased risk of miscarriage in females. Recent research has shown that these reproductive effects occur at relatively low levels of exposure that were previously considered safe. Lead is also a potent neurotoxin. Prospective longitudinal studies demonstrate that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to lead at levels as low as 10-20µg/dL results in damage to the central nervous system, resulting in diminished intelligence and altered behaviour. These effects appear to be irreversible and untreatable, the only approach to their control being to reduce prenatal and early life exposure to lead. Lead is a proven animal carcinogen. It can cause renal cancer and possibly brain tumours in rats and mice. In humans, IARC had previously considered the evidence on the carcinogenicity of lead to be "inadequate". However, new data have accumulated on the cancer risk of workers exposed to lead, which justify a re-evaluation of the classification.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.231-243. 89 ref.
02-1337.pdf [in English]
Schneider T., Lepicard S., Oudiz A., Gadbois S., Hériard-Dubreuil G.
A comparison of the carcinogenic risk assessment and management of asbestos, nickel and ionising radiation
French regulations and methodologies used for the assessment and management of the carcinogenic risk of asbestos, nickel aerosols and ionizing radiation are discussed and compared. The data collected reveal some significant similarities in the principle on which the assessment and management of risks of low-level exposure are based, and although the procedures used are based on relatively distinct instruments, they produce results that are not dissimilar and that in general reflect the shared concern to devise reasonable solutions with regard to the prevention of carcinogenic risks.
OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine St-Germain, 12 Boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, Nov. 2000. 83p. Illus. 11 ref.
02-1259.pdf [in English]
Trioxyde de diantimoine [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1597. Synonyms: antimony (III) oxide, antimonius oxide, antimony sesquioxide. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders which may lead to fatal collapsus (ingestion); arrhythmia; hepatic damage; muscular cramps and aches; irritation of the upper respiratory tract and ocular and digestive mucous membranes; pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: carcinogenic effects (lung cancer); effects on reproduction (menstrual disorders, spontaneous abortion and premature birth); mucous membrane damage (bronchitis, emphysema, ulceration or perforation of the nasal septum); dermatitis or stibious eczema; stibiosis. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 0.5mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.051-005-00-X; Xn, R49, S22, S38. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (2000), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 21 ref.
02-1102.pdf [in French]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Nitrous oxide - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of nitrous oxide based on the evaluation of studies on its effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 3 (substances which cause concern for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects) and R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: nitrous oxide should not be labelled with R64 due to lack of appropriate data. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 51p. 84 ref.
02-1100.pdf [in English]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Mercury and its compounds - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of mercury and its compounds based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: no classification of mercury, methylmercury, phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate due to lack of data. Teratogenic effects: category 2 (substances which should be regarded as if they impair fertility in humans) and R61 labelling for metallic mercury; category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 labelling for methylmercury; no classification for phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate due to lack of data. Effects during lactation: lack of appropriate data for mercury, phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate; R64 labelling (may cause harm to babies) for methylmercury. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 55p. 70 ref.
02-1099.pdf [in English]
Chuang H.Y., Schwartz J., Tsai S.Y., Lee M.L.T., Wang J.D., Hu H.
Vibration perception thresholds in workers with long term exposure to lead
Workers in a lead battery factory in Taiwan (China) were required to have a blood lead measurement during each of the 5 years preceding this study. All were invited to take the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test. The variables of exposure to lead were all significantly correlated with the VPT of the feet, but not of the hands. The conclusion is that measurement of VPT is a relatively effective tool for detecting lead neuropathy and that lead might cause sensory neuropathy with an effect threshold corresponding to a 5 year mean blood lead concentration of 31µg/dL.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.588-594. Illus. 36 ref.
02-1324.pdf [in English]
Wild P., Perdrix A., Romazini S., Moulin J.J., Pellet F.
Lung cancer mortality in a site producing hard metals
The mortality from lung cancer from exposures to hard metal dust was examined in a historical cohort of all subjects who had worked for at least 3 months on an industrial site producing hard metals and followed up from January 1968 to December 1992. Mortality from lung cancer was significantly increased among men and was higher than expected in hard metal production before sintering, whereas after sintering it was lower. The excess mortality from lung cancer occurred in subjects exposed to unsintered hard metal dust and could not be attributed to smoking.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.568-573. 15 ref.
02-0719.pdf [in English]
Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E., Jensen T.K., Henriksen T.B., Andersson A.M., Kolstad H.A., Ernst E., Giwercman A., Skakkebćk N.E., Olsen J.
Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders
Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among spouses of stainless-steel welders in Denmark. A cohort of men among couples planning a first pregnancy was recruited from members of the union of metal workers and three other trade unions. The cohort was followed for 6 menstrual cycles from the cessation of contraceptive use. Information on pregnancy outcome was collected for all 245 clinically recognized pregnancies. Increased risk of spontaneous abortion was found for pregnancies with paternal exposure to stainless-steel welding (adjusted relative risk 3.5). A mutagenic effect of hexavalent chromium has been found previously in both somatic and germ cells, and the findings could be due to mutations in the male genome.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.187-192. Illus. 25 ref.
02-0839.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for manganese (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of manganese is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract, which can lead to pneumonia; neurological effects (manganism); impairment of fertility in men.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 466p. Illus. Approx. 920 ref.
02-0082.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for chromium (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of chromium is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal mucosa; respiratory disorders; skin diseases (ulcers); sensitization; perforation of the nasal septum; lung cancer; haematological effects (leukocytosis, haemolytic anaemia); effects on reproduction. (Update of CIS 96-2223).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 419p. Illus. Approx. 1160 ref.
02-0079.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for arsenic (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of arsenic is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; skin disorders (hyperkeratosis); gastrointestinal effects; haematotoxic effects (blood-cell anomalies); cardiovascular disorders; arrhythmia; neurotoxic effects; carcinogenic effects (skin, gastrointestinal, liver, bladder, renal and lung cancer); effects on reproduction (stillbirth); genotoxic effects. (Update of CIS 96-2217).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xx, 428p. Illus. Approx. 1440 ref.
02-0078.pdf [in English]
Leleu B., Shirali P., Haguenoer J.M., Furon D.
Lead genetic susceptibility: A general review
Biosusceptibilité au plomb: revue générale [in French]
The effects of lead on the human organism have long been known. In particular, lead is recognized as a cause of secondary porphyria resulting from haeme synthesis inhibition. There is considerable inter-individual variation in the response to lead exposure. These differences are likely to be mediated, in part, by genetic factors. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) is among the first enzymes affected by lead, and its inhibition is quite specific. This enzyme is polymorphic and is responsible for three different phenotypes. ALAD is encoded by a single gene on the q34 region of chromosome 9, with two co-dominant alleles. During the last two decades, various investigators have studied this polymorphism and its possible influence on the toxicity of lead. This article consists of a review of the research conducted in this field.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 29 ref.
02-0292.pdf [in French]
Radon at the workplace
Radon am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
The Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) conducts measurements of radon and radon daughters in enterprises. This paper presents the results of measurements carried out in the mining industry as well as in power stations and other enterprises. Among the 16 mining companies where measurements were performed, half had doses higher than the current threshold limit value (0.3WL). In these enterprises the workplace ventilation needs to be improved.
Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Dec. 2000, Vol.26, No.12, p.631-633.
02-0404.pdf [in German]
Wiethege T., Wesch H., Müller K.M.
Radon - An irradiating subject: Data and facts by the pathologist
Radon - ein strahlendes Thema: Daten und Fakten des Pathologen [in German]
The aim of this study was assess the risk for the development of tumors induced by natural radiation sources such as radon. The preliminary results from a total of 17,466 autopsies performed on uranium miners of the former German Democratic Republic reveal that lung cancer mortality was significantly higher than in the normal population. Among miners who died between 1957 and 1965, a high rate of deaths due to small-cell carcinoma was observed. This rate dropped steadily between 1965 and 1990. Determinations of uranium, silica and arsenic in pulmonary tissue yielded high concentrations in some cases. The final results, including the assessment of the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality, are not yet available and will be published later.
Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Dec. 2000, Vol.26, No.12, p.617-624. Illus. 20 ref.
02-0403.pdf [in German]
Borak J., Cohen H., Hethmon T.A.
Copper exposure and metal fume fever: Lack of evidence for a causal relationship
A systematic literature search was made on the topic of possible adverse health effects of inhalation exposure to copper fume and dust. Seven reports published over the past 88 years were identified that contain original human data and claim to document that exposure to copper dust or fume caused metal fume fever (MFF) or an MFF-like syndrome. Insufficient evidence was found to conclude that exposures to copper dust and copper fume cause MFF. Limitations included absence of exposure measurements, atypical symptoms and complaints, and lack of consistency among types of work associated with symptoms. Given the extensive use of copper in many industries and operations, it is evident that if copper-induced MFF does occur, it is a rare event.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.832-836. 52 ref.
02-0295.pdf [in English]
Hwang Y.H., Chao K.Y., Chang C.W., Hsiao F.T., Chang H.L., Han H.Z.
Lip lead as an alternative measure for lead exposure assessment of lead battery assembly workers
Air lead, lead loadings on workers' sleeves, gloves, hands, cheeks, and lips, and blood lead were determined in 96 workers from a lead battery plant in Taiwan. A questionnaire also was administered on work history, suspected exogenous lead sources, and personal behaviour and activities. Total air lead at different sub-areas ranged from 0.070 to 0.159mg/m3. Respirable air lead level for different subgroups of workers varied from 0.009 to 0.032mg/m3, whereas those of the blood lead level ranged from 22.4 to 44.5µg/dL. The heaviest lead loadings were found for plate-processing workers (66.4 on gloves, 0.80 on cheeks, and 0.79µg/cm2 on bare-hands after washing). Blood lead level was significantly correlated with lead levels in air, lead loadings on lips, and bare hands after washing. Regression analysis shows that only lip lead can be used as an alternative index of lead exposure through ingestion.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.825-831. Illus. 31 ref.
02-0284.pdf [in English]
Johnson J.C., Reynolds S.J., Fuortes L.J., Clarke W.R.
Lead exposure among workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge: Comparisons of trades, work tasks
Lead exposures were evaluated at a bridge renovation site. Although the bridge had been previously de-leaded, old layers of leaded paint were still present on some sections. Ironworkers performing metal torch cutting had the highest exposures (188µg/m3), followed by clean-up and paint-removal workers. Respirators were generally worn by workers with the greatest exposures; however, labourers performing clean-up operations had exposures of 43µg/m3 and often wore no respiratory protection. Wipe samples revealed that almost all contractor vehicles were contaminated. Heavy equipment operators with low airborne lead exposure had the highest levels of surface contamination in personal vehicles (3600µg/m2). Labourers cleaning structural steel with compressed air and ironworkers exposed to lead fumes from cutting had the highest concentrations of lead dust on clothing (mean 4766µg/m2).
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.815-819. 22 ref.
02-0319.pdf [in English]
Alguacil J., Kauppinen T., Porta M., Partanen T., Malats N., Kogevinas M., Benavides F.G., Obiols J., Bernal F., Rifa J., Carrato A.
Risk of pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures in Spain
Cases of pancreatic cancer and controls among hospital patients free of pancreatic cancer were identified during their stay in hospital. Occupational history was obtained by direct interviews with the patients. Occupational exposures to 22 suspected carcinogens associated with pancreatic cancer in previous studies were evaluated. Increased odds ratios (OR) were apparent in all pesticide groups, highest for arsenical pesticides (OR = 3.4) and "other pesticides" (OR = 3.17). ORs were also higher for high-intensity exposure to aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments. ORs above 3 were observed for pesticides, benzo(a)pyrene, lead, volatile sulfur compounds, and sedentary work. Results lend support to the hypothesis of an association between exposure to some pesticides and pancreatic cancer. Suggestive increases in risk from aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments, and benzo(a)pyrene also deserve further study.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.391-403. 72 ref.
02-0169.pdf [in English]
Groves J., Cain J.R.
A survey of exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions in the workplace
Forty sites were visited during a survey of exposures to diesel engine exhaust gas emissions. Personal exposure to gaseous components and background levels, respirable dust, elemental carbon, organic carbon and total carbon were measured and details of control systems were recorded. The results show a wide spread in exposure patterns reflecting the different work practices, job categories and control methods. However, sites where fork-lift trucks were in use consistently produced the highest exposures. The survey results suggest that the measurement of elemental carbon could be used as an indicator of exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.435-447. Illus. 10 ref.
02-0283.pdf [in English]
Cobalt and inorganic compounds
Cobalt et composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 77-1360. Toxicity: at high doses, severe poisoning with damage of the kidneys, nervous system and cardiovascular system; pulmonary fibrosis (inhalation); eczemas; irritative pulmonary disorders. Chronic toxicity: carcinogen; skin and nasal septum ulcers; renal damage (ingestion). Exposure limits for cobalt smoke in air (USA): TWA = 0.05mg/m3 (ACGIH, 1991). EEC numbers: No.027-001-00-9 (cobalt); No.027-002-00-4 (cobalt oxide); No.027-003-00-X (cobalt sulfide). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, June 2001. 8p. 20 ref.
01-1624.pdf [in French]
Lithium and its inorganic compounds
Lithium et composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 83-1030. Acute toxicity: caustic lesions of the skin and eyes; irritation of the respiratory tract; digestive and neurological disorders (ingestion). Chronic toxicity: neurological effects; abnormalities of the electrocardiogram. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.025mg/m3 (lithium hydride). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, June 2001. 4p. 14 ref.
01-1617.pdf [in French]
Berenguer Subils M.J., Bernal Domínguez F.
Carbon dioxide levels as an indicator of indoor air quality
El dióxido de carbono en la evaluación de la calidad del aire interior [in Spanish]
This information note concerns the determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) as an indicator of the quality of indoor air quality. Contents: characteristics of carbon dioxide; CO2 as air contaminant; CO2 as indicator of ambient odour due to bio-effluents; measurement of ventilation flow based on the determination of ambient CO2; other information concerning ventilation that can be derived from a determination of ambient CO2.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 6 ref.
01-1790.pdf [in Spanish]
Accident caused by cleaning operations in an underground car park
Massenunfall bei Reinigungsarbeiten in einer Tiefgarage [in German]
All four workers performing cleaning work in an underground car park with a high-pressure jet-cleaner with oil-fired heater had to be treated for carbon monoxide poisoning. The exhaust gases from the oil-fired heater had increased the carbon monoxide concentration in the underground car park to 500mL/m3. This level was roughly 16 times higher than the German exposure limit of 30mL/m3. Current German regulations require the employer to take precautionary measures during such cleaning work to make sure the limit is not exceeded. A high-pressure jet cleaner with an electric heater is to be used where possible. Otherwise, the employer has to inform the workers of the hazards to ensure that the area where the cleaning operations are performed is properly ventilated and that the equipment is in good operating condition.
BAU-BG Aktuell, 2000, No.2, p.6-8. Illus.
01-1489.pdf [in German]
Rühl R., Hadrich D.
Fighting against skin diseases due to exposure to cement
Gegen Hautschäden durch Zement [in German]
Cement-induced skin diseases (cement dermatitis) constitute an important occupational issue in a number of countries. The high alkalinity of cement and the abrasion of hands when working with cement are the causes of cement-induced chemical and irritating dermatitis. These two factors are also the precursors of allergies to chromates which result from chromate compounds included in cement. Leather gloves do not ensure protection from alkalinity. The most efficient measure to reduce skin diseases due to cement is to lower the proportion of chromate compounds in cement. Statistics from Denmark and Finland show a decline of cement-induced chromate sensitivity after the proportion of chromate compounds in cement was lowered as a result of new regulations.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, 2000, No.2, p.18-21. Illus. 7 ref.
01-1482.pdf [in German]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Lithium carbonate and lithium chloride - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of lithium carbonate and lithium chloride based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 45p. 49 ref.
01-1357.pdf [in English]
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@06OSH.pdf [in English]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Cadmium and its compounds - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of cadmium (Cd) and its compounds based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 3 (substances which cause concern for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects) and R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Safe level of Cd in (human) breast milk: 5µg/L. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 52p. 96 ref.
01-1353.pdf [in English]
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@04OSH.pdf [in English]
Queille-Roussel C., Graeber M., Thurston M., Lachapelle J.M., Decroix J., de Cuyper C., Ortonne J.P.
SDZ ASM 918 is the first non-steroid that suppresses established nickel contact dermatitis elicited by allergen challenge
SDZ ASM 918, a non-steroid selective cytokine-inhibitor developed for treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In this study, 2 SDZ ASM 918 cream formulations were tested for their efficacy to suppress nickel contact dermatitis induced by 48h challenge with 5% nickel sulfate in water patches in 66 healthy volunteers with previous positive patch tests to nickel. The established allergic contact dermatitis was treated for 12 days. Evaluation of erythema, induration and vesiculation was performed. SDZ ASM 918 formulations were significantly more effective than corresponding vehicles.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2000, Vol.42, No.6, p.349-350. 6 ref.
01-1144.pdf [in English]
Manganese - A public health concern: The relevance for occupational health and safety policy and regulation in South Africa
Concerns about the effects of low-level manganese exposures on human health arise at a time when South Africa finds itself in competition with newcomers to the market economy, China and the former Soviet Union. This case study illustrates how decisions about occupational health and safety and the environment are influenced by incompleteness of scientific knowledge, competing interests, differences over what is fair or just, and the compartmentalization of public policy. In addition, an assessment is made of the ability of the occupational health and safety system in South Africa in its current form to address the challenges posed by manganese-related issues. The importance of tracking developments abroad, strengthening participatory processes, developing national policy, linking economic policy and OHS policy, and establishing appropriate trade agreements is stressed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.6, No.2, p.151-160. 53 ref.
01-1170.pdf [in English]
Riihimäki V., Hänninen H., Akila R., Kovala T., Kuosma E., Paakkulainen H., Valkonen S., Engström B.
Body burden of aluminum in relation to central nervous system function among metal inert-gas welders
The relationship between internal aluminium loads and central nervous system function was studied in 65 aluminium welders and 25 current mild steel welders in Finland. Body burden was estimated, and the aluminium concentrations in serum (S-Al) and urine (U-Al) were analysed. Central nervous system functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery, symptom and mood questionnaires, electroencephalography (EEG) and P3 event-related potentials. Subjective symptoms showed exposure-related increases in fatigue, mild depression, and memory and concentration problems. Neuropsychological testing revealed a limited effect, mainly in tasks demanding complex attention. The visual EEG analysis revealed pathological findings only for aluminium welders. The study indicates that the body burden threshold for adverse effect approximates an U-Al value of 4-6µmol/L and an S-Al value of 0.25-0.35µmol/L.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.26, No.2, p.118-130. Illus. 58 ref.
01-1158.pdf [in English]
Tan-Wilhelm D., Witte K., Liu W.Y., Newman L.S., Janssen A., Ellison C., Yancey A., Sanderson W., Henneberger P.K.
Impact of a worker notification program: Assessment of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes
This paper describes the development and evaluation of a worker notification programme at a beryllium machining plant. Self-protective attitudinal and behavioural responses among workers were compared in two plants: an intervention plant that received beryllium risk notification and a matched control plant that did not receive notification. Workers receiving notification reported significantly stronger perceptions of threat and efficacy, more positive attitudes toward safety practices and engaged in more protective behaviour than the workers at the control plant. This study demonstrates the utility of applying communication theories in the development of notification messages and the results suggest that mass presentations may be just as effective, if not more so, than one-on-one notifications.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2000, Vol.37, No.2, p.205-213. Illus. 31 ref.
01-1262.pdf [in English]
Bast-Pettersen R., Skaug V., Ellingsen D., Thomassen Y.
Neurobehavioral performance in aluminium welders
Twenty aluminium welders and a referent group of twenty construction workers were tested for tremor and reaction time and screened for neuropsychic symptoms. Welders reported more symptoms than referents. Although the welders as a group performed better than the referents in a tremor test, years of exposure was predictive of poorer performance. The welders' reaction times were rapid by clinical standards. Although, as a group, they performed better than the referents, there was a statistically significant relation between longer reaction times and aluminium in air (air-AI). The relations between hand steadiness and years exposed, and between reaction time and air-AI could indicate slight effects from exposure to aluminium. The possibility of selection of workers with high manual skills into welding work and a possible job-related training effect might partly serve to explain the good performance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2000, Vol.37, No.2, p.184-192. Illus. 29 ref.
01-1072.pdf [in English]
Sorahan T., Harrington J.M.
Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97
The mortality of a cohort of 1,087 chrome platers from 54 plants situated in the United Kingdom was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects had been employed as chrome platers for over 3 months and all were alive at the beginning of the study period. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1,163 comparison workers with no known occupational exposure to chrome compounds. Information on duration of chrome work and smoking habits collected for a cross sectional survey carried out in 1969-72 were available for 916 of the chrome platers; smoking habits were available for 1,004 comparison workers. Based on serial mortality rates for the general population of England and Wales, significantly increased mortality from lung cancer was observed but not in male comparison workers. Occupational exposures to hexavalent chromium may be responsible for the increased mortality from lung cancer in this cohort.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.385-389. 24 ref.
01-426.pdf [in English]
Dawn G., Gupta G., Forsyth A.
The trend of nickel allergy from a Scottish tertiary referral centre
To analyse the change in trend of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from nickel in a specialized medical centre, 800 and 860 patients were patch tested in 1982 and 1997, respectively. The frequency of positive reactions to nickel was 16% in 1982 and 22% in 1997. The commonest age of onset in 1982 was in the 11-20 year age group while in 1997, this was 1 decade later. In 1997, a much higher female preponderance (F:M=13:1) was observed than in 1982 (F:M=6:1). The rate of atopy in patients with nickel ACD showed an increase from 23% in 1982 to 33% in 1997. Nickel was considered to be a contributory factor in 27% of patients in 1982 and 24% patients in 1997. The most common occupations were hairdressing in 1982 and nursing in 1997. In 1997 a massive increase in the number of patients showing positive reactions to other allergens in addition to nickel was observed. In both years, the hands were the main sites of involvement. However, in 1997 there was an increase in the number of patients presenting with face and neck involvement.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2000, Vol.43, No.1, p.27-30. Illus. 28 ref.
01-493.pdf [in English]
Decanting of a tank truck: Acids and caustic soda
Dépotage d'un camion: acide et soude [in French]
Training material for persons required to make presentations on the safety of tank truck decanting operations involving sulfuric acid or caustic soda, containing an audio cassette, 74 slides and corresponding scripts and notes. The sequence of events is described, from the arrival of the tank truck on the site until its departure: administrative formalities; preliminary precautions prior to the operation; decanting procedures; procedures in the event of an incident. Safety rules applicable to each step in the process are highlighted.
AIX-Audio-Visuel, Chemin de la Blaque, 131000 Aix-en-Provence, France, no date. 25p. Illus. (+audio cassette et 74 slides).
01-0057.pdf [in French]
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