Inorganic substances - 5,778 entries found
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Karakaya A.E., Ozcagli E., Ertas N., Sardas S.
Assessment of abnormal DNA repair responses and genotoxic effects in lead exposed workers
Genotoxic effects of lead were studied in blood cell samples from 23 workers of battery manufacturing plants and 23 unexposed controls. Tests included chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and X-ray induced challenge (XRC) assay to assess DNA damage and interference with DNA repair processes after an in vitro exposure of X-ray. Cases were classified into categories according to their blood lead levels. The CA frequencies in the exposed and control groups were not significantly different by the conventional CA assay, however, the XRC assay demonstrated significantly elevated CAs. Non-significant but reduced DNA repair responses were also observed in lead exposed workers. The results suggest that lead exposure may cause reduction in DNA repair capacity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.358-363. Illus. 23 ref.
Kasperczyk S., Przywara-Chowaniec B., Kasperczyk A., Rykaczewska-Czerwińska M., Wodniecki J., Birkner E., Dziwisz M., Krauze-Wielicka M.
Function of heart muscle in people chronically exposed to lead
The effects of lead exposure on heart function were investigated in workers potentially exposed to lead at a steelworks in the south of Poland. Blood lead concentrations were measured and echocardiograms were performed in 88 exposed workers and in a non-exposed reference group. Results indicated a decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction, enlargement of the left ventricle and raised left ventricular mass in exposed workers. These effects may be the result of raised arterial blood tension.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2005, Vol.12, No.2, p.207-210. 28 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/12207.pdf [in English]
Disulfuro de carbono [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet on carbon disulfide. Contents: synonyms and chemical formula; exposure limit (ACGIH threshold limit value of 10ppm TWA; skin absorption); health hazards (neurotoxic effects, irritation, cardiovascular effects, skin burns, dermatitis); first aid; fire prevention; measures in the event of spills; handling and storage; control of exposures and personal protection; physical and chemical properties; stability and reactivity; toxicological and ecological data; waste disposal; transport.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Bogotá, Colombia, ca 2005. 4p. Illus.
Bérylliose pulmonaire [in French]
Pulmonary berylliosis is defined by respiratory symptoms following the inhalation of dust or smoke containing beryllium particles. Workers in the beryllium smelting and metalworking industries are most at risk of exposure. Contents of this review article on berylliosis: physiopathology; prevalence and epidemiology; diagnosis of acute and chronic berylliosis; development of the disease; prevention (medical supervision, monitoring of workplace air, ventilation, personal protective equipment); compensation of occupational diseases in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.104, p.513-521. 77 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2036/$File/TR36.pdf [in French]
Marlair G., Kordek M. A.
Safety and security issues relating to low capacity storage of AN-based fertilizers
This article discusses safety issues associated with the storage of fertilizer grades of ammonium nitrate (AN), with a focus on low storage capacity premises. The information is based on a literature review on hazardous properties of AN and AN-based fertilizers, a review of accidents involving relatively small quantities of AN-based fertilizers, an examination of both the relevant regulatory framework and the level of hazard control achieved, and finally on an analysis of the economical, technical and organizational factors that could lead to an underestimation of the risk compared to large scale storage facilities.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 2005, Vol. 123, No. 1-3, p. 13-28. Illus. 54 ref.
Vermeulen R., Jönsson B.A.G., Lindh C,H., Kromhout H.
Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry
Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of carbon disulfide (CS2), and phthalic acid (PA), a metabolite of phthalates, were studied across factories and departments in the rubber industry. Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine factories were collected on different days. Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly during the working week compared to Sunday. Levels of both biomarkers did not differ markedly between working days. Increases seemed to be restricted to specific factories and or departments, such as moulding and curing. Findings confirm that rubber workers are exposed to various levels of phthalates and CS2 depending on the specific conditions of the factories and departments. Biological monitoring appears to be a reliable means of evaluating exposures to these substances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.663-669. 22 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/c5v8d0rqrq7yuhuq9evl/contributions/u/1/1/7/u1179348521147g6.pdf [in English]
Esswein E., Boeniger M.F.
Preventing the toxic hand-off
This article stresses the importance of hand washing to prevent the spread of toxic substances by contaminated skin. Topics addressed: industrial hygiene regulations; lead contamination on the hands of workers involved in the processing of lead-containing materials; prevention of hand-to-mouth lead transfer; effective decontamination methods.
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2005, Vol.67, No.9, p.53-61. Illus. 9 ref.
Gawęda E., Kondej D.
Recommendations for health protection at heavy metal refining plants
Zalecenia dotyczące profilaktyki na stanowiskach rafinacji metali ciężkich [in Polish]
Chemical hazards likely to be encountered at heavy metal refining plants are listed, including carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, and the provisions of occupational health standards are explained. Includes recommendations for occupational exposure assessment and for methods of collective and personal protection.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2005. 36p. 20 ref.
Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I.
UV process: Chloroform and nitrogen trichloride level monitoring in indoor swimming pool waters
Traitement UV: suivi de l'évolution des concentrations en chloroforme et en trichlorure d'azote dans les eaux de baignade d'un centre aquatique [in French]
Faced with high levels of supervisory staff exposure to nitrogen trichloride and high levels of combined chlorine in pool water, indoor swimming pool operators increasingly adopt additional water treatment systems based on UV irradiation. This technology results in the formation of undesired by-products such as chloroform (an IARC class 2B carcinogen). For eight weeks, INRS monitored chloroform and nitrogen trichloride concentrations in water from two pools equipped with low and medium pressure lamps respectively. This study revealed the significant contribution of UV irradiation to chloroform formation and to the possible increase of dissolved nitrogen trichloride.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.19-30. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/9FCD3307BCB91167412570D8004C447A/$FILE/nd2237.pdf [in French]
Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I., Gagnaire F., Héry M., Massin N.
Reduction of worker exposure to nitrogen trichloride through process-related action in two activity sectors
Réduction de l'exposition des travailleurs au trichlorure d'azote par action sur les procédés dans deux secteurs d'activité [in French]
Activity sectors as varied as indoor swimming pools and the ready-to-use fresh vegetable industry are faced with high employee exposures to nitrogen trichloride. The INRS has conducted numerous studies aimed at both characterizing the chemical risk to which workers in these sectors are exposed and proposing technical solutions for reducing pollution and controlling work atmosphere quality. Besides the analytical, toxicological and epidemiological aspects, this document describes technical prevention solutions that have been developed and adapted to activities that involve exposure to nitrogen trichloride. Based on the principle of nitrogen trichloride stripping, two pilot installations have been installed in an indoor swimming pool and in a ready-to-use fresh vegetable-processing plant. Measurements have been carried out to confirm the efficiency of these installations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.9-18. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/2B129BEE07F32AD9412570D8004C4F3C/$FILE/nd2236.pdf [in French]
Liu Y., Woodin M.A., Smith T.J., Herrick R.F., Williams P.L., Hauser R., Christiani D.C.
Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler
The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500µg/m3. As part of a larger occupational epidemiological study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures. Personal exposure measurements were conducted on 18 boilermakers and 11 utility workers (controls) before and during a 3-week overhaul. Time-weighted average exposures were significantly higher for boilermakers than for utility workers for ash particles less than 10µm in diameter and for vanadium, nickel and iron. Fuel-oil ash was a major contributor to boilermakers' exposure. Vanadium concentrations sometimes exceeded the 2003 ACGIH threshold limit value.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.435-443. 22 ref.
Gwin K.K., Wallingford K.M., Morata T.C., Van Campen L.E., Dallaire J., Alvarez F.J.
Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: II. Chemical surveys
NIOSH conducted a series of surveys to evaluate occupational exposure to noise and potentially ototoxic chemical agents among members of a professional car racing team. Area samples were collected during visits to the team's shop. Exposures to these chemicals were all below their corresponding OSHA, NIOSH and ACGIH recommended exposure levels. Area and personal samples were also collected for organic compounds, lead and carbon monoxide (CO) in and around the racetrack pit area where the cars undergo race preparation and are refuelled before and during the race. Exposures to organic compounds and lead were either non-detectable or too low to quantify. Although some CO concentrations exceeded the recommended levels, exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals are probably not high enough to cause hearing loss greater than that produced by the high sound pressure levels alone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.406-413. Illus. 21 ref.
Harris M.K., Ewing W.M., Longo W., DePasquale C., Mount M.D., Hatfield R., Stapleton R.
Manganese exposures during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in an enclosed space
This study evaluated the effectiveness of various rates of dilution ventilation in controlling welder exposures to manganese in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) fumes when working in enclosed or restricted spaces. Personal and area monitoring using total and respirable sampling techniques, along with multiple analytical techniques, was conducted during the welding operations. Results indicated that 2000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) general dilution ventilation may not be a sufficient means of controlling respirable manganese exposures for either welders or their helpers in restricted or enclosed spaces. In the absence of site-specific monitoring data indicating otherwise, it is prudent to employ respiratory protection or source capture ventilation rather than depending solely on 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation in enclosed spaces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.375-382. Illus. 24 ref.
Chen S.S., Chen T.J., Lin C.H., Tseng Y.T., Lai S.L.
Neurobehavioral changes in Taiwanese lead-exposed workers
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) was evaluated among male workers who had been exposed to lead for at least three years and who had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs). According to their current BLLs, 33 and 28 subjects were assigned to the medium (40-80µg/dL) and low (<40µg/dL) BLL groups, respectively. Sixty-two non-exposed healthy men served as the control group. A computerized evaluation system found significantly impaired neurobehavioral functions in the medium BLL group, including slow performance of psychomotor tasks, impaired processing of visual-spatial information, reduced memory and learning functions, low performance accuracy, slow execution of responses, and poor attentional control. Subtle CNS dysfunction is therefore possible among lead-exposed workers having no obvious neurological and cognitive deficits.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.47, No.9, p.902-908. 53 ref.
Pillière F., Vincent R.
Beryllium research: International conference
Recherche sur le béryllium: conférence internationale [in French]
Report of a conference on advances in the prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment of chronic berylliosis held in Montreal, Canada, 8-11 March 2005. Papers are grouped under following topics: uses of beryllium and health effects; exposure monitoring; medical supervision programmes; chronic berylliosis and exposure evaluation; prevention measures against beryllium sensitization in industrial hygiene; molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in chronic berylliosis; new approaches in the field of medical supervision tests.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Sep. 2005, No.103, p.347-356.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TD%20142/$File/TD142.pdf [in French]
Luippold R.S., Mundt K.A., Dell L.D., Birk T.
Low-level hexavalent chromium exposure and rate of mortality among US chromate production employees
Although numerous studies have reported an elevated lung cancer risk among chromium chemical production employees, few studies have focused on employees hired after major process changes and enhanced industrial hygiene controls were implemented. This study examines the mortality experience of two post-change cohorts of chromate production employees in the USA. Mortality among chromium chemical workers generally was lower than expected on the basis of national and state-specific referent populations. Lung cancer mortality was 16% lower than expected, with only three lung cancer deaths (3.59 expected). The absence of an elevated lung cancer risk may indicate a favourable reflection of the post-change environment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.381-385. 25 ref.
Industrial refrigeration using ammonia: Hazards, safety and financial auditing
Refrigeração industrial por amônia: Riscos, segurança e auditoria fiscal [in Portuguese]
Safety data sheet on industrial refrigeration systems that use ammonia. Contents: general description of such systems; data sheet on ammonia itself; hazards and safe management of refrigeration systems (installation, equipment and materials, protection methods, training of workers, relevant standards); financial auditing of safety measures; case study of an accident involving ammonia in a refrigeration plant in the city of Natal (state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) and ensuing safety recommendations. Replaces CIS 04-433.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, Esplanada dos Ministérios. Bloco F, Sala 106, Anexo, Ala B, 1° Andar, 70059-900 Brasília DF, Brazil, 2005. 31p. Illus.
http://www.mte.gov.br/Empregador/segsau/Publicacoes/Download/Amonia.pdf [in Portuguese]
Chessor E., Verhoeven M., Hon C.Y., Teschke K.
Evaluation of a modified scavenging system to reduce occupational exposure to nitrous oxide in labor and delivery rooms
A new scavenging mask was developed for the administration of nitrous oxide to mothers-to-be during labour in order to minimize leakage of the patient's exhaled breath into the room and staff exposure. The scavenging system was designed with an inner mask for gas delivery, an outer mask to capture exhaled breath and a continuous exhaust airflow based on breathing flow rates. It was tested by measuring exposures of 30 nurses and 33 room air concentrations, while patients self-administered nitrous oxide either through the conventional or modified scavenging system. The new scavenging system significantly reduced exposures in the room and to nurses (concentrations of 39.7ppm and 40.2ppm, respectively, compared with 82.2ppm and 69.3ppm, respectively, for the conventional system). Additional modifications to the scavenging system may further reduce nitrous oxide concentrations and improve comfort and usability.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2005, Vol.2, No.6, p.314-322. Illus. 22 ref.
Howe P., Watts P.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Tin and inorganic tin compounds
This criteria document evaluates the health and environmental effects of tin and inorganic tin compounds. Main conclusions: gases, dusts and fumes containing tin may be released from smelting and refining processes, industrial uses of tin, waste incineration and burning of fossil fuels; occupational inhalation of particles containing water-insoluble tin compounds has been associated with a benign pneumoconiosis (stannosis); tin metal is not an skin irritant but tin(II) chloride has been found to be irritating to human skin; tin absorption following ingestion may interfere with the status of other important metallic minerals (eg zinc). Because of the limited availability of data, no tolerable concentrations for inhalation or ingestion exposure have been set. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. iv, 73p. 370 ref.
Petrucci F., Violante N., Senofonte O., Cristaudo A., Di Gregorio M., Forte G., Alimonti A.
Biomonitoring of a worker population exposed to platinum dust in a catalyst production plant
The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to platinum in an industrial plant engaged in the production, recovery, and recycling of catalytic converters. Platinum was determined in airborne particulate matter, and in the blood, urine and hair of 106 exposed workers, 21 controls from the plant's administrative offices and 25 unexposed subjects. The highest level of platinum in air was found in one of the production areas. The biological data confirmed this trend, with mean concentrations in this site being higher than in other working areas. The workers employed in the administrative sector had levels of contaminant lower than those of other workers, albeit 2-20 times higher than those of external controls. The background level of platinum in all areas of the factory implies widespread exposure for the workers. The most reliable biomarker was the level of platinum in urine.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.62, No.1, p.27-33. Illus. 17 ref.
Jarvis J., Seed M.J., Elton R.A., Sawyer L., Agius R.M.
Relationship between chemical structure and the occupational asthma hazard of low molecular weight organic compounds
The aim of this literature survey was to investigate relationships between chemical structure and reported occupational asthma for low molecular weight organic compounds. Nitrogen- or oxygen-containing functional groups such as isocyanates, amines, acid anhydrides and carbonyls were associated with occupational asthma, particularly when the functional group was present twice or more in the same molecule. Results suggest that chemical cross-linking is an important molecular mechanism leading to the development of occupational asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.62, No.4, p.243-250. Illus. 31 ref.
Heilier J.F., Buchet J.P., Haufroid V., Lison D.
Comparison of atomic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods for the routine determination of urinary arsenic
The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust technique for the measurement of urinary inorganic arsenic. It involves the measurement of arsenic in urine after hydride generation in acid medium and uses atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) as the detection system. The AFS procedure was found to be more precise and sensitive than the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique using a quartz cell. A variation of the procedure that allows the detection of non-directly reducible arsenic forms was also validated for samples with high arsenic concentrations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.51-59. Illus. 23 ref.
Schütz A, Olsson M., Jensen A., Gerhardsson L., Börjesson J., Mattsson S., Skerfving S.
Lead in finger bone, whole blood, plasma and urine in lead-smelter workers: Extended exposure range
The objective of this study was to assess historical exposure to lead and to study the relationships between lead concentrations in whole blood (B-Pb), plasma (P-Pb), urine (U-Pb), finger bone (Bone-Pb) and duration of employment in workers at a secondary lead smelter and to compare the findings with those of studies of populations with a wide range of lead exposure. The study population included 39 workers at a German secondary lead smelter. The results were compared with data from previous studies of Swedish, Russian and Ecuadorian lead-exposed subjects. The high Bone-Pb values recorded for the German workers implied a historical lead exposure of considerable magnitude. The long-term high lead exposure also showed up in the B-Pb levels for both active and retired workers, leading to the implementation of safety measures in order to comply with biological threshold limits.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.35-43. Illus. 28 ref.
Lower limits coming for hexavalent chromium
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an 8-hour time-weighted average exposure limit of 1.0µg/m3 in its proposed rule for hexavalent chromium, which is significantly lower than current levels applied in the manufacturing and construction industries. This article discusses the proposed changes and the implications of the rule for employers with respect to training, information, limitation of exposure, monitoring and medical supervision.
Occupational Hazards, Jan. 2005, Vol.67, No.1, p.44-45. Illus. 1 ref.
Cézard C., Mathieu-Nolf M.
Dérivés organiques soufrés [in French]
Organo-sulfur compounds include a wide variety of substances such as mercaptans, sulfides, sulfoxides, benzothiazoles, sulfates, thioureas and sulfones. They are used in the chemical industry and in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, crop protection and chemical warfare (for example as mustard gas). Signs of toxic effects frequently occur in occupational settings. Localized toxic effects are observed for many of the substances that are irritants. Their systemic toxicity is highly variable. Some are sensitizers (sulfides, sulfoxides, sulfates), mutagens (some sulfides in particular), carcinogens (mustard gas) or have been shown to have teratogenic effects in experimental animals (dimethyl sulfoxide).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2005, No.149, 9p. 132 ref.
Le Guen B., Ansoborlo E.
Cobalt and its isotopes
Le cobalt et ses isotopes [in French]
Contents of this review article on cobalt and its isotopes: physical, chemical, nuclear and biological characteristics; threshold limit values in air, water and food; medical and industrial uses of radioactive cobalt; exposure hazards; workers' protection; medical supervision; cases of radiation accidents involving radioactive cobalt.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2005, No.149, 11p. Illus. 42 ref.
Zayed J., L'Espérance G., Plamondon P., Rouleau M., Philippe S.
Speciation and characterization of beryllium dusts
Spéciation et caractérisation de poussières de béryllium [in French]
The level of protection to workers provided by the current threshold value for exposure to beryllium (Be) and its compounds has been challenged over the last few years. Recent cases of workers sensitized to these substances or with chronic beryllium disease indicate that this value may not be suitable for all chemical forms of this metal. The aim of this study was to characterize and identify the main chemical forms of Be sampled in the workplace. Six samples from four different industrial establishments were analysed. The results show that the majority of Be particles have a diameter of less than 10 microns and belong to a wide variety of chemical compounds. This research is part of an ongoing programme to determine the toxicity of beryllium toxicity and to review exposure limits.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 63p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-426.pdf [in French]
Dióxido de manganeso [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for manganese dioxide. Contents: synonyms (manganese (IV) oxide, manganese peroxide, black manganese oxide, cement black, manganese oxide, manganese superoxide); ACGIH threshold limit value of 0,2mg/m3 (TWA); potentially harmful health effects (irritation, effects on the central nervous system, kidneys and lungs, haematological changes); first aid; measures in the event of fires or spills; handling and storage; control of exposures and personal protection; environmental protection and waste disposal.
Protección y seguridad, Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Bogotá, Colombia, 2005. 4p. Illus.
Occupational exposure to carcinogenic metals and metalloids in refining of heavy metals
Narażenie zawodowe na rakotwórcze metale i metaloidy w procesach rafinacji metali ciężkich [in Polish]
Concentrations of carcinogenic metals (cadmium, nickel) and metalloids (arsenic) were measured in workplace air during heavy metals refining processes. The tests were conducted in two large Polish plants, a copper smelter and a non-ferrous metals smelter, at workstations for the refining of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and silver and the production of nickel sulfate and selenium. The presence of arsenic in the workplace air was found in both plants. Exposure to cadmium occurred only in the non-ferrous metals smelter. The highest exposure was found at workstations in the lead and cadmium refining processes. The presence of nickel was found only at workstations with nickel sulfate production. The results highlight the need for routine measurements of arsenic concentrations at all workstations in the production of metals with a high degree of purity.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.2, p.161-165. 8 ref.
Bilińska M., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J., Koszewicz M., Kaczmarek-Wdowiak B., Kreczyńska B.
Distribution of conduction velocity in the ulnar nerve among lead exposed workers
Rozkład prędkości przewodzenia we włóknach nerwu lokciowego u osób zawodowo narażonych na działanie ołowiu [in Polish]
Clinical and neurophysiological assessments of the peripheral nervous system were carried out in 34 lead-exposed workers and 20 healthy controls. None of the workers showed clinical signs of neuropathy or abnormalities in routine neurographic examination. Compared with controls, a significantly lowered conduction in slow-conducting motor fibres and neurogenic changes in EMG were observed in workers with a blood lead concentration over 400 µg/1 and in workers with free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels over 70 µg/100 ml. It is concluded that the neurotoxic effect of lead on peripheral nerves is manifested by the damage of slow-conducting motor nerve fibres when overt neuropathy is not yet visible.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.2, p.139-146. 22 ref.
Rydzyński K., Gromadzińska J.
Sulfur tetrafluoride: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
Tetrafluorek siarki: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
Sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4) is a colourless, nonflammable gas, very active and corrosive with a sulphur-dioxide-like odour. It is used in many technological processes and is a degradation product of sulfur hexafluoride: a substance used as an isolation material in condensers, cables and transformers. SF4 causes irritation of the respiratory tract. A TLV value of 0.5 mg/m3 and a short-term exposure limit of 1.0 mg/m3 are proposed.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.129-138. 14 ref.
Rydzyński K., Kuchowicz E.
Bromine pentafluoride: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
Pentafluorek bromu: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
Bromine pentafluoride is a colourless or light yellow liquid. The material has a chemical reactivity similar to that of elemental fluorine. At temperatures above its boiling point, it is a colourless, pungent, and corrosive gas. Contact of the liquid or vapour with the skin or eyes causes painful, deep- seated, long-lasting burns. Relatively short exposures at high concentrations cause serious lung injury similar to that seen in phosgene-exposed individuals (e.g., pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, atelectasis, bronchitis); lower concentrations cause watering of the eyes and difficulty in breathing within a few minutes. Based on the toxicological analogy of bromine pentafluoride with hydrogen fluoride, the maximum exposure limit (maximum admissible concentration) for bromine pentafluoride has been established at 0.5 mg/m3. Based on the results obtained from clinical studies of human exposure to hydrogen fluoride, a short-term exposure limit of 1 mg/m3 is proposed.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.117-127. 10 ref.
Kucharska M., Wesołowski W.
Nitrous oxide - determination method
Tlenek diazotu - metoda oznaczania [in Polish]
A method for the determination of nitrous oxide in air is described. The method is based on the collection of air samples in Tedlar bags and direct gas chromatographic determination with mass detection. The determination limit of the method is 18 mg/m3.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.33-37.
Richard C., Alary R., Delaunay C., Leprince A.
Occupational carbon monoxide poisonings: Results of a survey
Intoxications oxycarbonées professionnelles: résultats d'une enquête [in French]
The objective of this project was to analyse data on incidents of occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from the Paris police laboratory and from the medical literature. Topics covered: toxic effects of CO and diagnosis of CO poisoning; analysis of conditions leading to intoxication (type of equipment and fuel in use, type of work and workplace, ventilation); national and international statistics; preventive measures (occupational exposure limits).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.102, p.191-213. 48 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/689EB83ADD28D41EC12570340036DB92/$FILE/tf140.pdf [in French]
Ostiguy C., Asselin P., Malo S., Nadeau D., DeWals P.
Management of occupational manganism - Consensus of an experts' panel
Prise en charge du manganisme d'origine professionnelle - Consensus d'un groupe international d'experts [in French]
In response to a request from the Quebec Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (Commission pour la santé et la sécurité du travail - CSST), a literature review was undertaken on the possible health effects (mainly to the nervous system) resulting from occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air of mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the CSST by workers exposed to this substance during operations to weld steel to manganese. This report describes the process of manganese assimilation by the body, its biomarkers and its various health effects. It also compares the standards and recommendations for guidelines of various organizations. Current Quebec standards are similar to American, British and Australian standards. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field favour making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. vii, 56p. 202 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-416.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-417.pdf [in English]
Measurement of carbon monoxide emissions from hot air generators used on construction sites
Mesure des émissions de monoxyde de carbone des générateurs d'air chaud utilisés sur les chantiers de construction [in French]
This report describes laboratory measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by four hot air generators of different powers supplied by rental companies. Owing to the variability in the measurements obtained, an emission value of 15g of CO/100,000 BTU is recommended for evaluating the air quality on construction sites. The high temperature of some generators may also represent a risk for workers. Several observations were made about the general condition of the equipment that can represent a risk. It is emphasized that only persons with the required competency certificate may connect a hot air generator to propane tanks or to the natural gas network.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 8p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-411.pdf [in French]
Krakowiak A., Dudek W., Tarkowski M., Świderska-Kiełbik S., Nieścierenko E., Pałczyński C.
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride in a diamond polisher after cessation of occupational exposure: A case report
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride was diagnosed in a 35-year-old patient, who worked as a diamond paste polishing disc former. He had been suffering for two years from dyspnoea, cough and symptoms of rhinitis. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with common environmental allergens were found to be negative, while SPTs with cobalt chloride were positive for all applied solutions. Provocation with cobalt chloride caused a significant increase in the proportion of eosinophils, basophils and albumin during the late allergic reaction. Positive lymphocyte transformation caused by cobalt was also observed. It is concluded that cobalt salts may induce occupational asthma; the mechanism may be IgE-mediated.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.151-158. Illus. 19 ref.
Molnarne M., Mizsey P., Schröder V.
Flammability of gas mixtures Part 2: Influence of inert gases
Systems containing flammable gas, inert gas and air were studied to evaluate the ISO 10156 method for calculating the flammability of gas mixtures. The fire potential of flammable gases was the focal point of a separate article (see CIS 05-681), while this article discusses the influence of inert gases on the flammability of gas mixtures. The estimated results given by ISO 10156 were compared with measurements based on the German standard DIN 51649-1. The comparison shows that ISO 10156 supplies conservative values, which can be regarded as safe in all cases. However, in a number of cases, ISO underestimates the inerting capacity so that non-flammable gas mixtures are considered to be flammable.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 2005, Vol.121, No.1-3. p.45-49. Illus. 8 ref.
Toxicity of lead and its derivatives
Toxicité du plomb et de ses dérivés [in French]
Lead is among the most ancient and widely-used metals. Occupational exposures remain important. The release of scales or dusts during the painting of old and poorly-maintained wallcovering is the cause of frequent cases of lead poisoning among children in many countries, including France. In regions where the mineral content of drinking water is low, it can absorb various metals, including lead. This article describes cases of poisoning by inorganic and organic lead compounds. Topics covered: sources and means of exposure; toxicokinetics of lead; acute and chronic toxic effects, including carcinogenicity and reproductive health effects; procedures for screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of childhood lead poisoning; principles of medical supervision for workers exposed to lead; treatment and compensation of work-related poisonings.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.147, 15p. Illus. 95 ref.
Bleecker M.L., Ford D.P., Lindgren K.N., Hoese V.M., Walsh K.S., Vaughan C.G.
Differential effects of lead exposure on components of verbal memory
To determine if verbal learning and memory retention is affected by lead exposure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was administered to 256 English-speaking lead smelter workers (mean age 41 years and mean employment duration 17 years). Lead exposure variables, based on up to 25 years of prior blood lead data, included a mean current blood lead of 28µg/dl, working lifetime time weighted average blood lead (TWA) of 39µg/dl, and working lifetime integrated blood lead index (IBL) of 728µg-y/dl. Associations of these chronic and recent lead exposure variables with measures from the RAVLT were modelled through multiple linear regressions after controlling for age and educational achievement. It was found that long-term lead exposure interfered with the organisation and recall of previously learned verbal material.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.62, No.3, p.181-187. Illus. 45 ref.
Gaseous chlorine poisoning
Intoxication au chlore gazeux [in French]
This information sheet describes an accidental poisoning by gaseous chlorine in a worker involved in cleaning the sanitary facilities of a building site. The worker attempted to dilute Javel water into a container which had previously contained hydrochloric acid and in which residual amounts of acid were still present. The information sheet outlines measures for the prevention of such incidents (information and training of workers, disposal of empty containers, adequate ventilation, use of personal protective equipment).
Prévention BTP, Mar. 2005, No.72, p.29-30. Illus. 3 ref.
Thoumelin P., Monin E., Armandet D., Julien M.J., Massart B., Vasseur C., Pillon A.M., Zilliox M., Balducci F., Bergeret A.
Irritant respiratory problems among swimming pool attendants
Troubles d'irritation respiratoire chez les travailleurs des piscines [in French]
A survey of attendants in 59 swimming pools in the Rhône-Alpes region was carried out. Respiratory problems reported by the attendants were compared with data concerning their activity, their conditions of work, the characteristics of the equipment and levels of nitrogen trichloride measured in poolside ambient air. A campaign launched by an urban community for improving hygiene in swimming pools is also described. The campaign resulted in substantial reductions in chloramine levels in air and water, known to be responsible for ocular and respiratory airway irritation of swimming pool attendants.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2005, No.101, p.43-64. Illus. 50 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20138/$File/TF138.pdf [in French]
Garçon G., Leleu B., Zerimech F., Marez T., Haguenoer J.M., Furon D., Shirali P.
Biologic markers of oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity as studied in biomonitoring of adverse effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium
This study examined the impregnation levels of workers occupationally exposed to lead and cadmium, the usefulness of early urinary markers of nephrotoxicity and the occurrence of oxidative stress as the underlying mechanism involved in adverse effects induced by lead or cadmium. Levels of lead and cadmium in blood and urine were measured in 35 male workers in a nonferrous metal smelter. Relations between oxidative stress markers and exposure levels, on the one hand, and early urinary markers and exposure levels, on the other hand, were evaluated. Mean exposure levels were moderate. Findings suggest the use of α-glutathione S-transferases excretion in urine as an indicator of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity that could later lead to clinical disease if exposure is not reduced.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.11, p.1180-1186. 35 ref.
Stridsklev I.C., Schaller K.H., Langård S.
Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method
This study investigated exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welding of stainless steel. Seven FCW welders were monitored by measuring Cr and Ni in the workplace atmosphere, blood and urine. The welders were also questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni, the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The mean workplace air concentrations were 200µ/m3 for total Cr, 11.3µ/m3 for Cr(VI) and 50.4µ/m3 for Ni. For Cr in whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25, 1.68 and 0.9µ/l respectively. For Ni, most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 and 2.50 µ/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. Monitoring of Cr in the urine may be a versatile method for evaluating the exposure of FCW welders to Cr(VI) in air. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding stainless steel is low in general.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2004, Vol.77, No.8, p.587-591. 12 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/88mwnwttk4jc835u/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Chia S.E., Yap E., Chia K.S.
δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism and susceptibility of workers exposed to inorganic lead and its effects on neurobehavioral functions
This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the frequency of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphisms among a total of 120 ethnic Chinese, Malay and Indian male workers who were exposed to low to medium levels of inorganic lead. The association between ALAD1 and ALAD2 genotypes and neurobehavioural functions among these workers was also investigated. Blood and urine were collected to determine the ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels, ALAD, and urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALAD1-1 was the predominant genotype for all three ethnic groups while ALAD2-2 was the rarest. The distribution of ALAD1-2 was higher among Malays (76.7%) and Indians (14.3%), compared to Chinese (3.6%). Workers with ALAD1-1 genotypes had significantly higher urinary ALA and significantly poorer neurobehavioral scores than those with ALAD1-2/2-2 genotypes. The ALAD2 allele may exert protective measures against the neurotoxic effects of lead.
Neurotoxicology, 2004, Vol.25, p.1041-1047. 20 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Pollution in closed garages
Revista do trabalhador: Poluição em garagens fechadas [in Portuguese]
This videotape explains how workers in closed garages are exposed to high concentrations of carbon monoxide gas from car exhausts and describes measures for minimizing risks to workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 11min.
Findings of epidemiological studies on health effects of long-term occupational exposure to dusts of titanium dioxide pigments
Ergebnisse epidemiologischer Studien zur gesundheitlichen Auswirkung von Langzeitexpositionen gegenüber Stäuben aus pigmentärem Titandioxid [in German]
Titanium dioxide pigment dust is considered to be a representative example of a workplace dust that causes little or no adverse health effects. This literature survey reviews epidemiological studies in order to examine the hypothesis, based on experiments on mice, that granular biopersistent dust is carcinogenic in cases of long-term exposure to concentrations within permissible limits. Based on several epidemiological studies, and after taking confounding factors into account, it was not possible to demonstrate an increased risk of lung cancer after exposure to titanium dioxide pigment dust within MAK values (1.5mg/m3 of respirable TiO2 and 4 mg/m3 of inhalable TiO2).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, July 2004, Vol.54, No.7, p.246-258. 40 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Lead
Revista do trabalhador: Chumbo [in Portuguese]
This videotape explains how workers and others may be exposed to lead and lead compounds in the form of vapour or dust or ingested in contaminated drinks or food. Exposure may result in lead poisoning, causing damage to the nervous system and kidneys and reproductive effects.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 12min.
Letzel S., Buchta M., Zschiesche W.
Health risks from new technologies using the example of aluminium welding
Gesundheitsgefahren durch neue Technologien am Beispiel des Aluminiumschweissens [in German]
Because of its interesting properties, aluminium is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications including vehicles and storage tanks. New techniques for the welding of aluminium have been developed for these applications. This article discusses the toxic effects related to aluminium welding, mainly due to the inhalation of welding fumes, and the risks from working with aluminium-containing components, together with the related prevention measures (threshold limit values, biological exposure limits, determination in urine, medical supervision).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2004, Vol.54, No.6, p.202-207. Illus. 23 ref.
Monóxido de carbono [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet on carbon monoxide. The substance is a colourless, toxic, extremely flammable gas. Inhalation causes the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin, reducing the blood's ability to carry oxygen around the body. Depending on the level and duration of exposure, symptoms may include vertigo, nausea, mental confusion and eventually loss of consciousness and death. It may cause long-term effects on the nervous system and the cardiovascular system.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Carrera 20, No.39-62, 6839 Bogotá, Colombia, 2004. 4p.
Ammoniaque [in French]
Gaseous ammonia and aqueous ammonia solutions are both hazardous to health, safety and the environment, and are to be used with care. Contents of this safety data sheet on ammonia: characteristics of gaseous and liquid ammonia; uses; precautions during storage; hazards (fire and explosion, chemical burns and irritation, chemical reactions); safety measures; danger symbols and risk and safety phrases; labelling; first aid.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2004. 2p. Illus.
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