Inorganic substances - 5,778 entries found
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Ammoniaque [in French]
Gaseous ammonia and aqueous ammonia solutions are both hazardous to health, safety and the environment, and are to be used with care. Contents of this safety data sheet on ammonia: characteristics of gaseous and liquid ammonia; uses; precautions during storage; hazards (fire and explosion, chemical burns and irritation, chemical reactions); safety measures; danger symbols and risk and safety phrases; labelling; first aid.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2004. 2p. Illus.
Fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders
Welders inhale gases and respirable particles. To investigate the relationship between fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders using basic electrodes containing calcium fluoride, 63 railroad track welders were interviewed. Fluoride was measured in post-shift urine samples. Seventeen welders reported respiratory symptoms related to welding fume exposures. Respiratory symptoms were somewhat more common with increasing concentrations of fluoride in urine. The association between welding fume exposure and respiratory symptoms seems related more to fluorides than to other particles among welders using basic electrodes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.310-312. 19 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Sjogren.pdf [in English]
Jakubowski M., Abramowska-Guzik A, Szymczak W., Trzcinka-Ochocka M.
Influence of long-term occupational exposures to cadmium on lung function test results
Pulmonary function was assessed in 79 workers previously exposed to cadmium in a battery plant. The unexposed control group of 159 workers was selected among the inhabitants of the same town. Among battery workers, measurements of blood cadmium concentrations had been performed regularly since 1983. The data on cadmium concentrations in the air were obtained from the plant's files covering the period of 1981-1999. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their cumulative cadmium exposure indices as indicated by determinations in air (Cd-A) or blood (Cd-B). Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Only the group with the highest Cd-B exposure level had a significantly decreased lung function values compared to the group with the lowest Cd-B exposure. The highest Cd-A exposure group showed a significantly decreased maximum midexpiratory flow rate (MEF) at 50% together with decreased FEV1, however statistically not significant.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2004, Vol.17, No.3, p.361-368. 19 ref.
Li G.J., Zhang L.L., Lu L., Wu P., Zheng W.
Occupational exposure to welding fume among welders: Alterations of manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and lead in body fluids and the oxidative stress status
Welders in this study were selected from a vehicle manufacturing plant; control subjects were from a nearby food factory. Airborne manganese levels in the breathing zones of welders and controls were 1.45±1.08mg/m3 and 0.11±0.07 mg/m3 respectively. Serum levels of manganese and iron in welders were 4.3 fold and 1.9 fold respectively higher than those of controls. Blood lead concentrations in welders increased 2.5 fold, whereas serum zinc levels decreased 1.2 fold, in comparison with controls. Linear regression revealed the lack of associations between blood levels of five metals and welder's age. Furthermore, welders had erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum malondialdehyde levels 24% less and 78% higher, respectively, than those of controls. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to welding fumes among welders disturbs the homeostasis of trace elements in systemic circulation and induces oxidative stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.241-248. Illus. 52 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for copper (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of copper is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. There is little information on copper toxicity in man. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and dermal effects have been observed in factory workers following inhalation exposure and there are reports of acute gastrointestinal effects following ingestion of large amounts of copper. Long-term exposure to high levels of copper in food or water may cause liver and kidney damage, possibly leading to death. (Update of CIS 91-1263).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2004. xx, 272p. Illus. Approx. 880 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp132.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for ammonia (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of ammonia is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, while severe exposure can cause burns of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Ingestion of concentrated ammonia solutions can produce severe burns and haemorrhage of the upper gastrointestinal tract, often leading to secondary effects such as infections and renal failure. Death has resulted from sudden accidental massive exposure to anhydrous ammonia and from ingestion of concentrated ammonia. The carcinogenic potential of ammonia has not been established. (Update of CIS 91-1258).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2004. xix, 223p. Illus. Approx. 650 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for chlorine dioxide
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects chlorine dioxide is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: eye, nose and respiratory tract irritation. Animal studies show developmental effects, however at high concentrations unlikely to be encountered by humans.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2004. xix, 143p. Illus. Approx. 300 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp160.pdf [in English]
Proctor D.M., Panko J.P., Liebig E.W., Paustenbach D.J.
Estimating historical occupational exposure to airborne hexavalent chromium in a chromate production plant: 1940-1972
The findings of a retrospective exposure assessment for 493 workers who were occupationally exposed to airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at a chromate production plant from 1940 to 1972 are presented. Exposure estimates were based on a job-exposure matrix that related job titles with area monitoring data from 21 industrial hygiene surveys conducted from 1943 to 1971. Former workers were interviewed to determine activity patterns in the plant by job title. This information was combined with Cr(VI) monitoring data to calculate cumulative occupational exposure for each worker. The highest monthly 8-hour average exposures for each worker ranged from 0.003 to 4.1mg/m3. These exposure estimates were combined with mortality data for this cohort to assess the lung cancer risk associated with inhaled Cr(VI). A dose-response relationship was observed for increases in lung cancer mortality with Cr(VI) exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2004, Vol.1, No.11, p.752-767. Illus. 41 ref.
Henneberger P.K., Goe S.K., Miller W.E., Doney B., Groce D.W.
Industries in the United States with airborne beryllium exposure and estimates of the number of current workers potentially exposed
The estimated number of workers in the United States occupationally exposed to beryllium in studies published in the 1970s and 1980s ranged from 21,000 to 800,000. The purpose of this study was to provide improved estimates of the number of current workers potentially exposed to beryllium. Workers potentially exposed to beryllium included 1500 current employees in the primary beryllium industry and 26,500 individuals currently working for the Department of Energy or the Department of Defence. A further 26,400 to 106,000 workers may be exposed in the private sector (outside the primary industry). In total, there may be as many as 134,000 current workers in government and private industry potentially exposed to beryllium in the United States. It is recommended that the results of this study be used to target at-risk audiences for hazard communications intended to prevent beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2004, Vol.1, No.10, p.648-659. Illus. 31 ref.
Juárez-Pérez C.A., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith D.R., Lacasaña-Navarro M., Téllez-Rojo M.M., Piacitteli G., Hu H., Hernández-Avila M.
Predictors of plasma lead among lithographic print shop workers in Mexico City
Plasma lead is a biological marker that reflects the fraction of lead in blood that is toxicologically available. This study examined the relationship between plasma lead and other biomarkers of lead exposure in 69 lithographic print shop workers. Lead was measured in plasma and whole blood, in bone, in occupational air samples and in hand wipes. Personal hygiene habits at work were also surveyed. Subjects had a mean age of 47 years and 86% were men. The mean lead levels were 0.3µg/L in plasma, 11.9µg/L in blood, 46.7µg/L in patella, and 27.6µg/L in tibia. Taken together, two multivariate linear models explained 57% of variability in plasma lead levels. Predictors for the first model were lead in patella, blood, and personal hygiene habits. Predictors for the second model were lead in tibia, blood, and personal hygiene habits.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.245-252. Illus. 40 ref.
Welch L., Ringen K., Bingham E., Dement J., Takaro T., McGowan W., Chen A., Quinn P.
Screening for beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites
To determine whether current and former construction workers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities are at significant risk of occupational illnesses resulting from their exposure to beryllium, screening programmes were undertaken at three DOE sites. Data on medical history and exposures to beryllium were collected during interviews by industrial physicians, and a beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) was carried out. Stratified and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the risk of disease by age, race, sex, trade, duration of DOE employment, self-reported work in buildings where beryllium was used and time since last DOE site employment. Of the 3,842 workers included in this study, 34% reported exposure to beryllium. Overall, 2.2% of workers had at least one abnormal BeLPT test, and 1.4% were also abnormal on a second test. Regression analyses demonstrated increased risk of having at least one abnormal BeLPT to be associated with ever working in a site building where beryllium activities had taken place.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.207-218. Illus. 30 ref.
Stange A.W., Furman F.J., Hilmas D.E.
The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test: Relevant issues in beryllium health surveillance
The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (Be-LPT) measures beryllium-specific cellular immune response, and is useful in medical surveillance of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease. 12,194 current and former employees of 18 United States Department of Energy sites were tested for beryllium sensitization at four laboratories with Be-LPT expertise. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the Be-LPT were determined as was inter- and intra-laboratory agreement. False positives were calculated to be 1.09%. Be-LPTs performed on inter-laboratory blood specimens from sensitized individuals showed a false negative rate of 31.7%. The intra-laboratory repeatability of abnormal Be-LPT results ranged from 80.4-91.9%. The sensitivity of the Be-LPT was determined to be 0.683, with a specificity of 0.969. It is concluded that the Be-LPT is efficient in medical surveillance of exposed individuals, with a PPV comparable to other widely-accepted medical tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.5, p.453-462. 34 ref.
Shiau C.Y., Wang J.D., Chen P.C.
Decreased fecundity among male lead workers
The objective of this study was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) in wives of male workers exposed to lead in order to determine the dose-response relation between blood lead and decreased fecundity. 163 currently-employed married male lead battery workers were classified into five categories of exposure based on questionnaire information and annual blood lead levels. Information pertaining to the TTP was collected using personal interviews of men and their spouses. Fecundity ratios (FRs) were calculated using regression techniques. After controlling for other factors associated with TTP, a dose-response relation was observed between blood lead level and TTP. The measured FRs were 0.90, 0.72, 0.52 and 0.40 for concurrent blood lead levels of <20, 20-29, 30-39, and >40µg/dl, respectively. These results corroborate the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects fecundity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.61, No.11, p.915-923. Illus. 42 ref.
Gourier-Fréry C., Fréry N.
Aluminium [in French]
Because of its attractive physical and chemical properties, aluminium is used in a wide variety of sectors including building, transportation, packaging, food, kitchen utensils, pharmaceuticals, surgery, cosmetics and the treatment of drinking water. Populations currently at greatest risk of exposure are dialysis patients, long-term users of antacid drugs and aluminium industry workers. Toxic effects observed after high levels of chronic exposure are mostly neurological (encephalopathies and psychomotor functional disturbances), skeletal (osteomalacia) and haematolgical (microcytic anaemia). Aluminium is also responsible for immunological and allergic reactions. Other suspected effects such as Alzheimer's disease have not been confirmed.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.144, 10p. Illus. 117 ref.
Cruz Nogueira A.F.
Metals - Hazards from occupational exposure
Metais - Riscos de exposição profissional [in Portuguese]
This information booklet, which is primarily intended for employers and employees of small enterprises, explains how to avoid or reduce the risks due to exposure to metals. After a general introduction on exposure to metals and its effects, it goes on to describe in detail the risks related to exposure to cadmium, lead and hexavalent chromium, covering the following aspects for each of these substances: physical and chemical properties; uses and occupations that present risks; metabolism; acute and chronic toxicity and effects on health; recommendations and protective measures; current legislation; determination in workplace air.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, March 2004. 40p. Illus.
Contamination of water in occupational settings
Contamination des eaux en milieu professionnel [in French]
Water has many different uses in the enterprise. Depending on the source of water, its chemical and bacteriological quality can vary. Microbiological hazards may be bacterial, viral or parasitical. They are characterized by their virulence, their toxicogenesis and their possible resistance to antibiotics. Depending on whether the chemical hazards are carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic, different approaches are used for defining the maximum admissible concentrations for exposed persons. Modes of occupational exposure include ingestion, inhalation of airborne humidity and contact, and involve a wide diversity of occupations including office workers (air conditioning systems), waste water treatment workers, miners and swimming lifeguards. Prevention is based on technical and sanitary measures to ensure that the water is of a good quality, the implementation of suitable technical procedures and epidemiological surveillance.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2004, No.143, 10p. 29 ref.
Chlebda E., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J., Andrzejak R.
The effect of occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic on the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of copper foundry workers
Wpływ ekspozycji zawodowej na ołów i arsen na stężenie karotenoidów w surowicy u pracowników huty miedzi [in Polish]
Occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic in moderate doses may lead to a decrease in the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of people at risk, thus reducing the efficiency of their antioxidative mechanisms.
Medycyna pracy, 2004, Vol.55, No.5, p.389-401. 40 ref.
Howe P.D., Malcolm H.M., Dobson S.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Manganese and its compounds: Environmental aspects
This criteria document on manganese and its compounds focuses on environmental aspects and does not cover animal experiments or human data on toxicity and health hazards. It addresses physical and chemical properties, analytical methods, sources of environmental exposure, environmental levels and ecotoxicity. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2004. iii, 63p. Illus. Approx. 320 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/CICAD63.pdf [in English]
Guével E., Madani R., Conso F., Causse E., Choudat D.
Thyroidal dysfunction and occupational overexposure to iodine
Dysfonctionnement thyroïdien et surcharge iodée professionnelle [in French]
Two cases of work-related thyroid dysfunction are presented. Two workers involved in the machining and polishing of sodium and caesium iodide crystals employed at the same enterprise showed thyroid function disorders and high levels of 24h urinary iodine excretion. Following the report of these two cases of thyroid dysfunction and the elevated urinary excretion of iodine found among other exposed workers in the course of a biological monitoring programme implemented within the enterprise, preventive measures and medical surveillance based on action levels of this biological exposure index were proposed. The prevention of iodine exposure is primarily based on collective measures (process confinement and local exhaust), personal protective equipment and strict adherence to hygienic measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2004, Vol.65, No.5, p.438-441. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information for 2002/03
The aim of this project was to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance. The work involved analysing CO incident statistics, which enabled the identification of the most common causes of CO incidents. There were 12 CO poisoning fatalities caused by faulty appliances in 2002-2003. The most common causes were lack of servicing and faults in the flueing and ventilation systems. As a result of this work, recommendations are made with respect to further improving customer safety, targeting expenditure on CO incident prevention and further research work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 88p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr238.pdf [in English]
Industrial refrigeration using ammonia: Hazards, safety and financial auditing
Refrigeração industrial por amônia: Riscos, segurança e auditoria fiscal [in Portuguese]
Safety data sheet on industrial refrigeration systems that use ammonia. Contents: general description of such systems; data sheet on ammonia itself; hazards of refrigeration systems; safe management of refrigeration systems (installation, equipment and materials, protection methods, training of workers, relevant standards); financial auditing of safety measures; case study of an accident involving ammonia in a refrigeration plant in the city of Natal (state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) and ensuing safety recommendations.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente, 710, Pinheiros, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05409-002, Brazil, 2004. 18p. Illus.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/CTN/nota_tec_AMONIA.pdf [in Portuguese]
Telišman S., Pizent A., Jurasović J., Cvitković P.
Lead effect on blood pressure of moderately lead-exposed male workers
The effect of lead on blood pressure was examined in 100 subjects with moderate-to-low occupational exposure to lead and 51 unexposed controls. Measurements included blood lead (BPb), activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), serum copper (SCu), haematocrit (Hct), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. There was no significant difference in blood pressure between the two groups, possibly because the reference subjects had relatively high BPb levels and significantly higher BMI than the lead workers. Among lead-exposed workers, an increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with increasing EP and BMI. An increase in diastolic blood pressure was significantly associated with increasing BMI and EP and decreasing BCd. It is concluded that a cumulative long-term moderate exposure to lead may result in a significant increase blood pressure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2004, Vol.45, No.5, p.446-454. 52 ref.
Petrova Simeonova F., Fishbein L.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Hydrogen cyanide and cyanides: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document on hydrogen cyanide and cyanides: cyanides are well absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract and the skin, and rapidly absorbed via the respiratory tract. The primary targets of cyanide toxicity in humans and animals are the cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous systems. The endocrine system is also a potential target for long-term toxicity. The lowest reported oral lethal dose for humans is 0.54mg/kg body weight. Sequelae after severe acute intoxications may include neuropsychiatric manifestations and Parkinson-type diseases. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Marketing and Dissemination, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2004. iv, 67p. Illus. 239 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad61.pdf [in English]
Peltier A., Elcabache J.M.
Occupational exposures to inorganic dusts in the French animal feed industry
Exposition aux polluants minéraux dans les entreprises de fabrication d'aliments pour animaux [in French]
Animal feeds include, among other ingredients, trace elements, vitamins, antibiotics and enzymes mixed with cereals, fats and plants. The purpose of the survey was to assess the occupational exposure of 165 employees of 12 animal plants feed to trace elements such as cobalt, which has recently been classed a category C2 carcinogenic by the National Toxicology Program (1997) and inorganic manganese, which is considered a neurotoxin by the ACGIH. Six of the twelve plants were running at reduced capacity on the day on which investigations were conducted, and levels detected were far below threshold values. In the other six plants operating under normal production conditions, cobalt and manganese concentrations in ambient air exceeded half TLV levels for these elements in more than a quarter of the 205 measurements taken. Half of the measurements of employee breathing atmospheres exceeded the ACGIH TLVs for these same elements. Furthermore many results exceed the French peak exposure limit of 1mg/m3.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.196, p.21-30. Illus. 7 ref.
Satherley J., Kuzume A., Schiffrin D.J., Nichols R.
Health and Safety Executive
Rate of ammonia production in the electrolysis of silver nitrate solutions
The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of ammonia produced during electrolysis of silver nitrate solutions using metal and inert electrodes during the electrolytic recovery of silver. Trials using different experimental conditions and electrode systems confirmed that the nitrate was reduced to ammonia. The ammonia concentration in the solution showed that the yield of conversion of nitrate to ammonia was higher than 40%. It was found that ammonia is formed under both acid and alkaline conditions with a high yield, and that the pH fluctuates and changes very rapidly from acid to alkaline conditions at critical points in the electrolysis.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 35p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr189.pdf [in English]
Bast-Pettersen R., Ellingsen D.G., Hetland S.M., Thomassen Y.
Neuropsychological function in manganese alloy plant workers
To investigate potential nervous system effects of manganese (Mn) exposure, 100 workers employed in Mn alloy plant workers were compared with 100 age-matched controls. The subjects were examined with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Exposure was assessed by measurement of Mn concentrations in the workroom air, blood and urine. The geometric mean concentration of inhalable Mn in workroom air was 301µg/m3. The concentrations of Mn in blood and urine were higher among the exposed subjects than among the controls. The Mn-exposed subjects had increased postural tremor while conducting a visually guided tremor test compared with the controls. Smoking habits influenced the tremor parameters significantly, the Mn-exposed smokers having more tremor than the non-smoking Mn-exposed subjects. However, no differences between the groups were found in tests for cognitive functions, reaction time or in symptom reporting.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2004, Vol.77, No.4, p.277-287. Illus. 54 ref.
Hendrickson R.G., Chang A., Hamilton R.J.
Co-worker fatalities from hydrogen sulfide
Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that can cause rapid loss of consciousness and respiratory depression without warning. There have been cases of hydrogen sulfide poisoning among workers in numerous industries. This article presents the results of a review of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the 52 occupational deaths related to hydrogen sulfide recorded between 1993 and 1999. Deaths were most commonly reported in workers who were white (85%), male (98%) and in their first year of employment with the company (48%). Common industries included waste management, petroleum and natural gas. In 21% of cases, a co-worker died simultaneously or in the attempt to save others. Proper training and education on the warning signs of hydrogen sulfide may help reduce worker fatalities.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.346-350. Illus. 29 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for americium
This profile characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects information for americium. It was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the toxicological properties of americium. Contents: public health statement; relevance to public health; health effects; chemical, physical and radiological information; production, import, export, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. There are no stable varieties of americium. The main health hazards of radioactive americium result from ingestion and are related to the radiation of alpha particles and the long retention times in the body. Animal experiments have shown americium to cause damage to the lungs, liver, kidneys and thyroid.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 2004. xxi, 278p. Illus. Approx. 750 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp156.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for cesium
This profile characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects information for cesium. It was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the toxicological properties of cesium. Contents: public health statement; relevance to public health; health effects; chemical, physical and radiological information; production, import, export, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. The toxicity of stable (non-radioactive) cesium is low; there are indications of neurotoxicity (behaviour changes) in animal experiments at high doses. Exposure to radioactive cesium presents the same health hazards as radioactive substances in general.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 2004. xxi, 244p. Illus. Approx. 750 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp157.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for cobalt: Update
This profile characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects information for cobalt. It was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the toxicological properties of cobalt. Contents: public health statement; relevance to public health; health effects; chemical, physical and radiological information; production, import, export, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards from stable (non-radioactive) cobalt include various respiratory disorders (such as asthma, wheezing and pneumonia) among hard metal alloy workers exposed to cobalt dust. In animal experiments, radioactive cobalt shows reproductive and developmental toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 2004. xxii, 418p. Illus. Approx. 1500 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp33.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for iodine
This profile characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects information for iodine. It was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the toxicological properties of iodine. Contents: public health statement; relevance to public health; health effects; chemical, physical and radiological information; production, import, export, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards of excessive exposure to stable (non-radioactive) iodine include thyroid dysfunction and consequent hormonal imbalance. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid and can cause thyroid nodules or cancer.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 2004. xxii, 517p. Illus. Approx. 2700 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp158.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for strontium
This profile characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects information for strontium. It was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the toxicological properties of strontium. Contents: public health statement; relevance to public health; health effects; chemical, physical and radiological information; production, import, export, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Stable (non-radioactive) forms of strontium have low acute and chronic toxicity. There is insufficient data concerning reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of stable strontium. Radiation from radioactive strontium may cause bone marrow damage, anaemia and skin damage. It is genotoxic and may cause leukaemia and cancers of the bone, nose, lung and skin. IARC has determined that radioactive strontium is carcinogenic in humans (class 1).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 2004. xxii, 387p. Illus. Approx. 1400 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp159.pdf [in English]
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Use of fire protection systems based on oxygen-displacing gases
Einsatz von Feuerlöschanlagen mit sauerstoffverdrängenden Gasen [in German]
Contents of this update of the guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association of July 1998 concerning the use of fire fighting equipment based on oxygen-displacing gases: scope; definitions; general requirements; requirements applicable to buildings and equipment (alarm systems, latency time before operation, stop devices, blocking devices, earthing, escape ways, automatically-closing doors, danger warning signs); how the equipment works; re-entering the premises after use of the system. In appendices: sign-off form for the receipt of gas extinguishing equipment that does not present a hazard to persons; related directives, rules and standards. Previous edition: ZH 1/206.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 2004. 21p.
Grillet J.P., Adjémian A., Bernadac G., Bernon J., Brunner F., Garnier R.
Arsenic exposure in the wine growing industry in ten French departments
This study investigated exposure to arsenic from a fungicide used in French vineyards. First phase compared urinary arsenic excretion of agricultural workers after having performed the application and of a non-exposed control group. In the second phase, which included 35 subjects exposed to arsenic from ten French departments, the increase in urinary arsenic excretion after application was measured. In the first phase, urinary arsenic excretion was significantly higher in applicators than in the control group. The second phase showed a significant increase of arsenic excretion the day after the application. A closed tractor cabin provided a protective effect but efficacy of individual protective equipment could not be demonstrated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2004, Vol.77, No.2, p.130-135. 16 ref.
Turmo Sierra E.
Lead acid battery charging workshops
Locales de carga de baterías de acumuladores eléctricos de plomo-ácido sulfúrico [in Spanish]
This information note describes the hazards from working in lead acid battery charging workshops. Contents: description of lead acid batteries; risks related to working with batteries; release of hydrogen; control of ignition sources; precautions for preventing sulfuric acid spills; safety measures to be taken during the handling of batteries and equipment; equipment layout in charging workshops, safety and hygiene in charging workshops (charging equipment, ventilation, acid spills, collective and personal protective equipment, signalling, training of workers, emergency planning).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 7p. Illus. 19 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_617.htm [in Spanish]
Alonso Valle F.
Fire and explosion hazards in oxygen-enriched atmospheres
Riesgo de incendio y explosión en atmósferas sobreoxigenadas [in Spanish]
Oxygen is frequently used in industry or medicine in compressed gas or liquefied form. The objective of this information note is to make users of oxygen aware of the fire and explosion hazards resulting from oxygen-enriched atmospheres. Contents: physical properties of oxygen; uses; containers and colour-coding of gas cylinders; flammability and explosibility characteristics; situations that may give rise to fire or explosion hazards; ignition sources in oxygen-enriched atmospheres; technical prevention measures; oxygen detection methods; training and information of workers; procedures to be followed in the event of fires caused by oxygen; oxygen compatibility with of various materials.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 6p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_630.htm [in Spanish]
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. A Worksafe Australia study has concluded that the highest levels of exposure to sulfuric acid are in lead-acid battery manufacturing, and control of exposure could be effective with the use of enclosure and ventilation. Exposures in electrolytic refining of metals are also relatively high, and could be reduced by mist suppression agents, enclosure and ventilation. However, respiratory protection may be required in situations where these measures are not feasible. Exposures from other uses are considered low. Overall, the primary health effects of the chemical are due to the corrosive and irritating nature of the acid. This causes direct local effects on the skin, eyes, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract when there is exposure to sufficient concentrations. The extent of the direct toxicity of the chemical depends on the length of exposure, humidity (both in the environment and respiratory tract) and presence of other chemicals (such as bases) that may neutralize the acid. Exposure limit in Australia (NOHSC 1995, 8h TWA): 1mg/m3.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 6p. 11 ref.
http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/Information_Sheets/Existing_Chemical_Information_Sheets/ECIS_h2so4_PDF.pdf [in English]
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is not a skin sensitizer or reproductive toxicant, and that it has no genotoxic or carcinogenic properties. NaOH is, however, is a potent corrosive and the observed acute toxicity and reported dermatitis following prolonged exposure appear to be a consequence of this corrosive potential. Thus, the primary health effect of NaOH is corrosivity, with local irritation observed at lower concentrations. Consequently, the risk of irritation or corrosion to humans from exposure to NaOH will depend on the amount of exposure to the chemical. NaOH use and exposure are well regulated in Australia: it is classified as corrosive, has an exposure standard set for the occupational environment (NOHSC 1995, 8h TWA and 15min STEL: 2mg/m3), and is included in the Schedule of Drugs and Poisons and the Australian Dangerous Goods Code.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 5p. 6 ref.
http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/Information_Sheets/Existing_Chemical_Information_Sheets/ECIS_NAOH_PDF.pdf [in English]
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. Overall, there are no data in the IPCS report to indicate copper is an irritant, genotoxic, carcinogenic or a reproductive toxicant. The data indicate that copper may have a limited skin sensitization potential, that is it may induce allergic contact dermatitis in susceptible individuals. There are reports that exposure to copper fume results in metal fume fever in workers. An occupational exposure standard exists for copper fume in Australia. In humans, gastrointestinal effects are associated with single and chronic ingestion of excess copper, though the greatest risk of human health effects is from an inadequate dietary intake of copper. Exposure limit in Australia (NOHSC 1995, 8h TWA): copper (dusts and mists) - 1mg/m3; (fumes) - 0.2mg/m3.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 5p. 5 ref.
http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/Information_Sheets/Existing_Chemical_Information_Sheets/ECIS_CU_PDF.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Bulk storage of acids: Guidance on the storage of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid in tanks
This booklet provides guidance on the design, construction, operation and maintenance of installations used for the storage of hydrochloric or nitric acid in fixed tanks, with reference to the current regulatory framework in the United Kingdom, including the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (see CIS 03-1023). Contents includes: risk assessment, siting of the tank, bunding, materials of construction, tank design, pipework and valves, inspection and maintenance and emergency procedures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 32p. 21 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.
Proctor D.M., Panko J.P., Liebig E.W., Scott P.K., Mundt K.A., Buczynski M.A., Barnhart R.J., Harris M.A., Morgan R.J., Paustenbach D.J.
Workplace airborne hexavalent chromium concentrations for Painesville, Ohio, chromate production plant (1943-1971)
Data from a 1930s cohort of workers from a single chromate production plant has been used as the basis for assessing the carcinogenic potency of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). However, the exposure information for this cohort has several shortcomings. In an effort to provide better exposure information, this study takes into account recently identified historical exposure data for the workers of this plant. More than 800 measurements of airborne Cr(VI) from 23 surveys conducted from 1943 to 1971 are presented. Concentrations generally decreased in the plant over time. The average airborne concentration of Cr(VI) in the indoor operating areas of the plant in the 1940s was 0.72mg/m3, that from 1957 through 1964 was 0.27 mg/m3, and that from 1965 through 1972 was 0.039 mg/m3. These data are of sufficient quality to allow for exposure reconstruction for workers employed at this plant from 1940 to 1972 and to provide the basis for an improved cancer risk assessment.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2003, Vol.18, No.6, p.430-449. Illus. 49 ref.
Rosenman K.D., Sims A., Luo Z., Gardiner J.
Occurrence of lead-related symptoms below the current Occupational Safety and Health Act allowable blood lead levels
To determine the occurrence of symptoms of lead toxicity at levels below the current allowable OSHA blood lead level of 50µg/dL, standardized telephone interviews were conducted among individuals participating in a statewide laboratory-based surveillance system. Four hundred and ninety-seven individuals, 75% of the eligible participants, were interviewed. Gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and nervous system symptoms increased with increasing blood lead levels. All symptoms were reported to increase among individuals with blood lead between 30 and 39µg/dL and possibly at levels as low as 25-30µg/dL for nervous system symptoms. The results of this study are consistent with and provide added weight to previous results showing subclinical changes in the neurological and renal systems and in sperm counts at blood lead levels currently allowed by OSHA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.546-555. Illus. 10 ref.
Neurophysiological anomalies in brainstem responses of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners
Brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAER) were measured as biomarkers of mercury-induced neurological impairment in children of Andean gold miners living in the Ecuadorian gold mining settlement of Nambija, where mercury (Hg) exposure is prevalent. Thirty-one children in the study group were found to have a mean blood mercury (HgB) level of 23.0µg/L, which was significantly higher than the mean HgB level of a reference group of 21 Ecuadorian children (4.5µg/L) and in excess of the health-based biological limits for the U.S. (10µg/L). Brainstem neural conduction times suggested that some of the Hg-intoxicated children in the study group have subtle neuro-physiological anomalies that may be more manifest at higher BAER stimulus rates, and that the Hg-exposed children of gold miners are at risk for neuro-developmental disabilities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.87-95. Illus. 37 ref.
Luo J.C.J., Chang H.Y., Chang S.J., Chou T.C., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Huang C.C.
Elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein level in carbon disulfide workers in Taiwan
The aims of this study were to examine the dose-response relationship of carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure and triglyceride and lipoprotein levels in 132 exposed workers recruited from two viscose rayon plants. Air sampling was performed to determine the CS2 exposure of workers. Demographic data and work history were gathered by self-administered questionnaires. Lipid profile tests were performed by routine methods. The average CS2 exposure concentration was 50.6±25.6ppm in the high-exposure group, 12.9±5ppm in the mid-exposure group, and 3.5±1.2ppm in the low-exposure group. In the high, medium and low exposure groups, elevated triglyceride levels were found in 21 out of 33 workers, 27 out of 64 workers and 14 out of 35 workers, respectively. There was a lower prevalence of elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) level in high CS2 exposure workers versus low-exposure workers (15.2% vs. 31.4%). This study suggests that elevated triglyceride level and decreased HDL level are associated with CS2 exposure. The study also suggests that exposure to CS2 concentrations of above 23.2ppm are significantly associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.73-78. 31 ref.
Henderson K.A., Matthews I.P., Adisesh A., Hutchings A.D.
Occupational exposure of midwives to nitrous oxide on delivery suites
Occupational exposure of midwives to nitrous oxide in delivery suites was investigated using environmental and biological monitoring. Environmental samples were taken in two hospitals over a period of four hours using passive diffusion tubes and urine measurements were taken at the start of the shift and after four hours. Environmental levels exceeded the legal occupational exposure standards for nitrous oxide (100 ppm over an 8h TWA) in 35 of 46 midwife shifts monitored. There was a high correlation between personal environmental concentrations and biological uptake of nitrous oxide for those midwives with no body burden of nitrous oxide at the start of a shift, but not for others. Greater engineering control measures are needed to reduce daily exposure to midwives to below the occupational exposure standard.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.958-961. Illus. 20 ref.
Jokić V., Borjanović S.
Neural conduction impairment in forestry workers exposed to vibration and in lead-exposed workers
This study examines the effects of two different adverse factors, lead and local vibration, on the peripheral nervous system in the upper and lower limbs. Detailed neurophysiological investigations were performed in 40 chainsaw workers, 26 lead-exposed workers, and 36 healthy male controls. Among the chainsaw operators, the maximal motor conduction velocity (51.4±5.6 m/s) was significantly lowered in the right and left median nerves (in 27-45% of subjects), compared to that in controls (58.2±6.1 m/s). In the lead-exposed group, slowing sensory nerve conduction velocity (54.0±10.6 m/s) was the most frequent pathological pattern.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.13-22. 28 ref.
Miljours S., Braun C.M.J.
A neuropsychotoxicological assessment of workers in a sodium azide production plant
Neuropsychological and psychological tests, a symptom self-report questionnaire and haematological and cardiac measurements were gathered from 41 workers exposed to sodium azide and from 42 unexposed workers in a chemical production plant yearly for three years. The exposed workers presented more acute symptoms of exposure (headache, vertigo, nausea, fatigue, cardiac palpitations, irritated eyes) than did the unexposed workers. However, only one chronic symptom was repeatedly and more significantly reported, namely trembling of the hands. No psychological or neuropsychological tests (reaction time, psychomotor performance, cognitive performance, chromatopsia, Profile of Mood States) differentiated the two groups. However, acute effects of exposure on plasma creatinine and on systolic pressure were noted. Low creatinine levels in the plasma of exposed workers correlated significantly with impairment of mood on the Profile of Mood States test, but not with any other measure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2003, Vol.76, No.3, p.225-232. 55 ref.
Jhun H.J., Yim S.H., Kim R., Paek D.
Heart-rate variability of carbon disulfide-poisoned subjects in Korea
Mass poisoning by carbon disulfide (CS2) occurred in a viscose factory in Korea affecting 830 employees and causing 38 fatalities. This case-control study evaluated the heart-rate variability (HRV) among CS2-poisoned subjects, to examine whether CS2 affects HRV and whether the effects persist after cessation of exposure. Cases comprised 71 retired male workers with CS2 poisoning, while controls comprised 127 public officials matched by age with no history of organic solvent exposure or cardiovascular diseases. Data on personal habits and medical and occupational histories were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. Both groups were also subjected to medical examinations, including ECG recordings. Findings suggest that CS2 may cause heart-rate impairment and that its toxic effects persist well after cessation of exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2003, Vol.76, No.2, p.156-160. 32 ref.
Work on lead-containing paints - Prevention of occupational hazards
Interventions sur les peintures contenant du plomb - Prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
Aimed at building contractors and their clients, the objective of this guide is to describe the exposure hazards during work involving lead-containing paint and to provide guidance for enterprises on evaluating the hazards specific to building sites and on selecting appropriate prevention measures to limit these hazards. It also enables clients to take into account the constraints related to lead hazards when defining the scope of work, allowing the contractors to submit proposals that include the required prevention measures.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2003. 52p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: EUR 7.30. Downloadable version free.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/D77BA4F32E8F78A5C1256D50004932C5/$FILE/ed909.pdf [in French]
Menezes Filho J.A., de Carvalho W.A., Spínola A.G.
Assessment of occupational exposure to lead in a metallurgy plant - A cross-sectional study
Avaliação da exposição ocupacional ao chumbo em uma metalúrgica - Um estudo transversal [in Portuguese]
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occupational exposure to lead in a smelting plant. It involved 195 workers of a primary lead refining plant and an unexposed control group of 65 persons. In both groups, determinations of blood lead, urinary d-aminolvulinic acid, zinc protoporphyrin and haemoglobin were made. Compared to the control group, levels of all these indicators were significantly higher in the metallurgy workers, even among persons working in administrative services; the highest levels were recorded among workers assigned to sintering.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.63-72. Illus. 39 ref.
Ostiguy C., Malo S., Asselin P.
Synthesis of scientific knowledge on the health risks following occupational exposure to manganese
This review documents current knowledge on the potential occupational health effects, mainly on the central nervous system, following occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air in mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the Quebec Occupational Safety and Health Commission (CSST) by workers exposed to this substance during welding operations involving steel containing manganese. The report describes processes of assimilation of manganese by the body, its biomarkers and its effects on health. It also compares different organizations' standards and guideline recommendations. Current Quebec standards are similar to those of the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field recommend making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. 38p. 211 ref. Price: CAD 6.42.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-349.pdf [in English]
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