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Inorganic substances - 5,778 entries found

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CIS 03-540 Czerczak S., Fishbein L.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Arsine: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document: the target organ of arsine poisoning is the haematopoietic system. Arsine induces haemolysis causing haemoglobinuria and subsequent kidney damage. Myocardial and pulmonary failures are other causes of death. Aneamia and increased leucocytosis is observed at various degrees. There are no data on the carcinogenicity or mutagenicity of arsine to humans or experimental animals.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 29p. 107 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-539 Newhook R., Meek M.E., Caldbick D.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Carbon disulfide
Conclusions of this criteria document: the nervous system appears to be the critical target for carbon disulfide (reduced conduction velocity and impaired psychomotor performance). Other effects include irritation of the skin and eyes, alterations in serum lipids and blood pressure that are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, systemic opthalmological effects (effects on colour vision, damage of blood vessels of the retina) and, with higher exposures, increased mortality from heart disease. Several reports indicate decreased libido and/or impotence in males occupationally exposed to high concentrations, but there is no evidence of adverse reproductive effects. Data from animal studies indicate that carbon disulfide is embryotoxic and foetotoxic; no carcinogenic effects have been reported.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 42p. Illus. 192 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-537 Howe P.D., Dobson S.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Silver and silver compounds: Environmental aspects
This criteria document reviews ecotoxicity data on silver and its compounds. Contents: identity and physical/chemical properties; analytical methods for the measurement of silver in biological and abiotic samples; sources of environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels; effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms in the laboratory and field; effects evaluation; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iii, 36p. Illus. 155 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-783 Zelnick S.D., Lischak M.W., Young D.G., Massa T.V.
Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation
Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure poses a significant, although uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cabins may constitute secondary prevention. However, further studies need to be performed to support FAA standards for pilot exposure to CO, for use in monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into aircraft cabins.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.73, No.8, p.812-816. 32 ref.

CIS 03-799
Health and Safety Executive
Nickel and you
Contents on this leaflet on the hazards from exposure to nickel aimed at employees: what is nickel, and products and processes where it is found; modes of exposure; health hazards; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers, particularly under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-620); health surveillance; information of personnel.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 6p. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-553
Health and Safety Executive
Gas appliances - Get them checked, keep them safe
Each year, approximately 30 persons die in the United Kingdom from carbon monoxide poisoning caused by gas appliances which have not been properly installed or maintained. This leaflet describes the risks of carbon monoxide poisoning from gas appliances and outlines the legal requirements in the United Kingdom for the safe installation and use of these appliances. Replaces CIS 97-611.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Apr. 2002. 6p. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-361 Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods - Manual of tests and criteria - Third revised edition - Amendment 1: Lithium batteries [United Nations]
Tausiyāt bi-ša)ni naql al- badā)i( al-ħaṭira. Dalīl al-iħ tibārāt wa al-ma(ayīr. Al-ṭab(a al-ṯ alaṯa al-munqiḥa. Al-ta(dīl 1: batārīāt al-līṯ īūm [in Arabic]
Rekomendacii po perevozke opasnyh gruzov - Rukovodstvo po ispytanijam i kriterijam - Tret'e peresmotrennoe izdanie - Popravka 1: Litievye batarei [in Russian]
Recommandations relatives au transport de marchandises dangereuses - Manuel d'épreuves et de critères - Troisième édition révisée: Amendement 1: piles et batteries au lithium [Nations Unies] [in French]
Recomendaciones relativas al transporte de mercancías peligrosas - Manual de pruebas y criterios - Tercera edición revisada - Enmienda 1: Pilas y baterías de litio [in Spanish]
The recommendations on test methods and criteria supplement the Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods and the related model regulations (see CIS 01-1792). This amendment to the third revised edition contains corrections and amendments to the classification criteria and testing procedures for lithium batteries.
United Nations, Sales Section, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 3rd rev.ed., 2002. v, 10p.

CIS 03-280 Göen T., Müller J., Angerer J., Drexler H.
Determination of carbon disulfide at the workplace by sampling on charcoal tubes - Problems and solutions
The aim of the study was to check the reliability and comparability of different analytical methods for ambient monitoring of carbon disulfide (CS2). A stationary sampling system, consisting of a charcoal sampling tube and pump, and two personal sampling systems, consisting of a charcoal sampling tube and a portable pump and of a diffusive charcoal sampler were compared. For passive sampling, the recovery was determined by three different techniques. For a sampling time of six hours, the limit of quantification was 0.2ppm for the personal sampling and 0.01ppm for the stationary sampling system. The within-series precision was between 5 and 8%. For personal sampling, the between-series precision was between 9 and 12% using a passive sampler. The recovery ranged between 45 and 85% depending on the quotient of eluent volume and charcoal mass. The comparison of the two personal sampling methods in a field study using linear regression showed an excellent concordance of the methods. However, it was found that the method for determining air levels of CS2 by passive sampling was associated with high systematic errors, resulting in the possibility of highly underestimated CS2 exposure data.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.659-663. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 03-279 Wang V.S., Lee M.T., Chiou J.Y., Guu C.F., Wu C.C., Wu T.N., Lai J.S.
Relationship between blood lead levels and renal function in lead battery workers
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between blood lead (PbB) levels and renal function indices of blood-urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SC) and uric acid (UA) among lead battery industry workers with exposure to lead. 229 workers of both genders from two lead battery factories were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Personal airborne and blood samples were collected on the same day. A positive correlation between PbB levels and individual renal function index of BUN, SC, and UA was found. PbB levels and renal function indices showed significant difference between male and female workers. An increment of 10µg/dL PbB produced an increase of 0.62mg/dL BUN and an increase of 0.085mg/dL UA. For all workers, there was a significant dose-response relationship between PbB and BUN and UA levels. It is suggested that blood-urea nitrogen and uric acid be considered as indicators of renal dysfunction in lead-exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.75, No.8, p.569-575. 40 ref.

CIS 03-331 Hill R.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of methods to detect leaks in the casing of room sealed appliances
Incidents involving the escape of carbon monoxide from central heating boilers occur frequently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate suitable procedures for detecting leaks from the case and seals of pressurized central heating boilers. The following procedures were found to be suited: visual and tactile inspection of the case and seals; smoke tubes to produce smoke for flow visualization; smoke matches to produce smoke for flow visualization; ordinary matches and wax tapers to produce a flame for flow visualization. However, the use of a flue gas analyser is not recommended: it does detect the drop in oxygen concentration or the presence of carbon monoxide due to a leak of combustion products, but may miss the small changes from a boiler burning well but leaking only slightly.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 61p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. [in English]

CIS 03-54 Sulfur monochloride
Monocloruro de azufre [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 6mg/m3 or 1ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: vapour may cause cough and watering of the eyes; inhalation may induce severe respiratory disorders and symptoms of chemical pneumonia; splashes on the skin may cause irritation and burns; splashes on the eyes may cause severe lesions and scars; repeated exposure may cause chronic irritation of the skin, eyes and upper airways.
Noticias de seguridad, May 2002, Vol.64, No.5, 4p. Insert.

CIS 03-195 Ibrahim K.S., Ahmed S.B.
Male endocrine dysfunction in lead smelter workers
Evidence of the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the male endocrine function is controversial. This study evaluated the primary (testicular) and secondary (hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular) effects of exposure to lead in 69 workers employed for an average of 16 years and in 40 non-exposed workers. The mean blood lead concentration was 42.92±4.89µg/dL in the exposed workers and 29.5± 5.3µg/dL in the control group. Concentrations of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were both significantly higher in exposed workers but there was no significant difference in the level of testosterone in both groups. Exposed workers showed a statistically significant increase in the incidence of sexual problems (premature ejaculation, impotence, decreased libido). Periodic medical examination of workers and biological monitoring of blood lead are a necessity for the early detection of side effects or complications caused by exposure.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2002, Vol.8, No.1, p.31-38. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1852 Lemarquand J., Triolet J.
Peroxides and their use
Les peroxydes et leur utilisation [in French]
Peroxides consist of organic or inorganic compounds characterized by their oxidizing properties as well as their highly unstable nature. It is therefore essential to be aware of the potential hazards and the precautions to be taken during the storage and handling of these products. The aim of this information note is to provide company managers, operators, safety specialists, storage area managers, laboratory staff and all other persons involved with these products with general information on the hazards of peroxides and precautions to be taken when using them. It supplements the specific data sheet provided by suppliers of these substances. Since each peroxide has its own properties, users are advised to consult the safety data sheet of the product they intend to use prior to any handling operation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.5-14. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-1800 Weston A., Ensey J., Kreiss K., Keshava C., McCanlies E.
Racial differences in prevalence of a supratypic HLA-genetic marker immaterial to pre-employment testing for susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease
A genetic polymorphism in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the DPβ1 gene, is known to be associated with berylliosis. The specific disease marker is called HLA-DPβ1E69. This article examines the predictive value of a pre-employment screening programme of a beryllium materials manufacturer in which applicants are tested for HLA-DPβ1E69. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were used to determine HLA-DPβ1E69 population frequencies in various ethnic groups. Allelic/carrier frequencies were found to be 0.21/0.33, 0.24/0.40, 0.27/0.47 and 0.38/0.59 for Caucasians, African-Americans, Hispanics and Chinese, respectively. Ranges of positive predictive values for a genetic test based on HLA-DPβ1E69 in these populations were calculated to be 8.3-14.3% for carriers with an assumed disease frequency of 5%. For high risk subgroups with assumed disease frequencies of 15%, the range of positive predictive values was found to span between 24.9-43.0%. These estimates suggest that using HLA-DPβ1E69 genotyping for pre-employment screening has a low positive predictive value, which varies little among racial groups where carrier frequencies differ significantly.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.457-465. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1842 Martel R., Sanfaçon G., Schnebelen M., Trépanier L., Lévesque B., Lavigne M.A., Boutin L.C., Gauvin D., Galarneau L., Auger P.
Evaluation of carbon monoxide produced during work with explosives
Evaluation de la production de monoxyde de carbone associée aux travaux aux explosifs [in French]
Carbon monoxide (CO) generated by explosives can migrate underground and accumulate in confined spaces. Over a five-year period in Quebec, there were a number of incidents where residents were strongly indisposed, and seven persons were sufficiently intoxicated to require hyperbaric treatment. This hazard is probably more widespread than is generally recognized, considering the lack of understanding of the problem, the insidious nature of CO poisoning and the large number of explosions (between 1000 and 1500) carried out each year in the course of civil engineering work in Quebec. This report includes the results of several studies: a retrospective study of CO poisonings based on data from various sources, a study on CO measurements carried out at construction sites using explosives and a study of various methods for limiting the propagation of CO in fractured rock in the vicinity of work with explosives. The main recommendations are aimed at civil engineering contractors and concern the implementation of procedures for limiting CO propagation. Certain appendices are available only in electronic version.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. iv, 41p. Illus. 10 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM. [in French]

CIS 02-1651 Böckelmann I., Pfister E.A., McGauran N., Robra B.P.
Assessing the suitability of cross-sectional and longitudinal cardiac rhythm tests with regard to identifying effects of occupational chronic lead exposure
The aim of this study was to examine whether signs of the neurotoxic influence of lengthy occupational lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system could be detected by cardiac rhythm analysis. A total of 109 male lead-exposed workers and 27 controls were examined in a cross-sectional study. In addition, 17 lead-exposed participants were investigated a second time in a follow-up study four years later. Heart rate variability was assessed in rest, strain and recovery phases. In the cross-sectional study, lead-exposed persons showed a delayed restoration of cardiac rhythm parameters to the initial vegetative state after the strain phase. This effect significantly increased over a period of four more years of exposure in the 17 workers participating in the follow-up study. Vagal depression caused by long-term lead exposure was found within the current threshold limit value range, but it should nonetheless be interpreted as an adverse effect.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.59-65. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 02-1659 Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H.
Neuro-ototoxicity in Andean adults with chronic lead and noise exposure
Brainstem auditory evoked responses and audiological thresholds were used as biomarkers for neuro-ototoxicity in adults in Ecuador with chronic lead intoxication from long-term exposure in ceramic glazing work. Venous blood samples collected from 30 adults (15 men and 15 women) indicated a mean blood lead level of 45.1µg/dL, above the WHO health-based biological limits. Mean auditory thresholds at frequencies susceptible to ototoxicity (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0kHz) revealed sensory-neural hearing loss in men, which may be attributable to occupational noise exposure in combination with lead intoxication. Brainstem auditory evoked response tests on participants with elevated blood lead levels (mean, 47.0 µg/dL) showed delayed wave latencies consistent with sensory-neural hearing impairment. The results suggest that environmental noise exposure must be considered an important factor in determining sensory-neural hearing status in occupationally lead-exposed adults.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.30- 38. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1825 Kornhauser C., Wróbel Kat., Wróbel Kaz., Malacara J.M., Nava L.E., Gómez L., González R.
Possible adverse effects of chromium in occupational exposure of tannery workers
To investigate the adverse effects of occupational exposure to trivalent chromium, three groups of healthy male non-smoking tannery workers were studied: 15 with high levels of exposure, 14 moderately-exposed and 11 unexposed. Chromium and iron levels in serum and urine and haemoglobin levels were determined. Higher serum chromium levels were observed in the highly- and moderately-exposed groups compared to the unexposed group (mean values respectively: 0.43, 0.25 and 0.13µg/L). Urinary chromium levels in the highly-exposed group were higher than those in controls (mean values 1.78 and 1.35µg/L). In the highly-exposed group, an inverse association was found between serum chromium and urinary iron, urinary chromium and haemoglobin and between the urinary chromium to iron ratio and haemoglobin. The results suggest a chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism, possibly associated with excessive body chromium accumulation. In conclusion, chromium urine tests could be recommended for diagnosis of the adverse effects of chromium on iron metabolism.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.207-213. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1789 Yamada H., Koizumi S.
DNA microarray analysis of human gene expression induced by a non-lethal dose of cadmium
Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous heavy metal affecting many cellular functions, but little is known on cellular defense mechanisms. This article describes a study of a Cd-induced gene expression profile. Messenger RNA was prepared from HeLa cells exposed to a non-lethal dose of CdSO4, and analysed by the use of an array consisting of 7075 human cDNAs. Many stress response genes including those coding for metallothioneins and heat shock proteins were observed to be induced by Cd. The cellular metabolism inclined toward the synthesis of cysteine and glutathione after Cd exposure. Anti-oxidant genes also appeared to be induced to protect cell components and to quench reactive oxygen species. Ubiquitin pathway was activated as well probably to degrade proteins which might not be renatured. These data suggest that human cells mobilize every genomic resource to overcome cytotoxicity caused by Cd.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.159-166. 57 ref.

CIS 02-1821 Scholz P.F., Materna B.L., Harrington D., Uratsu C.
Residential and commercial painters' exposure to lead during surface preparation
This article describes a project aimed at preventing lead poisoning among residential and commercial painters. Full-shift personal samples were collected from 25 participants, with 8-hr TWA results ranging from 0.8 to 550µg/m3 (arithmetic mean: 57µg/m3). Six of the 25 samples (24%) were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 500µg/m3, all involving dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding. 30-minute task-specific samples also were collected. The value for uncontrolled power sanding as 580µg/m3 respectively, while that of power sanding using high-efficiency particulate-arresting (HEPA) respirators was 33µg/m3. These results are cause for concern because these surface preparation methods are widely performed wearing only half-mask respirators, while the use of HEPA respirators would reduce paint dust exposure levels by approximately 80 to 90%. These tools should be more widely promoted as a safer alternative work method.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.22-28. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 02-1946 Rydock J.P.
A simple method for tracer containment testing in hospital isolation rooms
This article describes a simple method for tracer containment testing of hospital isolation rooms using a portable gas chromatograph system. Results from tracer testing of two isolation rooms in two different hospitals are presented. One isolation room had a significant negative pressure differential between room and corridor, and the other isolation room was not at negative pressure. A small quantity of sulfur hexafluoride gas was injected manually in an isolation room. Tracer concentrations were thereafter measured in the corridor adjacent to the room at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after the injection, yielding a quantitative measure of leakage of the tracer from the isolation room. Finally, measuring the tracer concentration in the isolation room 30 minutes after injection yielded an indication of how effectively the ventilation system removed a contaminant released at the position of the bed. The results show that the method is well-suited for studying containment in hospital isolation rooms.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.486-490. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1547
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Conclusions of this criteria document: there is little conclusive epidemiological evidence of negative health effects on humans resulting from occupational exposure to fluorides. There are several reports of skeletal fluorosis associated with the consumption of drinking water containing elevated levels of fluoride, but further work is required on the accumulation of fluoride in organisms. Effects on the skeleton, such as inhibition of bone mineralization and delayed fracture healing have been observed in several animal studies involving high doses. There are no indications of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or reproductive disorders from other animal studies. Detailed summary and conclusions in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. xx, 268p. Illus. Approx. 750 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1777 Springston J.P., Esposito W.A., Cleversey K.W.
Baseline indoor air quality measurements collected from 136 metropolitan New York region commercial office buildings between 1997-1999
Between January 1997 and December 1999, 648 surveys were performed in 136 commercial office buildings in the greater New York area as part of an indoor environmental quality programme. Sampling was performed on a spot basis in non-problem buildings, during normal business hours, either quarterly or semiannually. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were among the various physical and chemical parameters which were sampled. More than 15,000 data points were collected, and the results were analyzed to determine the mean, median and standard deviation for each of those parameters. The results were then compared to various standards and guidelines applicable to the indoor environment. It was found that 98% of the CO2 readings were below 1000ppm, and 99.9% of the CO readings were below 10ppm. However for TVOCs, nearly 88% of the readings exceeded the proposed European guideline value of 0.3mg/m3.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.354-360. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1410 Carol Llopart S.
Study of the accident that occurred in Toulouse on 21 September 2001
Estudio del accidente ocurrido en Toulouse el 21 de septiembre de 2001 [in Spanish]
This article describes the accidental explosion which occurred in Toulouse, France, on 21 September 2001 in an ammonium nitrate warehouse of a fertilizer plant. The explosion caused 29 fatalities and 650 injuries and was the most severe accident having occurred during the last 25 years in industrialized countries. The information on the cause of the accident not being available at the time of writing, the article reviews similar accidents, describes the physical and chemical properties of ammonium nitrate and analyses the mechanism of the reaction which probably caused the explosion. Finally, it presents a theoretical model of the consequences of accidents based on the explosion behaviour of trinitrotoluene (TNT).
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2002, No.159, p.8-17. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1356 Morgan J.W., Cassady R.E.
Community cancer assessment in response to long-time exposure to perchlorate and trichloroethylene in drinking water
In response to concerns about cancer from drinking water contaminated with ammonium perchlorate and trichloroethylene, observed and expected numbers of new cancer cases were assessed for all sites combined and 16 cancer types in a California community between 1988 and 1998. The numbers of observed cancer cases divided by expected numbers defined standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). No significant differences between observed and expected numbers were found for all cancers (SIR 0.97), thyroid cancer (SIR 1.00), or 11 other cancer types. Significantly fewer cases were observed than expected for cancer of the lung and bronchus (SIR 0.71) and the colon and rectum (SIR 0.86), whereas more cases were observed for uterine cancer (SIR 1.35) and skin melanoma (SIR 1.42). These findings did not identify a generalized cancer excess or thyroid cancer excess in this community.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.616-621. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1402 Falcy M.
Boron and compounds
Bore et composés [in French]
Boron is contained in substances used in a wide variety of industries including aerospace, agriculture and detergent manufacture. The most widespread products are inorganic compounds (boron oxide, boric acid and boron halides). Their toxicity primarily affects the nervous system and the kidneys. Boric acid also has reproductive effects, and more specifically antifertility effects. Although less widespread, organic boron compounds (boranes) have a particularly high neurotoxicity.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 5p. 32 ref.

CIS 02-1387 Le Guen B., Hémidy P.Y.
Radioactive iodine
Iodes radioactifs [in French]
Stable and radioactive forms of iodine evaporate at low temperature and are consequently highly volatile. Stable iodine is a key trace element in human physiology and an essential component of thyroid hormones which are vital for growth and energy metabolism. However, accidental exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine can be dangerous. Contents of this information note on radioactive iodine: general physical and chemical aspects; environmental sources of radioactive iodine (nuclear tests, nuclear accidents); medical uses of radioactive iodine; environmental and human effects; stable iodine needs and required food intake; exposure, radiation and dosimetry; effects on radioactive iodine on the thyroid; cancer and genetic effects of iodine 131; protection in the event of accidental exposure.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 12p. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 02-1079 Palladium
Palladium is recovered mostly as a by-product of nickel and platinum metal refining. It is used in catalysts for automobiles and in the chemical industry, and in dentistry and jewellery. There is no information on the possible effects of palladium emitted from automotive catalytic converters on the general population. Human patch tests have shown that palladium (II) chloride to have sensitizing effects. Animal tests show skin and eye irritating effects of palladium (II) chloride. Several palladium compounds were found to be potent sensitizers. There are insufficient data on the reproductive and developmental effects of palladium and its compounds. In vitro testing and in vivo testing on mice show some indications of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002, xxi, 201p. Illus. 369 ref. Price: CHF 36.00, USD 32.40.

CIS 02-841 Materna B.L., Harrington D., Scholz P., Payne S.F., Stubbs H.A., Hipkins K., Merideth E., Kirsch L., Lomax G., Coyle P., Uratsu C.
Results of an intervention to improve lead safety among painting contractors and their employees
Painters are at risk of lead poisoning when preparing surface for painting in older buildings. An intervention strategy was evaluated for improving lead safety in small businesses. 21 painting contractors received 32 hours of training, technical assistance, and a safety manual; their employees attended an 8-hr training session. Impact evaluation involved interviewing participants at baseline, immediately post-intervention and one year later, and conducting contractor focus groups post-intervention. Employers met 15 of the 27 target objectives and workers met 3 of 12; however, even in areas where objectives were not met, both groups made improvements. Motivated contractors and their employees can make moderate improvements in lead-safe practices if provided with extensive training and technical assistance. Changes that are costly, unfamiliar, or perceived as a threat to work quality are more difficult to implement.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.119-130. 32 ref.

CIS 02-677 Boojar M.M.A., Goodarzi F.
A longitudinal follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to manganese
To study the effects on the respiratory system in mine workers with long-term exposure to manganese (Mn) in the workplace, a follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms was carried out among 145 workers employed in a large manganese mine and 65 matched controls. Lung function was measured by recording spirometric parameters. The Mn-exposed workers reported more respiratory symptoms and a significantly higher prevalence of all grades of pulmonary function impairment. All predicted symptoms except for asthma increased significantly in the current smoking group compared with the non-smoking group. There was a significant decrease in FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% values in exposed workers at stages 2 and 3, with an additive effect of the smoking habit. The Mn concentrations in blood, urine, and hair were significantly higher in the exposed workers. The level of cumulative exposure index of workplace Mn was notable and did not change significantly over this study.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.44, No.3, p.282-290. 42 ref.

CIS 02-788 Vincent R., Jeandel B.
Occupational exposure to lead - Analysis of the data contained in the COLCHIC database
Exposition professionnelle au plomb - Analyse des résultats archivés dans la base de données COLCHIC [in French]
The results of 14,822 determinations in workplace air carried out since 1987 by the eight regional chemical laboratories and specialized laboratories of the French national occupational safety and health institute (INRS) for the purpose of evaluating occupational exposure to lead were recorded in a database. The analysis of this data enabled the assessment of occupational exposure to lead by sector of activity and type of occupation. Results show that despite an overall and continuous decline in the levels of exposure to lead since 1990, there are still occupations where the exposure levels are above the current French TWA exposure limits of 150µg/m3, particularly in the building and metalworking sectors.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2169-187-02, p.63-72. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 02-579
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Chlorine dioxide (gas)
Conclusions of this criteria document on gaseous chlorine dioxide: given the highly reactive nature of the product, it seems likely that health effects would be restricted to local responses. Animal experiments show the high acute inhalation and ingestion toxicities. Severe skin and respiratory tract irritation has been observed in rats. Long-term inhalation exposure testing in animals show indications of nasal tissue and respiratory tract damage. Eye and respiratory tact irritation has been observed in humans. There are no reports of skin sensitization or asthma associated with occupational exposure to the product.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 26p. 54 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-885 Dosne R.
Major industrial accident at the AZF site in Toulouse (I)
Catastrophe industrielle sur le site AZF de Toulouse (I) [in French]
Description of a major accident due to an explosion in a fertilizer plant in Toulouse, France, 21 September 2001, which resulted in 30 fatalities and 2200 injuries. The explosion occurred in an ammonium nitrate storage unit. The causes have not yet been established. The article covers the chronology of events during the first few hours after the accident, focussing on the efforts of emergency services, the evacuation and the sheltering of the disaster victims.
Face au risque, Feb. 2002, No.380, p.24-28. Illus.

CIS 02-872
Health and Safety Executive
Mercury and its inorganic divalent compounds in air
This guidance sheet describes diffusive badge and pumped sorbent tube methods for the determination of time-weighed average concentrations of mercury and its inorganic divalent compounds in workplace air. Contents: legal requirements; health effects, safety and health precausions and exposure limits; principle and scope of the method; method performance; sampling equipment; laboratory apparatus; analytical instrumentation; sampling and sample preparation; calculations; test report.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 32p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: GBP 17.50.

CIS 02-68
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Principles and methods for the assessment of risk from essential trace elements
The risk assessment approach described in this monograph applies only to essential trace elements (ETEs) involved in human health. It gives methods for analysing the boundaries between deficient and excess oral intakes of ETEs. It focuses on the concept of acceptable range of oral intake (AROI). Contents: introduction (purpose, criteria for essentiality of trace elements, definitions); acceptable range of oral intake; variability of human populations; effects of deficiency and excess; application of homeostatic model in human risk assessment to exposure of ETEs.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. xviii, 60p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: CHF 26,00 (CHF 18,20 in developing countries). [in English]

CIS 97-51 Chromosulfuric acid
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Corrosive effects to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause skin allergy.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]

CIS 97-50 Chromic acid
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. It is a carcinogen and a teratogen should be handled with extreme caution. Corrosive effects on the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause a sore or a hole in the wall that separates the two air passages in the nose. May cause skin allergy and damage the liver.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]

CIS 97-40 Boron trifluoride
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Irritates and burns the skin and the eyes. May damage the eyes. Irritates the respiratory tract and may cause nosebleeds and lung oedema. May damage the kidneys.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]

CIS 97-37 Barium oxide
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May irritate the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May damage the eyes. May cause bronchitis. Will appear as spots in the lungs on chest x-ray.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]

CIS 97-36 Arsenic trichloride
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause mutations and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate and burn the skin and cause thickening and pigment changes. Irritates and burns the eyes. Irritates the respiratory tract. May damage the nervous system.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]


CIS 08-1176 The criticality accident in Sarov
In 1997 a critical accident occurred at the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre in the town of Sarov, about 400 km east of Moscow. The accident happened in a routine manipulation of the components of an assembly of highly enriched uranium. The overexposed man, a skilled technician, died 66h later from the effects of his exposure, despite prompt and intensive medical management. This report describes the immediate response to the emergency, the medical management of the patient, the various technical aspects of the accident, including the actions taken to return the facility to a safe condition, and the lessons to be learned from this accident.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2001. 46p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: EUR 15.50. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-682 Seillan H., Repussard J., Cochet Y., Andurand R., Khéliff J., Cérézuelle D., Charbonneau S.
Toulouse - Special feature
Toulouse - Les données de la catastrophe [in French]
On the 21st of September 2001, a violent explosion occurred in a fertilizer plant in Toulouse, France, causing 21 deaths, hundreds of injuries and serious material damage. This special feature on the disaster consists of a collection of articles covering the following aspects: data on the disaster (details of the industrial site, the product involved, namely ammonium nitrate, damage caused); French and European regulations on nitrate and nitrogen-rich fertilizers; analysis and comments on the plant safety manuals; statements on industrial hazards by politicians; uses and hazards of ammonium nitrate, including short summaries of earlier disasters; changes resulting from this disaster.
Préventique-Sécurité, Nov.-Dec. 2001, No.60, p.4-32. Illus.

CIS 03-1834 Roulleau C.
Lead - The hazard still exists
Plomb - Le risque persiste [in French]
This special feature describes the current situation with respect to the persistence of lead-related hazards in the construction industry, in particular during building renovation work. A field report presents the efforts undertaken by a lead battery manufacture with respect to managing hazards from lead.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, Mar. 2001. 19p. Illus. 15 réf. Price: EUR 1.50.

CIS 03-1317 Maeng S.H.
Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Research into the genetic and oxidative damage resulting from exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds
Gumsok whahap mule ei han youjun jeok mit sanwha jeok sonsang yeon gu [in Korean]
This report describes research carried out on biological and genetic toxicity indices in relationship to cancers caused by exposure to Cr6+ used in the stainless steel welding, plating, casting and metal product manufacturing processes. White rats were used to measure the genetic and oxidative damage occurring after exposure to Cr6+. Chromium concentrations inside the inhalation chamber and in the blood and urine of the experimental animals were also measured in order to establish their relationship with the toxicity indices.
Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, 34-4 Gu-san dong, Bupyung gu, Inchon 403-711, Republic of Korea, Dec. 2001. 40p. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 03-1288 Lee S.S., Lee B.K., Lee G.S., Stewart W.S., Simon D., Kelsey K., Todd A.C., Schwartz B.S.
Associations of lead biomarkers and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and vitamin D receptor genotypes with hematopoietic outcomes in Korean lead workers
This study compares associations of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead, tibia lead and blood lead with five haematopoietic variables (haemoglobin, haematocrit, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and urinary (ALAU) and plasma (ALAP) δ-aminolevulinic acid) and evaluates the effect of these relations by polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes. A cross-sectional study of 798 lead workers and 135 unexposed controls was performed. It was found that tibia lead was associated with all five haematopoietic outcomes, while blood lead and DMSA-chelatable lead were associated only with ZPP, ALAP and ALAU. A comparison of the regression coefficients, total model adjusted R2 values, and delta R2 values revealed that blood lead was the best predictor of ZPP, ALAP and ALAU. Only tibia lead was significantly associated with haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. No clear effect modification of the relations between the lead biomarkers and haematopoietic outcomes studied was caused by ALAD or VDR genotype.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 2001, Vol.27, No.6, p.402-411. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 03-787 Symanski E., Sällsten G., Chan W., Barregård L.
Heterogeneity in sources of exposure variability among groups of workers exposed to inorganic mercury
Given the utility of different modelling approaches when assessing exposures, assumptions of homogeneity of variance within and between workers using both random- and mixed-effects models were investigated. In this study of four groups of workers exposed to inorganic mercury (Hg) at a chloralkali plant, there was no evidence of significant heterogeneity in the levels of variation over time or between workers for air Hg levels. For the biological monitoring data, however, the findings indicate that groups did not share common levels of variability and that it was not appropriate to pool the data and obtain single estimates of the within- and between-worker variance components. Classification of job group as a random or fixed effect had no effect on the results. Although the probability that workers' mean exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for air, urine and blood Hg was generally low (<10%) for all groups except maintenance workers, the estimated values sometimes varied depending upon the particular model that was applied. Given the growing use of random- and mixed-effects models that combine data across occupational groups, additional studies are warranted to evaluate whether it is reasonable to assume common variances and covariances among measurements collected on workers from different groups.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2001, Vol.45, No.8, p.677-687. 37 ref.

CIS 03-865 Okuno T., Ojima J., Saito H.
Ultraviolet radiation emitted by CO2 arc welding
The arcs associated with arc welding emit high levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and this often causes acute injuries in the workplace, particularly photokeratoconjunctivitis. In this study, the effective irradiance for UVR was measured experimentally for CO2 arc welding in order to evaluate its UVR hazards. A welding robot was used in the experiment in order to ensure reproducible and consistent welding conditions. The effective irradiance at 1m from the arc was in the range 0.28-7.85W/m2 under the study conditions. The corresponding permissible exposure time per day is only 4-100s, suggesting that UVR from CO2 arc welding is actually hazardous for the eye and skin. It was found that the effective irradiance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the arc, is strongly dependent on the direction of emission from the arc with a maximum at 50-60° from the plate surface, and tends to increase with the welding current.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 2001, Vol.45, No.7, p.597-601. Illus. 13 ref

CIS 03-804 Pośniak M.
Chemical hazards in selected technological processes - Part 2
Zagrożenia chemiczne w wybranych procesach technologicznych - Część 2 [in Polish]
This publication is aimed at persons responsible for assessing occupational exposure to harmful substances involved in the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins, and metals and metal compounds, as well as to asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust. For each substance or process, it discusses sources of chemical hazards, health effects, sampling and analysis methods in the work environment, methods of hazard control and methods of neutralizing the harmful substances. See also CIS 03-817, which covers several other industrial processes.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 101p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-828 Héry M., Massin N., Gagnaire F.
Chlorine and swimming pools
Chlore et piscines [in French]
Disinfection of swimming-pool water is usually carried out by using chlorine, which reacts with nitrogen-containing substances from bathers to form chloramines, and in particular nitrogen trichloride, a highly-volatile substance that causes eye and respiratory irritations often encountered by swimming-pool staff. Technical solutions exist for lowering the atmospheric concentration of this substance to levels below 0.3-0.5mg/m3 which generally give rise to complaints. Contents of this information sheet on chlorine and swimming pools: formation of chloramines; irritating properties of nitrogen trichloride; methods of sampling and analysis of nitrogen trichloride; exposure levels in different types of swimming pools; effects of exposure to nitrogen trichloride on health; aeration for eliminating nitrogen trichloride.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2001, No.131, 3p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 03-827 Lauwerys R., Roels H.
Manganèse [in French]
The main activities that can give rise to manganese exposure include ore extraction, smelting, certain soldering operations, dry cell manufacture and the production and use of various manganese compounds. The inhalation of manganese oxide smoke can cause flu-like symptoms, similar to those of metal fume fever. The ingestion of manganese salts can cause massive burning of the digestive tract, upper respiratory tract oedema and circulatory collapse. Chronic manganese intoxication essentially results from the inhalation of the smoke of various manganese compounds, observed symptoms including tremors of the extremities, a reduction of reaction time and short-term memory changes. Various respiratory effects have also been reported among workers chronically-exposed to manganese. Determinations in urine and blood may be useful to confirm manganese absorption, but it is not possible to set biological values. To avoid the incidence of pre-clinical neurological effects, the average concentration of manganese in air (total dust) should not exceed 150µg/m3.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2001, No.131, 7p. 90 ref.

CIS 03-793 Badinier-Paganon I., Deschamps F.
Exposure of swimming-pool lifeguards to chlorinated compounds
Exposition des maîtres nageurs aux dérivés chlorés [in French]
Disinfection of swimming pool water is carried out using chlorinated agents that react with nitrogen-containing human residues. This results in the formation of chloramines, which include nitrogen trichloride (chloramine-T). These compounds may be responsible for chronic symptoms such as eye, rhinopharyngeal and bronchial irritations with a dose-effect relationship. However, cases of chronic bronchitis or asthma are not frequent. Chloramine-T solutions used in the disinfection of walls, floors and sanitary facilities may induce sensitizations confirmed with specific IgE detection. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome may occur with massive accidental exposure to chlorinated compounds. Primary prevention consists in gas extraction systems to maintain atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated agents at acceptable levels.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2001, Vol.62, No.6, p.477-481. 16 ref.

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