Inorganic substances - 5,778 entries found
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Ostiguy C., Malo S., Asselin P.
Synthesis of scientific knowledge on the health risks following occupational exposure to manganese
This review documents current knowledge on the potential occupational health effects, mainly on the central nervous system, following occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air in mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the Quebec Occupational Safety and Health Commission (CSST) by workers exposed to this substance during welding operations involving steel containing manganese. The report describes processes of assimilation of manganese by the body, its biomarkers and its effects on health. It also compares different organizations' standards and guideline recommendations. Current Quebec standards are similar to those of the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field recommend making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. 38p. 211 ref. Price: CAD 6.42.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-349.pdf [in English]
Ellingsen D.G., Haug E., Gaarder P.I., Bast-Pettersen R., Thomassen Y.
Endocrine and immunologic markers in manganese alloy production workers
One hundred randomly-selected male workers exposed to manganese were compared with one hundred unexposed male referents (matched for age) from similar process industries. The geometric mean of the exposed workers' urinary manganese concentration was 0.9 (range 0.1-126.3) nmol/mmol creatinine (Cr) versus 0.4 (range 0.1-13.1) nmol/mmol Cr for the referents. The mean duration of exposure to manganese was 20.0 (range 2.1-41.0) years. The geometric mean of the prolactin serum concentration was higher in the exposed subjects than in the referents (229 versus 197 mIU/L). Serum prolactin was associated with current exposure to soluble inhalable manganese, duration of exposure and smoking habits. The subjects with the longest duration of exposure to manganese or the highest current exposure to soluble inhalable manganese had a statistically significantly higher serum prolactin concentration than the referents, while smokers had a lower serum prolactin concentration than nonsmokers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2003, Vol.29, No.3, p.230-238. Illus. 24 ref.
Joffe M., Bisanti L., Apostoli P., Kiss P., Dale A., Roeleveld N., Lindbohm M.L., Sallmén M., Vanhoorne M., Bonde J.P.
Time to pregnancy and occupational lead exposure
Lead exposure is known to be harmful to the male reproductive system, including impairment of fertility. However, it is unclear whether currently existing low levels of exposure have this effect. This study retrospectively examines current workers in lead-using industries (battery manufacture, smelting, etc,), and in non-lead-using control industries in four European countries, with time to pregnancy as the outcome variable. Exposure assessment was mainly by blood lead values, which were available from the late 1970s, supplemented by imputed values where necessary. Three exposure models were studied: short term (recent) exposure, total duration of work in a lead using industry and cumulative exposure. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for the statistical analysis, with covariates for both partners. Results show that among the total of 1104 subjects that took part, 638 were occupationally-exposed to lead at the relevant time. Blood lead levels were mainly less than 50µg/dL. No consistent association of time to pregnancy with lead exposure was found in any of the exposure models. If any impairment of male reproductive function exists at the levels of occupational lead exposure now current, it does not appear to reduce biological fertility.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.752-758. Illus. 35 ref.
Hill R.W., Marks S.
Health and Safety Executive
Flueless gas fires - Concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, and particulate level produced in use
Fixed flueless gas fires to supplement central heating systems are subject to certification by an independent Notified Body for compliance with the Gas Appliances Directive. The certification process includes an assessment of the manufacturer's installation instructions. Three manufacturers are currently offering a range of flueless fires. However, their installation instructions are inconsistent with one another. The objective of this project was to encourage manufacturers to develop common product and installation standards. It involved measuring the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulates produced by the appliances in a test facility simulating a residential home.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 34p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr023.pdf [in English]
Rhodes D., Spiro A., Aro A., Hu H.
Relationship of bone and blood lead levels to psychiatric symptoms: The normative aging study
Blood and bone lead levels were used to investigate the potential effect of lead on psychiatric symptoms among middle-aged to elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Average lead concentrations were 6.3µg/dL, 21.9mgg/g and 32.1mgg/g for blood, tibia and patella lead respectively. In logistic regression models that adjusted for age, alcohol intake, employment status and education status, it was found that blood and bone lead was significantly associated with an increased risk of phobic anxiety and combined measure of psychiatric symptoms. It is concluded that cumulative lead exposure reflected by bone lead levels could be a risk factor for psychiatric symptoms even at modest levels of exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1144-1151. 34 ref.
Fiedler N., Weisel C., Lynch R., Kelly-McNeil K., Wedeen R., Jones K., Udasin I., Ohman-Strickland P., Gochfeld M.
Cognitive effects of chronic exposure to lead and solvents
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function effects of chronic occupational exposure to lead and solvents. Based on tibial bone lead and occupational history of solvent exposure, subjects were classified into the following exposure groups: "lead" (N=40), "solvent" (N=39) and "lead/solvent" (N=45), as well as an unexposed control group (N=33). All subjects completed tests to assess concentration, motor skills, memory and mood. Relative to controls, the "lead", "solvent", and "lead/solvent" groups performed significantly more poorly on a test of verbal memory, while the "lead" and "lead/solvent" groups were slower than the solvent and control groups on a task of processing speed. Bone lead was a significant predictor of information processing speed and latency of response while solvent exposure was a significant predictor of verbal learning and memory.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.44, No.4, p.413-423. Illus. 55 ref.
Abbate C., Giorgianni C., Brecciaroli R., Tringali M.A., D'Arrigo G.
Spirometric function in non-smoking workers exposed to aluminium
This study examined the relationship between occupational exposure to aluminium and respiratory function. A group of 50 male shipyard workers who were exposed to aluminium underwent medical examinations, standard chest X-rays and spirometry. The data were compared with those of a group of controls, all with blood aluminium levels below 7.5ng/mL. Statistical analysis was performed on the various spirometric parameters. Environmental aluminium levels were also measured at the various workstations. The subjects presented average blood aluminium levels of 32.64±8.69ng/mL. Environmental monitoring displayed aluminium levels higher than TLV TWA for all the workstations studied. None of the subjects displayed significant pathological conditions. Statistical comparison of the spirometric parameters showed a decrease in the examined values in exposed workers directly proportional to the blood aluminium level. It is concluded that aluminium affects the respiratory function and that limit values should be reassessed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.44, No.4, p.400-404. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information for 2001/02
The aim of this work was to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance, for the purpose of improving customer safety, targeting expenditure on CO incident prevention and identifying further research work. A national data collection scheme for CO incidents which occur within the United Kingdom was established. This report provides information collected through this data collection scheme, and covers the reporting period 2001/02. During this period, there were 55 piped natural gas incidents and 10 LPG incidents reported, involving 13 fatalities and 109 non-fatal casualties. The data are expressed by time of the year, type of appliance or system and likely cause of the incident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 82p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr163.pdf [in English]
Schach V., Jahanbakht S., Livardjani F., Flesch F., Jaeger A., Haïkel Y.
Risks from mercury in dental practices: Past history or near future?
Le risque mercuriel dans les cabinets dentaires: histoire ancienne ou futur proche? [in French]
Mercury is the cause of mercurialism, an occupational disease recognized as such in the schedule of occupational diseases. Furthermore, it has been established that this metal is an important pollutant, both for the atmospheric and marine environments. This literature review examines occupational hazards caused by the inhalation of mercury in the dental profession. Contents: evaluation of the exposure to mercury among dentists; epidemiological studies among dentists; causes of pollution by mercury in dental practices; prevention (substitution, local exhaust, housekeeping, personal hygiene); medical supervision; compensation; French regulations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2003, No.93, p.7-23. Illus. 52 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride and fluorine (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: strong irritation of the skin, eyes and lungs; lung diseases; chemical burns on the skin and eyes with possible necrosis; skeletal fluorosis; dental fluorosis. Update of CIS 96-2215.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xx, 356p. Illus. Approx. 1275 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp11.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for selenium (update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of selenium is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes; pulmonary oedema; bronchitis; skin diseases; antifertility effects; neurological effects; cardiological effects. Update of CIS 97-216.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xix, 418p. Illus. Approx. 1450 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp92.pdf [in English]
Mercury - Prevention of mercury poisoning
Le mercure - Prévention de l'hydrargyrisme [in French]
Mercury poisoning affects primarily the central nervous system. Symptoms include headaches, mood changes, memory lapses and at more advanced stages, tremors, intellectual decline and cerebellum damage. Aimed at users of mercury and its compounds, this booklet presents the main protective measures for preventing occupational mercury poisoning and for decontaminating work premises and laboratories polluted by mercury, while at the same time protecting the environment. Replaces CIS 79-1379
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 5th ed., Dec. 2003. 59p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 7.30.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/1AF97FB985C10883C1256CD900504FB5/$FILE/ed546.pdf [in French]
Radiation protection against radon in workplaces other than mines
This report deals with radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) and their decay products in workplaces other than mines. It is intended for use in the application of radiation protection principles in sectors where employers may not have an extensive background in radiation protection. It provides practical information on workplace radiation levels above which action is necessary, on monitoring techniques and on actions aimed at reducing exposures to radon and thoron and their decay products when necessary. It is also intended to assist regulatory bodies in establishing their own national policies in controlling high radon and thoron exposures of non-mining workforces.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2003. 74p. Illus. 126 ref. Price of print edition: EUR 19.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1168_web.pdf [in English]
Koksal N., Hasanoglu H.C., Gokirmak M., Yildirim Z., Gultek A.
Apricot sulfurization: An occupation that induces an asthma-like syndrome in agricultural environments
The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure on the airways of the workers involved in apricot sulfurization. SO2 levels in air were measured on 15 apricot farms, while the symptom scores of 69 workers were recorded before, during and after SO2 exposure. Physical examination and pulmonary function tests of the workers were also done prior to and after exposure periods. The measured SO2 concentrations ranged between 106.6 and 721.0ppm. Dyspnoea (80%), cough (78%) and eye and nose irritation (83-70%) were the most commonly observed symptoms. The workers had significant decreases in pulmonary functions after SO2 exposure. Decrements in FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, and FEF25-75% showed that the acute effect of SO2 on pulmonary functions of the workers was mostly of the obstructive kind. It is concluded that acute exposure to SO2 induces "asthma-like syndrome" in apricot sulfurization workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.447-453. 39 ref.
Peltier A., Elcabache J.M.
Used battery waste processing: A study in specialized undertakings
Traitement des déchets des piles et accumulateurs usagés - Enquête dans des entreprises spécialisées [in French]
Occupational exposures of 380 workers in fifteen enterprises specialized in the recycling of electrochemical batteries was evaluated. The survey shows that there is a high risk of lead exposure during the shredding and melting of lead batteries, a potential risk of mercury poisoning during pyrometallurgical processing, and that during the treatment of Ni-Cd batteries, air purification is not effective. The constant wearing of air purifying respirators is a measure that must remain temporary. Cadmium smoke and dust emissions need to be captured at the source. Appendices include schedules of occupational diseases caused by lead, mercury, cadmium and their compounds.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.192, p.5-19. Illus. 11 ref.
Cloro [in Spanish]
Material safety data sheet on chlorine. Exposure limits: TWA 0.5ppm; STEL 1ppm. Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: corrosive and irritant for the respiratory tract and mucous membranes by inhalation with symptoms including chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary oedema and respiratory collapse which may be fatal; skin contact can induce irritation, chemical burns and necrosis; contact with eyes can cause irritation, ulcerations and chemical burns which can lead to vision damage; prolonged contact may cause dermatitis and dental erosion.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Bogotá, Colombia, Mar.-Apr. 2003. 3p.
Hidróxido de sodio [in Spanish]
Material safety data sheet on sodium hydroxide. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the respiratory tract by inhalation which can cause chemical pneumonitis; ingestion may cause severe burns of the mouth, throat and stomach and lead to death with symptoms such as bleeding, diarrhoea, vomiting and hypotension; skin contact can induce irritation, possibly leading to chemical burns; contact with eyes can cause irritation or chemical burns which can lead to vision damage and blindness; prolonged contact may cause an obstructive effect.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Bogotá, Colombia, Jan.-Feb. 2003. 3p.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document: mild subclinical signs of central nervous toxicity can be observed among workers exposed to elemental mercury at a concentration of 20µg/m3 or above for several years. Neurological and behavioural disorders have been observed following inhalation of elemental mercury vapour or dermal application of inorganic mercury-containing medicinal products. The primary effect of long-term oral exposure to low amounts of inorganic mercury compounds is renal damage; immunological effects have also been shown. Data from animal studies indicate that mercuric chloride has some carcinogenic activity in male rats; parenteral administration of inorganic mercury compounds is embryotoxic and teratogenic in rodents. Inorganic mercury compounds seem to interact with and damage DNA in vitro.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. iv, 61p. 298 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad50.pdf [in English]
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Hydrogen sulfide: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document: tolerable concentrations for hydrogen sulfide of 100µg/m3 and 20µg/m3 respectively are based on respiratory effects for short-term (exposure durations of 1-14 days) and medium-term (exposure up to 90 days) inhalation exposures. The odour threshold of hydrogen sulfide varies depending on individuals (mean 11µg/m3). At concentrations greater than 140µg/m3 olfactory paralysis occurs, making hydrogen sulfide very dangerous. Health effects in humans include death, and respiratory, ocular, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive effects (spontaneous abortion).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. iv, 35p. 153 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad53.pdf [in English]
Ostiguy C., Malo S., Asselin P.
Synthesis of scientific knowledge on health hazards from occupational exposures to manganese
Synthèse des connaissances scientifiques sur les risques d'atteinte à la santé suite à une exposition professionnelle au manganèse [in French]
Contents of this criteria document on manganese: occurrence of manganese in the environment; occupational exposure to manganese; metabolism and distribution (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity mechanisms); biomarkers of exposure and effects; health effects (extrapolation to man of effects on animals, effects on the respiratory, reproductive and central nervous system (CNS)); current standards and recommendations. In view of the effects the CNS, ACCGIH is currently studying revising their recommended exposure limit for manganese from the current level of 0.20mg/m3 in total dust to 0.03mg/m3 in respirable dust.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, May 2003. 40p. 209 ref. Price: CAD 6.42.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-339.pdf [in French]
Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: A survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data
The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead in the state of Washington, estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting, describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing data from the state's official blood lead reporting registry and by conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that 226 workers in Washington (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Only 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (≥25µg/dL) reported to the state's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of the health effects of lead, appropriate industrial hygiene controls and the requirements of the Lead Standard.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.45, No.7, p.724-733. Illus. 17 ref.
Maître A., Collot-Fertey D., Anzivino L., Marques M., Hours M., Stoklov M.
Municipal waste incinerators: Air and biological monitoring of workers for exposure to particles, metals and organic compounds
In order to evaluate occupational exposure to toxic pollutants at municipal waste incinerators (MWIs), 29 male subjects working near the furnaces in two MWIs and 17 subjects not occupationally exposed to combustion-generated pollutants were studied. Individual air samples were taken throughout the shift, and urine samples were collected before and after. Stationary air samples were taken near potential sources of emission. It was found that atmospheric exposure levels to particles and metals were 10-100 times higher in MWls than at the control site. However, occupational exposure did not result in the infringement of any occupational threshold limit value. The main exposure sources were cleaning operations for particles, and residue transfer and disposal operations for metals. MWI workers were not exposed to higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than workers who are routinely in contact with vehicle exhaust. The air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes were low and did not appear to pose any significant threat to human health.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2003, Vol.60, No.8, p.563-569. 33 ref.
Savary B., Vincent R., Peltier A., Dornier G.
Le béryllium [in French]
Beryllium is used in many industrial applications; it is toxic, even at low concentrations. This safety information sheet summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to prevention measures to be adopted when working in the presence of beryllium, as well as current legislation. Contents: uses (alloys, recovery of precious metals, aerospace, nuclear reactors, weaponry, scientific instruments); health hazards (berylliosis, skin and renal symptoms); exposure evaluation; biological monitoring; hazard management.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2003, No.628, Insert. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ED+5020/$File/ed5020.pdf [in French]
Persulfates and sulfites
Perfulfates et sulfites [in French]
Persulfates and sulfites are sulfur-containing salts that find use because of their strong chemical reactivity. Persulfates are potent oxidizing agents, mainly used as bleaching accelerators in hairdressing. They may be responsible for contact dermatoses and respiratory symptoms (rhinitis and asthma) that are listed in French schedules of occupational diseases. Sulfites are used for their reducing properties in laundries, paper pulp manufacture, tanning, dyeing, industrial water treatment and photography. They constitute the food additives of the series E220 to E228 and are included as preserving agents in many medical drugs. They may give rise to intolerance symptoms during ingestion or inhalation (rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, Quincke's oedema or anaphylactic shock). The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined a daily admissible level for sulfites in food. Respiratory symptoms that appear in the context of occupational exposures to sulfites are listed in the schedules of occupational diseases.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 3p. 28 ref.
Sélenium [in French]
Selenium is a non-metallic element that is widespread is nature. The following compounds of selenium are commonly used in industry: selenium dioxide (or selenious anhydride), selenium oxychlorides and sulfides, selenious acid, and sodium selenite and selenate. There are many industrial applications including in the chemical industry (catalysts), metallurgy (alloys), electrical equipment industry and electronics industry. Toxicity depends on the mode of absorption, the specific compound studied and on its solubility. In animal studies, there have been reports of irritation after inhalation exposure, as well as pancreatic and splenic hepatic effects. Several cases of intoxication have been reported during chronic exposures in industrial settings.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 4p. 15 ref.
Indium [in French]
Indium is a rare metal whose industrial applications, mainly in the form of alloys, are limited. Its toxicity depends on the mode of exposure (its ingestion toxicity is particularly low) and on the specific compounds studied. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects have been reported for several compounds. There have been no reports of cases of toxicity resulting from chronic exposures in industrial settings.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 2p. 11 ref.
Germanium [in French]
Germanium is a metal that exists mainly in the form of inorganic compounds for which there are numerous industrial applications, in particular in the electronics and optics industries. Germanium is generally considered to have low toxicity. The target organs in humans and animals appear to be the kidneys and the lungs. During exposures to dusts and fumes of the metal or its oxides in industrial settings, there have been no reports of any major pathologies among workers.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 2p. 12 ref.
Gallium [in French]
Gallium is a widespread metal, mainly present in minerals. Industrial applications are mostly in the electronics industry, where gallium arsenide and phosphide are used. As shown in animal studies, the toxicity of gallium varies among species and gallium compounds. The main target organs are the lungs and the haemopoietic and immune systems. Reproductive effects have been observed with several compounds. There is little data on the toxicity of gallium itself during occupational exposures.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 2p. 15 ref.
Beryllium and compounds
Béryllium et composés [in French]
Because of its physical, chemical and mechanical properties, beryllium finds use in many industries, in particular in the preparation of alloys. The principal adverse health effect of exposure to beryllium dust is lung disease. Symptoms are either acute with irritant or inflammatory mechanisms, or chronic, in which case the disease is known as chronic berylliosis, characterized by an allergic nature probably favoured by genetic factors. The prevention of these serious diseases is of particular importance. Prevention of acute disorders appears to be effective, but prevention of chronic conditions is a lot more difficult and less effective.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 4p. 29 ref.
Park J., Plese M.R., Puskar M.A.
Evaluation of a personal monitor employing an electrochemical sensor for assessing exposure to hydrogen peroxide in the workplace
The monitoring of vapour phase hydrogen peroxide (VHP) has gained increasing importance in the pharmaceutical industry because sterilization using VHP has proven to be a good alternative to previously used sterilizing methods. The current method based on bubbling air through an acid solution with subsequent laboratory analysis, is not practical for monitoring personal exposures. A commercially-available electrochemical sensor direct-reading instrument designed for personal monitoring of VHP was evaluated in the laboratory and under typical workplace. Time-weighted average concentration data from the direct-reading instrument was compared with concentration data from the existing analytical method. Selected performance characteristics of the instrument also were investigated, including reproducibility, response and recovery times, calibration frequency and suitability of the calibration adapter. Results suggest that the instrument provides a means for simple and accurate monitoring of personal exposures to VHP in workplace environments.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2003, Vol.64, No.3, p.360-367. Illus. 24 ref.
Grasel S.S., Alves V.A.F., da Silva C.S., Cruz O.L.M.., Almeida E.R., de Oliveira E.
Clinical and histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa induced by occupational exposure to sulphuric acid mists
The aim of this study was to assess potential alterations of the nasal mucosa by clinical and histopathological evaluation of workers exposed to sulfuric acid mists at anodizing plants and to correlate the findings with duration of exposure and sulfuric acid concentrations in the air. A total of 52 workers from five plants underwent a clinical evaluation (standard questionnaire, clinical, and ear, nose and throat examination including nasal endoscopy). For the histopathological study, 20 of the 52 subjects (study group) were randomly selected, as well as 11 unexposed subjects (control group), matched by sex, age and smoking habit. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from the anterior septum mucosa. The histopathological study revealed squamous metaplasia in 79% and atypia in 5% of the study group samples. No association was found between exposure duration and the clinical and histopathological variables, but a significant association was found between sulfuric acid concentrations higher than 200µg/m3 and pale mucosal patches and ulcerations in the exposed subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposed subjects had a fivefold risk of developing atypia compared with the unexposed subjects. The risk for histopathological lesions increased with higher sulfuric acid concentrations in the air, revealing an exposure-response relation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.395-402. Illus. 20 ref.
The radiological accident in Samut Prakarn
A serious radiological accident occurred in Samut Prakarn, Thailand, in 2000 when a disused cobalt 60 teletherapy head was partially dismantled, taken from an unsecured storage location and sold as scrap metal. At the junkyard, the device was further disassembled and the unrecognized radioactive source fell out, exposing workers. The accident came to the attention of the relevant national authority when physicians who examined several individuals suspected the possibility of radiation exposure from an unsecured source and reported this suspicion. Altogether, ten persons received high doses from the radioactive source, among who three died within two months of their exposure. Thai authorities requested advice from the IAEA on the medical treatment of the exposed people and invited the IAEA to assist in a review of the accident. This report compiles information about the medical and other aspects of the accident.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2002. 52p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: EUR 15.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1124_scr.pdf [in English]
The radiological accident in Gilan
In 1996 a serious accident occurred at a fossil fuel power plant in Iran, when a worker who was moving thermal insulation materials around the plant noticed a shiny, pencil-sized metal object and placed it in his pocket. He was unaware that the metal object was an unshielded source of iridium 192 used in industrial radiography. This report compiles information about the medical and other aspects of the accident. As a result of exposure to the iridium source, the worker suffered from severe haematopoietic syndrome and an unusually extended localized radiation injury requiring plastic surgery.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2002. 46p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: EUR 15.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1123_scr.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Arsenic and you - Arsenic is poisonous. Are you at risk?
This leaflet contains information on health hazards from exposure to dusts and fumes containing arsenic. Topics covered: sources of dusts and fumes containing arsenic; absorption routes; health hazards due to arsenic; protective measures; health checks; legal requirements and exposure limit; sources of information.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 6p. 1 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/msa8.pdf [in English]
Piotrowski J., Orłowski C.
Tetratlenek osmu [in Polish]
Osmium tetroxide is used for staining biological preparations for electron microscopy, in photography, as an organic synthesis catalyst and in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Following acute exposure of humans, strong irritation of the eyes and respiratory system was observed, as well as visual disorders. In men occupationally exposed to osmium tetroxide at concentrations of 0.133-0.640mg/m3 (measured as osmium) for a time span ranging from 1.5 to 23 years, a characteristic symptom was the appearance of aureola around light sources. Other symptoms included eye irritation, reading difficulties and headache. No changes were observed in the biochemical parameters of blood and urine. The existing data are not sufficient for independent evaluation. Consequently the values accepted in most countries, namely 0.002mg/m3 (threshold limit value - TWA) and 0.006mg/m3 (short-term exposure level), expressed as osmium, are recommended.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.207-215. 10 ref.
Skowroń J., Puchalska H.
Potassium persulfate dust
Peroksodisiarczan(VI) potasu-pyły [in Polish]
The main routes of occupational exposure for potassium persulfate are inhalation and skin absorption. Frequent skin rashes, causing both irritant dermatitis and hypersensitivity reactions, were found in workers producing potassium persulfate. Cases of asthma following occupational exposure to persulfates have been reported in hairdressers. Despite the absence of toxicity study data, potassium persulfate is expected to be as irritating as ammonium persulfate. Consequently, a study on rats exposed to up to 21mg/m3 of ammonium persulfate for seven days is the basis of the occupational limit. Rats exposed to 4mg/m3 of ammonium persulfate exhibited symptoms of lung inflammation and/or oedema and loss of body weight. These effects were not significant at exposures of 1mg/m3, which was adopted as the no observed adverse effect level value. Given these data, the threshold limit value (time-weighted average) was calculated to be 0.1mg/m3. No short-term exposure limit value has been determined.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.195-205. 18 ref.
Piotrowski J.K., Szymańska J., Frydrych B.
Ozon [in Polish]
Welding and the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide are the most important sources of exposure to ozone in industry. From studies in humans, the first effects of short-term exposure to ozone are respiratory symptoms. The lowering of FEV1 was found at concentrations exceeding 0.6mg/m3. However when exposure to ozone was conducted jointly with physical strain (ergometric exercises), functional respiratory effects were observed at a concentration of 0.16mg/m3. On the basis of current knowledge, it is proposed to increase the maximum allowable concentration (time-weighted average) of ozone in Poland from 0.1 to 0.15mg/m3.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.157-193. 41 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of lead at work (Third edition) - Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 - Approved Code of Practice and guidance
This code of practice provides guidance on the provisions of the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 (CIS 03-1030). Includes guidance on: assessment of health risks created by work involving lead; prevention or control of exposure to lead; personal protective equipment; maintenance of control measures; air monitoring; medical surveillance; provision of information and training; arrangements for accidents and emergencies; health hazards and biological monitoring. Replaces previous edition (CIS 98-857).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2002. iv, 122p. 26 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.
Machado Prista e Silva J.M.
Occupational exposure to lead: Use of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) for the health surveillance of exposed workers
Exposição profissional a chumbo: utilização da protoporfirina-zinco (PPZ) na vigilância de saúde de trabalhadores expostos [in Portuguese]
This thesis examines the feasibility of implementing a surveillance method for lead poisoning based on zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) among workers exposed to lead. The study involved 180 workers, of which 110 had blood lead (BL) levels over 40µg/dL. ZPP was determined by fluorimetry on samples of capillary blood; haemogrammes were also carried out. Urinary δ-aminolevulininc acid (U-ALA) was also determined in approximately 25% of the workers. A strong relationship was found between BL and ZPP, with an earlier detection threshold than that between BL and U-ALA. This study shows that fluorimetric determination of ZPP in capillary blood is a more reliable method than haemogrammes or U-ALA determinations for the medical supervision of workers exposed to lead.
Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, 2002. 246p. Illus. 432 ref.
Abdel-Shafy H.I., Hegemann W., Schenk H., Wilke A.
Decreasing the level of heavy metals by aerobic treatment of tannery wastewater
In this study, the efficiency of an aerobic process for the treatment of tannery wastewater as well as the level of heavy metals throughout this process were investigated. The level of chromium in the produced sludge and the treated wastewater was evaluated. The adsorption isotherm of the "free metal sludge" for chromium was also studied. The study was carried out in a continuously controlled pilot plant system. Results show that the aerobic treatment reduced the chemical oxygen demands (COD) of the wastewater. Heavy metals were concentrated mostly in the sludge. Chromium was eliminated in the wastewater by 46.3%. The levels of the other metals were also reduced with a range of elimination from 19% for zinc to 58.3% for manganese. Nevertheless, the concentrations of chromium both in treated wastewater and sludge exceeded the permissible level. It is recommended that further treatment be applied to decrease chromium to the permissible level.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2002, Vol.8, No.4, p.298-309. Illus. 20 ref.
Park D.U., Paik N.W.
Effect on blood lead of airborne lead particles characterized by size
Worker exposure to airborne lead particles was evaluated for a total of 117 workers of four different industries in Korea. The particle sizes were measured using 8-stage cascade impactors worn by the workers. Mass median aerodynamic diameters and size distributions as a function of airborne lead (PbA) concentration were determined by type of industry. Blood lead (PbB) levels of workers were also examined. The results indicate PbB correlated better with respirable lead concentrations than with PbA which implies that the contribution of respirable lead particles to lead absorption is greater than that of PbA. This study concludes that the measurement of PbA only may not properly reflect a worker's exposure to lead particles with diverse characteristics. For the evaluation of a worker's exposure to various types of lead particles, it is recommended that respirable lead particles as well as PbA be measured.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.237-243. Illus. 22 ref.
Olin A.C., Granung G., Hagberg S., Adriansson M., Brisman J., Dalander O., Karlsson B., Torén K.
Respiratory health among bleachery workers exposed to ozone and chlorine dioxide
A total of 129 bleachery workers in two Swedish pulp mills that use ozone for bleaching were studied together with 80 non-exposed controls. The pulp mills had previously used chlorine dioxide as the bleaching agent. Participants responded to questionnaires and were subjected to spirometry and methacholine challenge testing. Area sampling showed sporadic ozone levels exceeding 0.9ppm. There was a greater prevalence of wheezing (25%) among the bleachery workers with a history of gassings than among the referents (13%). Among current smokers, the proportion with a slightly increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was greater among the bleachery workers. For the period from 1992 to 1996 when the mills were using ozone, there was an increased incidence rate of wheezing among the workers in the bleachery. This finding reinforces the view that repeated peak exposures to irritants must be prevented in pulp mills.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p. 117-123. 28 ref.
Health and Safety - The Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 [United Kingdom]
These Regulation re-enact, with modifications, The Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1998 (S.I. 1998/543) (CIS 98-391). They implement in Great Britain the provisions of Council Directive 98/24/EC (CIS 98-1094), insofar as they apply to exposure to lead. Contents: interpretation; duties of employers and self-employed persons; prohibitions (use of lead-containing glaze or high-solubility glaze; employment of young persons or women of reproductive capacity in certain activities); hazard evaluation of work involving lead; prevention and control of lead exposure; prohibition of eating, drinking and smoking in areas where contamination by lead is present; maintenance, examination and testing of control measures; air monitoring; medical surveillance; information, instruction and training; arrangements to deal with accidents, incidents and emergencies. Intervention levels are established: action level - blood-lead concentration of 25µg/dL for women of reproductive capacity, 40µg/dL for young persons, and 50µg/dL for others; suspension level - blood-lead concentration of 30, 50 and 60µg/dL, respectively, for the above categories and urinary lead concentrations of 25µg Pb/g creatinine for women of reproductive capacity and 110µg Pb/g creatinine for others. In the schedule: activities in which employment of young persons and women of reproductive capacity is prohibited on account of possible exposure to lead.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2002. (Also: TSO Online Bookshop, http://www.tso.co.uk/bookshop/). 13p. Price: GBP 3.00.
http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2002/20022099.htm [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Vanadium and its inorganic compounds - Risk assessment document
Main conclusions of this risk assessment document: little information is available on the effects of vanadium and its compounds in humans. Animal studies indicate that toxicity tends to increase with oxidation state, the inhalation toxicity being classed toxic and harmful for pentavalent and tetravalent vanadium, respectively, based on studies on rats. A single study available on human volunteers indicated delayed bronchial effects after 8h exposures. There are reports of wheeze and dyspnoea among workers exposed to vanadium pentoxide dust and fume. Vanadium compounds do not produce gene mutations in standard in vitro tests, although there are indications of chromosome damage in in vivo somatic mammalian cells. There are no conclusive data on carcinogenicity. Animal studies indicate little or no reproductive effects.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. vi, 109p. 86 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Decker P., Cohen B., Butala J.H., Gordon T.
Exposure to wood dust and heavy metals in workers using CCA pressure-treated wood
Wood used for construction applications is often treated with chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA). This study examined the airborne concentration and particle size distribution of wood particles, chromium, copper and arsenic at outdoor and indoor construction work. At the outdoor sites, mean total dust concentration, measured using personal filter cassette samplers, was 0.57mg/m3. Indoor wood dust concentrations were significantly greater than those measured outdoors and were job category-dependent. The highest mean breathing zone dust concentration, 49mg/m3, was measured at the indoor sanding operation. Personal impactor sampling demonstrated that the mean total airborne concentration of arsenic, but not chromium or copper, was consistently above recommended occupational exposure levels at the indoor work site, and occasionally at the outdoor work sites. At the indoor sanding operation, the mean total chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations were 345, 170 and 342µg/m3, respectively. Therefore, current standards for wood dust may not adequately protect workers from the heavy metals present in CCA pressure-treated wood.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.166-171. 24 ref.
Apostoli P., Sarnico M., Bavazzano P., Bartoli D.
Arsenic and porphyrins
To evaluate the possible effect of arsenic and of its compounds on the urinary excretion of porphyrin homologues, the following substances were determined in the urine of 86 art glass workers exposed to arsenic and its compounds and from 54 non-exposed controls: total porphyrins and their homologues (copro, penta, hexa, hepta, uroporphyrins) and the following arsenic species: trivalent and pentavalent arsenic, monomethyl arsonic acid, dimethyl arsinic acid and arsenobetaine. A significant increase in the excretion of penta and uroporphyrins was found for workers exposed to arsenic. The best correlation with urinary porphyrin excretion was found with trivalent arsenic. The increase of urinary excretion for some porphyrin homologues is consistent with the inhibition by arsenic of uro-decarboxylase in the haeme biosynthesis pathway. The determination of urinary porphyrin homologues could be useful to assess some early effects of arsenic exposure and to demonstrate possible individual susceptibility to the element.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.42, No.3, p.180-187. Illus. 26 ref.
Zhang Q., Huang X.
Induction of ferritin and lipid peroxidation by coal samples with different prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis: Role of iron in the coals
To establish whether differences in levels of bioavailable iron in coal may be responsible for the observed regional differences in the prevalence and severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), 29 coal samples from the coal mining regions of Utah (UT), West Virginia (WV) and Pennsylvania (PA) with CWP prevalences of 4, 10 and 26%, respectively, were found in vitro in human lung cells. Iron bound by chelating agents, ferritin and lipid peroxidation were found in increasing order of UT
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.42, No.3, p.171-179. Illus. 30 ref.
Dykeman R., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith T., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Piacitelli G.M., Hu H., Hernandez-Avila M.
Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers
Lead exposure was investigated among 73 Mexican radiator repair workers employed in 31 repair shops, 12 members of their families (four children and eight wives) and 36 unexposed working controls. Exposure was assessed directly through the use of personal air sampling and hand wipe analyses. In addition, industrial hygiene inspections were performed, detailed questionnaires were administered and blood lead levels were measured. The mean values for blood lead of the radiator repair workers was 35.5µg/dL, compared to 13.6µg/dL for controls. Air lead levels ranged from 0 to 99µg/m3 with a mean value of 19µg/m3. The strongest predictors of elevated blood lead levels were smoking, the number of radiators repaired per day and the use of a uniform while at work, which were associated with blood lead elevations of 11.4µg/dL, 1.95µg/dL/radiator/day, and 16.4µg/dL, respectively. Uniforms were not laundered regularly and consequently served as reservoirs of contamination on which workers frequently wiped their hands.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.41, No.3, p.179-187. Illus. 23 ref.
Pelham T.W., Holt L.E., Moss M.A.
Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas
This literature review summarizes the latest information on the cardiorespiratory effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in enclosed ice rinks. Sources of CO and NO2 emissions are identified. Current standards for these agents, as well as methods of controlling the emissions, dispersion, and evacuation are presented. Findings indicate that air pollutants such as CO and NO2 which are present in enclosed skating facilities may exacerbate possible pre-existing pathogenic conditions among persons who spend considerable time in these environments. Considering the popularity of ice hockey, speed skating and figure skating, and the hundreds of hours that a sensitive person may spend each year in these environments, it is important to conduct further research in this area. From the findings and conclusions of the research reviewed in this paper, ten recommendations are made.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.59, No.4, p.224-233. 72 ref.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Global mercury assessment
This report contains extensive information on a number of topics relevant to the adverse impacts of mercury on human health and the environment, together with options to reduce these impacts. Contents: scope an purpose of the report; chemistry of mercury; toxicology; current mercury exposures and risk evaluation for humans; impact of mercury on the environment; sources and cycling of mercury to the global environment; current production and use of mercury; prevention and control technologies and practices; initiatives for controlling releases and limiting use and exposure; data and information gaps; options for addressing any significant global adverse impacts. The appendix gives an overview of existing and future national actions relevant to mercury, including legislation.
UNEP Chemicals International Environmental House, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, 2002. viii, 258p. Illus. 427 ref. (report); 71p. (appendix).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/mercury/Report/GMA-report-TOC.htm [in English]
Czerczak S., Fishbein L.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Arsine: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document: the target organ of arsine poisoning is the haematopoietic system. Arsine induces haemolysis causing haemoglobinuria and subsequent kidney damage. Myocardial and pulmonary failures are other causes of death. Aneamia and increased leucocytosis is observed at various degrees. There are no data on the carcinogenicity or mutagenicity of arsine to humans or experimental animals.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 29p. 107 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad47.pdf [in English]
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