Inorganic substances - 5,778 entries found
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Ricaud M., Lafon D., Roos F.
Carbon nanotubes: What are the hazards, and how can we prevent them?
Les nanotubes de carbone: quels risques, quelle prévention? [in French]
Few studies have been published on the risks of carbon nanotubes to human health. However, given the excitement generated by this new class of chemicals, the number of exposed workers is likely to increase strongly in the coming years. This article on carbon nanotubes discusses current understanding with respect to their properties, applications and toxicology, as well as the preventive measures to adopt during their handling. Pending a better understanding of occupational exposures and risks to human health, it is recommended that the precautionary principle be applied, namely that exposure levels be kept as low as possible.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2008, No.210, p.43-57. Illus. 39 ref.
Gérardin F., Subra I., Masson A., Elcabache J.M., Morèle Y.
Highlighting the chemical risk associated with the treatment of alkaline/saline electric cells and characterizing their organic and inorganic composition
Mise en évidence du risque chimique associé au traitement des piles alanines/salines et caractérisation de leur composition organique et minérale [in French]
Long considered as being non-hazardous waste, discharged alkaline and saline cells are collected, sorted and crushed. The zinc and manganese that make up the electrodes are usually subjected to acid extraction prior to being recovered by electrolysis. The objective of this article is to raise awareness among persons involved in this sector for the fact that operators working near cell recycling units are not exposed solely to zinc and manganese. Indeed, the presence of particularly toxic substances such as benzene and iridium in these types of cells has been reported. Consequently, this fact needs to be taken into account when designing processes and adapting the methods for protecting workers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2008, No.210, p.25-32. 7 ref.
Martel R., Comeau G., Trépanier L., Parent G., Lévesque B.
Evaluation of carbon monoxide production and propagation following urban blasting work
Evaluation de la production et de la propagation du monoxyde de carbone suite à des travaux de dynamitage en milieu urbain [in French]
Explosives used for some types of civil engineering work can generate significant carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, which may spread through rock fissures to confined spaces such as sewers and manholes, or basements of buildings. This study was undertaken to define the precautionary measures to be adopted before carrying out blasting work, in order to prevent hazardous situations for workers as well as for neighbouring residents. A network of CO detectors was placed at and around the experimental blasting site, as well as in neighbouring buildings. Various recommendations are proposed for improving blasting practices in order to minimize CO emissions at these sites and in their vicinity.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. xi, 129p. Illus. 19 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-551.pdf [in French]
Middleton D.C., Fink J., Kowalski P.J., Lewin M.D., Sinks T.
Optimizing BeLPT criteria for beryllium sensitization
The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is used to identify persons sensitized to beryllium. An expert panel was convened in 2006 to discuss the BeLPT test, and in particular to propose criteria that would actually establish sensitization. The three criteria proposed by panel members were: one abnormal result; one abnormal and one borderline result; two abnormal results. Complete algorithms were developed for each set of criteria. This study calculated and compared the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values for each set of criteria. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that a single unconfirmed abnormal result is insufficient to establish sensitization for an apparently healthy person. When the prevalence of beryllium sensitization in a group is high, however, even a single abnormal BeLPT can be a strong predictor.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.51, No.3, p.166-172. Illus. 20 ref.
Lee J.A., Thorne P.S., Reynolds S.J., O'Shaughnessy P.T.
Monitoring risks in association with exposure levels among wastewater treatment plant workers
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to hydrogen sulfide and endotoxins, and health symptoms among wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) workers. The exposure levels for specific tasks were measured by personal monitoring. Data on health symptoms were collected by means of questionnaires. Higher risks of respiratory, ocular and skin irritation, neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms were found among WWTP workers compared with unexposed workers. Tasks related to sludge handling and plant inspection showed statistically significant associations with memory and concentration difficulties, throat irritation and stomach pain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1235-1248. Illus. 57 ref.
Devi S.S., Biswas A.R., Biswas R.A., Vinayagamoorthy N., Krishnamurthi K., Shinde V.M., Hengstler J.G., Hermes M., Chakrabarti T.
Heavy metal status and oxidative stress in diesel engine tuning workers of central Indian population
The objective of this study was to assess the oxidative stress due to heavy metal exposure. Exposed populations were selected from a diesel engine tuning station in India, while controls were taken from the same local area but without occupational exposure. There were no statistically significant differences in heavy metal concentrations in the blood and urine of exposed versus unexposed subjects. However, exposed workers exhibited higher antioxidant status in terms of serum glutathione-S-transferase activity, malondialdehyde level and catalase activity. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1228-1234. Illus. 43 ref.
Søyseth V., Johnsen H.L., Benth J.S., Hetland S.M., Kongerud J.
Production of silicon metal and alloys is associated with accelerated decline in lung function
To investigate the association between decline in lung function and the production of alloys in the Norwegian smelting industry, all 3924 employees of the sector were examined annually for five years. The outcome variable was one-second forced expiratory volume in litres divided by the square of subjects' height in metres (FEV1/height2). In the sub-cohorts of the ferrosilicon/silicon metal and silicon carbide industries, the differences between oven operators and non-exposed workers were -2.3 (-4.3 to -0.3) and -5.6 (-10.4 to -0.7) mL/(m2) x year), respectively. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1020-1026. 27 ref.
Müller M., Pföhler C., Paredes B.E., Mestres P., Buchter A.
Argyroses - Case description and overview
Argyrosen - Kasuistik und Übersicht [in German]
The case of a female silversmith with skin discolorations identified as silver impregnation and thus as a local argyrosis is described. A brief overview of argyroses (toxic effects of silver, systemic and local argyrosis, prevention and treatment) is also presented. Depending on its severity, argyrosis may be recognised as an occupational disease in Germany.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 2007, Vol.57, No.12, p.391-397. Illus. 22 ref.
Soleo L., Gigante M.R., Antelmi A., Lovreglio P., Drago I., Gagliardi T., Sannelli G., Schiavulli N., Conversano M., Bailardi F., Greco L., Persechino B., Iavicoli S.
Exposure assessment of carcinogenic metals (Cr, As) in steel foundry workers and in the general population in Taranto (Italy)
Valutazione dell'esposizione a metalli cancerogeni (Cr, As) nei lavoratori dello stabilimento siderurgico e nella popolazione generale di Taranto (Italia) [in Italian]
Steelworks can expose workers to low concentrations of chromium and arsenic, both carcinogenic metals. These metals can also be released into the environment surrounding the industrial plants and expose the general population living near them. Non-occupational exposure to these metals also exists through the ingestion of certain foods. A total of 195 workers at an Italian steel plant with possible exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium and two control groups consisting of 105 subjects living near the foundry, and 144 subjects living approximately 20km away, were examined. A questionnaire was administered to acquire data on personal factors, health, lifestyle and occupational and non-occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium. Urinary inorganic arsenic and chromium were tested by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium was found to be markedly below the environmental threshold limit values indicated by international organizations. No significant differences emerged among the three groups. Other findings are discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, 3rd quarter 2007, Vol.3, No.3, p.37-56. Illus. 36 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_03_3_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_03_3_en.pdf [in English]
García Gómez M., Caballero Klink J.D., Boffetta P., Español S., Sällsten G., Gómez Quintana J.
Exposure to mercury in the mine of Almadén
The objective of this study was to describe the historical exposure of workers in a mercury mine in Spain. Data on each workplace, together with historical data on production, production process changes and biological and environmental values of mercury were collected and used to build a job-exposure matrix. A cumulative exposure index was calculated for each worker. Findings are discussed. The exposure of the workers to mercury was very high. The extremely high mercury content of the ore explains the high concentrations of mercury in workplace air, which together with inadequate working conditions, explains the high mercury levels found in blood and urine during the study period.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.64, No.6, p.389-395. Illus. 29 ref.
Jones S.R., Atkin P., Holroyd C., Lutman E., Vives i Batlle J., Wakeford R., Walker P.
Lung cancer mortality at a UK tin smelter
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lung cancer mortality and quantitative measures of exposure in a tin smelter. Using available records of occupational hygiene measurements, exposure matrices for arsenic, cadmium, lead, antimony and polonium-210, covering the main process areas of the smelter, were established as well as work histories from personnel record cards for the previously defined cohort of 1462 male employees. Three different methods of extrapolation were used to assess exposures prior to 1972 when no measurement results were available. Lung cancer mortality was examined in relation to cumulative inhalation exposure by Poisson regression analysis. No significant associations could be found between lung cancer mortality and simple cumulative exposure to any of the substances studied. When cumulative exposures were weighted according to time since exposure and attained age, significant associations were found between lung cancer mortality and exposures to arsenic, lead and antimony. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, June 2007, Vol.57, No.4, p.238-245. Illus. 45 ref.
Szyman£ka-Chabowska A., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J,, Andrzejak R.
The concentration of selected cancer markers (TPA, TPS, CYFRA 21-1, CEA) in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic (As) and some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) during a two-year observation study
Molecular epidemiology studies have lately been focused on occupational cancer associated with exposure to chemical carcinogens in the work environment. A two-year observation study was designed to investigate the relationship between arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations and the levels of cancer markers: TPA (tissue polypeptide antigen), TPS (tissue polypeptide specific antigen), CYFRA 21-1 and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in 69 male workers occupationally exposed to As and Pb, and environmentally exposed to Cd via tobacco smoking. Significant correlations were found between CEA and blood Cd concentrations or between CEA and the duration of work under exposure. All the metals examined were found to have an influence on the concentration of cancer markers, except for CYFRA 21-1. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.3, p.229-239. Illus. 30 ref.
Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter
This cross-sectional study investigated the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a South-African lead smelter involved in the recycling of lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. Although the plant had adopted several control measures, some areas had average lead-in-air levels above 0.15mg/m3, the occupational exposure limit for lead. Workers in the smelting area and battery breaking area had the highest blood lead levels. Personal protective equipment was not in regular use in lead exposure zones.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2007, Vol.4, No.10, p.762-769. Illus. 8 ref.
Madl A.K., Unice K., Brown J.L., Kolanz M.E., Kent M.S.
Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant
The objective of this study was to evaluate historic exposures to beryllium among workers of a beryllium machining facility in the United States, and to relate these exposure evaluations to cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitization (BeS). Data included 3831 personal samples and 616 general area samples, together with health surveillance data. Results showed that beryllium-sensitized and CBD workers were exposed to beryllium concentrations greater than 0.2µg/m3; among these workers, 90% were exposed to concentrations greater than 0.4µg/m3 within a given year of their work history. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that BeS and CBD generally occurred as a result of exposures greater than 0.4µg/m3 and maintaining exposures below 0.2µg/m3 95% of the time should prevent the occurrence of these occupational diseases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.448-466. Illus. 18 ref.
Kalahasthi R.B., Rajmohan H.R., Rajan B.K., Karuna Kumar M.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating
This case-control study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes A and B among cadmium plating workers. It involved 100 workers of a telephone manufacturing plant in India, including 50 cadmium plating workers and an equal number of age and sex matched unexposed administrative staff. A significant increase of urinary total NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were noted in exposed group compared to controls. The levels of urinary NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that urinary NAG could be used as a biomarker for exposure to cadmium.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2007, Vol.2, No.5, 7p. 28 ref.
Dowker K.P., Fletcher B., Ledin S.
Health and Safety Executive
Real time monitoring and environmental fate of oxides of nitrogen in the construction industry
The United Kingdom workplace exposure limits for nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are currently under review. In the meantime, both NO and NO2 were subject to a CHAN (Chemical Hazard Awareness Notice) of 1ppm (8-hr time-weighted average, TWA), significantly lower than the previous occupational exposure standards. Exposure to these oxides of nitrogen commonly arises in the construction industry from diesel engine exhaust emissions and from the use of explosives. This project addresses the effectiveness of real-time monitors, particularly personal monitors, at these concentration levels, and the environmental fate of NO and NO2 in the construction environment, using laboratory and field experiments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 75p. Illus. Approx. 90 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr546.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information, for 2004/05, produced from the full investigation of incidents which had resulted from the use of piped natural gas and LPG, within Great Britain
The aim of this work was to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance, in order to further improve customer safety, target expenditure on incident prevention and to identify further research work. A national data collection scheme was established for piped natural gas and LPG CO incidents which occur within the United Kingdom. This report provides information on the 27 incidents collected in this national data collection scheme for the period 2004/05.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 83p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr542.pdf [in English]
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary reports XI (Nos. 2,11a,11b,13,83,85)
Ergänzungsberichte XI [in German]
This document includes translations of supplementary reports, finalized between October 1985 and February 1992, relating to six substances (o-chlorobenzene, m-chlorobenzene, p-chlorobenzene, nonylphenol, carbon disulfide and chloranil) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Toxic effects in humans are reported.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 286p. (German); 240p. (English). Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 63.00.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for lead (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of lead is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: brain damage (neurotoxic effects, encephalopathy); renal damage; haematotoxic effects (anaemia); damage to the male reproductive system; retarded development of newborn children. IARC classifies organic lead compounds as possible human carcinogens (group 2B), while inorganic lead compounds are not classifiable with respect to their human carcinogenicity because of insufficient evidence. (Update of CIS 96-2227).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 528p. Illus. Approx. 1700 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp13.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for barium (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of barium is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards: while the toxicity of insoluble barium compounds is low, soluble barium compounds are toxic, causing hypocalcaemia which can lead to cardiac insufficiency, muscle weakness and paralysis, and renal damage. There are insufficient data on developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity. IARC has not classified barium with respect to its human carcinogenicity.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 184p. Illus. Approx. 400 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp24.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for arsenic (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of arsenic is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards: the acute toxicity of inorganic arsenic compounds is high; dermal exposure gives rise to skin lesions; cyanosis and cardiovascular diseases, while ingestion causes nausea; vomiting and diarrhoea. Arsenic is a known carcinogen by both inhalation and oral exposure routes. The IARC classification of arsenic is Group 1 (known carcinogen in humans). (Update of CIS 02-78).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 499p. Illus. Approx. 1500 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp2.pdf [in English]
Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the zircon and zirconia industries
Zircon is used for the manufacture of zirconia (zirconium dioxide), zirconium chemicals and zirconium. The geological processes that formed zircon led to the incorporation of radionuclides of natural origin into the crystal structure. The presence of these radionuclides requires controlling exposures of workers and members of the public. This report provides detailed information on the major industrial applications of zircon and zirconia, the processes involved, the management of radioactive waste material arising from such processes, the radiological characteristics of these materials, exposure pathways to workers and members of the public, exposure levels and annual effective doses, together with examples of good practice with respect to radiation monitoring techniques and practical measures to reduce doses.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2007. 149p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: EUR 36.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1289_Web.pdf [in English]
Our strategy in action: Engage, integrate, perform, grow - Annual Report 2007
Annual report of activities for the year 2007 of a multinational mining enterprise involved in platinum, diamonds, coal, ferrous and nonferrous metals, industrial minerals, paper and packaging. Safety practices of the enterprise as well as policies related to HIV/AIDS are reviewed.
Anglo American PLC, 20 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AN, United Kingdom, 2007. 72p. Illus.
http://www.investis.com/aa/docs/ar2007.pdf [in English]
Iwata T., Sakamoto M., Feng X., Yoshida M., Liu Y.J., Dakeishi M., Li P., Qiu G., Jiang H., Nakamura M., Murata K.
Effects of mercury vapor exposure en neuromotor function in Chinese miners and smelters
Hand tremor and postural sway were measured in 27 miners and smelters in China occupationally exposed to mercury vapour and in 52 unexposed subjects. Urine samples were collected and total mercury and creatinine concentrations were determined. Data of the tremor and postural sway were analyzed using the fast Fourier transformation. The geometric means of the urinary mercury level (UHg) were 228µg/g creatinine for the exposed workers and 2.6µg/g creatinine for the unexposed subjects. Total tremor intensity and frequency-specific tremor intensities at 1-6 and 10-14Hz were significantly larger in the exposed workers than in the unexposed subjects, but they were not significantly related to the UHg among the exposed workers. In contrast, there were no significant differences in any postural sway parameters between the above two groups, but the transversal sway with eyes open was positively related to the UHg among the exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.381-387. Illus. 41 ref.
Bonneterre V., Maître A., Liaudy S., Perdrix A.
Respiratory diseases due to the exposure to hard metal dust
Affections respiratoires liées à l'exposition aux poussières de métaux durs [in French]
Hard metals, essentially based on tungsten carbide (CW) and cobalt (Co), are generally produced using powder metallurgy processes such as hot isostatic pressing, more rarely by melting. Many groups of subjects are exposed to these metals during their production, machining, welding and brazing. Co alone can cause immunoallergies such as asthma or non-respiratory impairments; when linked to CW, sometimes together with other metal carbides, it can cause pulmonary fibrosis and bronchopulmonary cancers. Contents of this review article on respiratory diseases caused by exposure to hard metal dust: hard metal production processes; metabolism and monitoring of occupational exposure; pathological effects on the human organism; collective prevention measures; medical supervision; current procedures for obtaining occupational disease compensation in France.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, No.155, 8p. 77 ref.
Nickel and compounds
Nickel et composés [in French]
This review article on nickel (Ni) and its compounds covers the following aspects: routes of entry (ingestion from the consumption of food, skin exposure, inhalation exposure in occupational settings); toxicity (allergic dermatitis, possible nasal cavity and lung cancer). Exposure to metallic nickel has not been found to cause cancer in workers. There is a lack of evidence of a carcinogenic risk from oral exposure to nickel. The acute toxicity of nickel carbonyl is particularly high.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2007, No.154, 9p. 65 ref.
Flesch F., Tournoud C., Thaon I., Benhassine E.
Intoxications par le fer [in French]
Most acute intoxications caused by iron are the result of ferrous salt ingestion, either accidentally in children or more rarely in suicidal attempts among adults. The main toxic mechanism of iron is related to its capacity to induce the formation of free radicals, followed by lipid peroxidation. Classically, five clinical phases have been identified: gastrointestinal toxicity; transitory relative stability; systemic toxicity with shock, metabolic acidosis and coma; hepatotoxicity with coagulopathy; gastrointestinal scarring. Therapy includes supportive care, whole bowel irrigation and the use of deferoxamine, a specific iron chelator. Activated charcoal is ineffective. Chronic exposure to iron occurs primarily in occupational settings and causes pneumoconiosis following the inhalation of dust and iron oxides. Ocular siderosis is a chronic disease that may lead to a vision loss. It occurs when a particle containing iron penetrates in the eye.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2007, No.154, 6p. 53 ref.
Chromium and compounds
Chrome et composés [in French]
This review article on chromium (Cr) and its compounds covers the following aspects: oxidation states, their stability and occurrence in the environment; uses (alloys, refractory materials, cement, pigments); toxicokinetics; low toxicity of Cr(III) and toxicity of Cr(VI) (skin irritation and allergies, nasal septum ulceration and perforation, and lung cancer in cases of prolonged inhalation exposure, renal tubular necrosis).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2007, No.154, 11p. 61 ref.
Stewart W.F., Schwartz B.S.
Effects of lead on the adult brain: A 15-year exploration
Three independent longitudinal studies were initiated to determine whether cumulative lead exposure was associated with persistent or progressive neurotoxic effects. The studies include former United States organolead manufacturing workers, current and former inorganic lead workers in Korea and Baltimore residents with environmental lead exposure. In each of these studies, blood lead was measured, as well as tibia and patella lead by X-ray fluorescence. Higher tibia lead was consistently associated with poorer measures of cognitive function. Longitudinal analysis of the Korean and organolead cohort indicate that the effect of lead is persistent. Moreover, MRI data on organolead workers indicates a possible progressive effect. Higher tibia lead was associated with lower brain volume. Findings suggest that a significant proportion of what is considered to be normal age-related cognitive decline may, in fact, be due to past exposure to neurotoxicants such as lead.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.729-739. Illus. 46 ref.
Bowler R.M., Roels H.A., Nakagawa S., Drezgic M., Diamond E., Park R., Koller W., Bowler R.P., Mergler D., Bouchard M., Smith D., Gwiazda R., Doty R.L.
Dose-effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge workers
This study involved 43 welders exposed to welding fumes containing manganese during the construction of a bridge span, who were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Various outcomes were analysed in relation to blood manganese (MnB) and an estimated cumulative exposure index (CEI). The time weighted average of manganese in air ranged from 0.11-0.46mg/m3. MnB levels of more than 10µg/L were found in 43% of the workers. Lung function values were found to be below normal in 33.3% of the welders. Computer assisted tremor analysis tests, body sway tests and smell identification tests showed impairment in 38.5 to 88% of the welders. Significant inverse dose-effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ, executive function, sustaining concentration and sequencing, verbal learning, working and immediate memory. Dose-effect associations between CEI and sexual function, fatigue, depression and headache reported by the workers were significant. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.64, No.3, p.167-177. Illus. 45 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Gas appliances: Get them checked - Keep them safe
This leaflet aimed at users of gas appliances explains the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning when using defective equipment. It describes the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning, gives guidance on what should never be done and on the frequency of safety checks. It also recalls that gas appliances are covered by the Gas and Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 (see CIS 00-924).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002, reprinted 2007. 8p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg238.pdf [in English]
Sodium hypochlorite (6 to15% active chlorine)
Hipoclorito de sodio (6 al 15% de cloro activo) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions (corresponding to 6 to 15% active chlorine). The substance is toxic and corrosive. Inhalation causes severe irritation of the respiratory tract and of the mucous membrane, throat pain, cough, respiratory difficulties and pulmonary oedema. Ingestion causes irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; there is a risk of perforation of the intestine or the oesophagus. Contact with the skin and eyes causes burns, reddening and pain. Prolonged exposure may cause methaemoglobinaemia characterized by headache, weakness, respiratory difficulties, vertigo, pulmonary oedema, cyanosis, tachycardia and unconsciousness, possibly leading to death.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2007]. 4p. Illus.
Cummings K.J., Deubner D.C., Day G.A., Henneberger P.K., Kitt M.M., Kent M.S., Kreiss K., Schuler C.R.
Enhanced preventive programme at a beryllium oxide ceramics facility reduces beryllium sensitisation among new workers
A 1998 survey at a beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing facility in the US found that 10% of workers hired in the previous six years had beryllium sensitization as determined by the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). In response, the facility implemented an enhanced preventive programme to reduce sensitization, including increased respiratory and dermal protection. The aim of this study was to assess the programme's effectiveness. In 2000, the facility began testing newly hired workers for beryllium sensitization with the BeLPT at time of hire and at regular intervals during employment. The sensitization rate and prevalence for workers hired from 2000 to 2004 were compared with that for workers hired from 1993 to 1998, who were tested in the 1998 survey. It was found that the sensitization prevalence for the 1993-1998 workers was 8.4 times higher than that for the 2000-2004 workers, while airborne beryllium levels for production workers for the two periods were similar.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.64, No.2, p.134-140. 15 ref.
Lindbohm M.L., Ylöstalo P., Sallmén M., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Nurminen T., Forss H., Taskinen H.
Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage
The objective of this Finnish study was to investigate whether dental workers are at an increased risk of miscarriage. The study was conducted among exposed women (dentists and dental assistants) and a control group of women occupationally unexposed to dentistry materials. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 normal births. An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression. In general, no strong association or consistent dose-response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam and to some acrylates, solvents and disinfectants.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.64, No.2, p.127-133. 40 ref.
Blando J.D., Lefkowitz D.K., Valiante D., Gerwel B., Bresnitz E.
Survey of current lead use, handling, hygiene, and contaminant controls among New Jersey industries
In 2003, a chemical handling and use survey was mailed to New Jersey employers identified as using lead in their industrial processes. This survey was used to ascertain characteristics about lead use, handling and protection of employees during manufacturing operations. Forty-five surveys were returned by companies that are listed in the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) programme, which records and investigates cases of adults with greater than 25µg/dL of lead in their blood, most cases being related to occupational exposures. This survey found that more than 25% of the surveyed enterprises with significant potential for lead exposure did not employ commonly-used and basic industrial hygiene practices. In addition, 24% of these companies had not conducted air sampling within the last three years. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2007, Vol.4, No.8, p.539-546. 29 ref.
Chang S.J., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Chou T.C., Sung F.C.
Risk for hypertension in workers exposed to carbon disulfide in the viscose rayon industry
This study assessed the hypertension risk for male rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2). A total of 251 exposed workers and 226 unexposed administrative clerks at two rayon plants in Taiwan received health examination and interviews. CS2 levels were measured in air at the worksite. Hypertension was more prevalent among exposed workers (43.4%) than among controls (7.1%) with greater impact on systolic blood pressure than diastolic. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant dose-response relationship between hypertensive risk and cumulative exposure index, with an odds ratio of 15.1 for workers exposed to 343-468 ppm-years of CS2. The overall risk was 7.6 times higher for rayon workers. The risk increased significantly after more than 10 years of employment, suggesting that it takes a long exposure period to develop hypertension for rayon workers with CS2 exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.50, No.1, p.22-27. Illus. 24 ref.
Sleepiness is often related to the build-up of exhaled carbon dioxide in work premises. This article discusses what carbon dioxide is, how it can affect work performance and how safety and health practitioners can act to reduce uncomfortable levels. Topics addressed: natural and mechanical ventilation of work premises; threshold limit value of 5000ppm (8h TWA) for carbon dioxide at the workplace defined by United Kingdom regulations; monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in workplace atmospheres.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 2007, Vol.25, No.1, p.43-45. Illus. 15 ref.
Levy P.S., Roth H.D., Deubner D.C.
Exposure to beryllium and occurrence of lung cancer: A reexamination of findings from a nested case-control study
This study reanalyzed an earlier nested case-control study of beryllium and lung cancer in view of perceived weaknesses in analysis and study design that could have led to the elevated odds ratios obtained in the study. This reanalysis found no elevated odds ratios for any exposure variable. The conclusions differ from the earlier interpretation that the findings are due to a causal relationship between beryllium exposure and lung cancer. The alternative explanation is that they may be due to methodological problems that could have been controlled by closer matching of controls to cases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.49, No.1, p.96-101. Illus. 9 ref.
Taylor A., Angerer J., Arnaud J., Claeys F., Kristiansen J., Mazzarrasa O., Menditto A., Patriarca M., Pineau A., Valkonen S., Weykamp C.
Differences in national legislation for the implementation of lead regulations included in the European directive for the protection of the health and safety of workers with occupational exposure to chemical agents (98/24/EC)
La Directive 98/24 du Conseil concernant la protection de la santé et de la sécurité des travailleurs contre les risques liés à des agents chimiques sur le lieu de travail (voir CIS 98-1094) renferme des dispositions relatives à la surveillance biologique et environnementale, avec mention spécifique de valeurs seuils et de mesures de surveillance médicale ayant force obligatoire pour les personnes exposées au plomb. Le but de cette étude était de comparer la manière dont la Directive a été mise en ¿uvre au niveau national dans les Etats Membres et de déterminer dans quelle mesure les travailleurs bénéficient de mesures de protection comparables. Des informations sur des aspects clés choisis ont été recueillies dans 14 pays de l'UE au moyen d'un questionnaire structuré. Les résultats indiquent que la protection des travailleurs contre le risque d'exposition au plomb est loin d'être uniforme. De telles disparités peuvent également avoir des conséquences sur les exigences définies au niveau national pour les laboratoires pratiquant les mesures de plombémie ou de plomb dans l'air. Dans l'intérêt d'une harmonisation au sein de l'UE, on devrait prêter plus d'attention à l'Annexe II de la Directive 98/24 et prendre en compte les propositions concernant l'abaissement des valeurs limites ayant force obligatoire pour le plomb.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.80, No.3, p.254-264. 20 ref.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Boron trifluoride diethyl ether
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge of November 2005: boron trifluoride diethyl ether is an irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. In rats, the 4h LC50 is more than 1000mg/m3. Animal studies at high concentrations show adverse effects on the respiratory tract, kidneys, bone and liver. In mutagenicity tests, the product is non-mutagenic up to the toxic range. No data are available for an evaluation of the sensitization potential, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. xiii, 31p. 56 ref. Price: EUR 00.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.dav-buchhandlung.de/... [in English]
Carbon monoxide emissions by propane-fed fork-lifts - Technical guide for health and safety specialists (Revised version)
Monoxyde de carbone émis par les chariots au propane - Fiche technique pour les intervenants en santé au travail (version révisée) [in French]
Existing Canadian regulations do not require a preventive maintenance programme for propane-powered forklift trucks and do not specify optimal ventilation conditions for industrial premises where they are used. A study was undertaken to establish a uniform strategy for evaluating carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from propane-powered forklift trucks and to highlight the importance of regular engine maintenance. CO concentrations were determined in forklift truck exhaust gases and in the workers' breathing zones at several companies, and their relationship with various conditions of engine maintenance was analysed. The results of this study are summarized in this technical guide that provides industrial hygienists with a proper tool to evaluate CO emissions from propane-powered forklift trucks.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal H3A 3C2, Quebec, Canada, 2007. 9p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: CAD 3.96. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RF2-102.pdf [in French]
Pletscher C., Liechti B.
Lead and occupational hazards
Gesundheitliche Gefährdung am Arbeitsplatz durch Blei [in German]
Plomb et risques professionnels [in French]
This information note can be used as a training manual on the hazards of long-term exposure to low concentrations of lead. It is primarily aimed at occupational physicians. Main topics covered: sources of exposure; intake, distribution, elimination and toxic effects; health hazards; determination in air and exposure tests; medical supervision; technical and organizational measures; personal hygiene; legal aspects in Switzerland. Update of document abstracted under CIS 90-1855.
Suva, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Case postale 6002, Lucerne, Switzerland, 6th ed., 2007. 35p. Illus. 39 ref.
Antimony - A toxic substance similar to arsenic
L'antimoine - Un toxique proche de l'arsenic [in French]
Second part of a review article on the toxicology of antimony, a toxic substance whose mode of action may be similar to that of arsenic. Topics addressed: acute toxicity (vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration that can lead to death); chronic toxicity (respiratory airway irritation, cardiovascular system damage, bronchial cancer); antimony trioxide classified by IARC as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B); environmental impact; hazard evaluation; need to reassess the current threshold limit value of 0.5mg/m3 (or 0.1ppm as antimony), established in 1953. For the first part of this article, see CIS 07-1119.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2007, No.92, p.38-41. Illus. 21 ref.
Antimony - A well-known toxic substance still not fully understood
L'antimoine - Un vieux toxique toujours méconnu [in French]
First part of a review article on the toxicology of antimony. Topics addressed: properties; uses of antimony in ancient times, in the Middle Ages and in recent times; production and use (catalysts, flame retardants, alloys); metabolism. The toxic effects of antimony are described in a second article (see CIS 07-1120).
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2007, No.91, p.30-33. Illus. 14 ref.
Lead: An ever present hazard in the construction industry
Plomb: un risque toujours d'actualité dans le BTP [in French]
Many activities in the building sector may cause exposure to lead. This article discusses preventive measures, safety checks and simple hygiene rules that can ensure that the risk is managed. Contents: sources of lead (piping, paint); routes of entry (ingestion, inhalation of dust or smoke); checks to be made before and during the work; French regulations; lead poisoning; lead detectors; personal hygiene.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2007, No.92, p.54-57. Illus.
Picot A., Proust N.
Toxicology and chemistry of mineral and organo-mineral xenobiotics: The importance of speciation
Toxicochimie des xénobiotiques minéraux et organominéraux : importance de la spéciation [in French]
This information sheet provides information on the substance-specific characteristics of inorganic and organic mineral substances that can enter the body through various means of exposure. Contents: general aspects of speciation; main parameters to be taken into consideration during speciation (physical state of solids [including nanoparticles], liquids, and gases and vapours); structural data; electronegativity; reactivity; classification of elements according to different criteria; conclusions.
EMC - Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, Jan. 2006, 15p. Illus. 46 ref.
Small entity compliance guide for the hexavalent chromium standards
This guide describes the steps that employers of small enterprises are required to take to protect employees from hazards associated with exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). It provides detailed information on permissible exposure limits (PEL), exposure determination, regulated areas, methods of compliance, respiratory protection, protective work clothing and equipment, hygiene areas and practices, housekeeping, medical surveillance, communication of Cr(VI) hazards to employees and recordkeeping. An appendix lists industry operations or processes associated with occupational exposure to Cr(VI).
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2006. 59p. Illus.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA_small_entity_comp.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for aluminum - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of aluminium is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Heavy exposure to aluminium dust may result in respiratory or neurological damage. There is inconclusive evidence of a relationship between high levels of aluminium exposure and Alzheimer's disease. IARC have concluded that primary aluminium production was carcinogenic to humans, but this is probably due to exposure to carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Update of CIS 00-653).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 310p. Illus. Approx. 800 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp22.pdf [in English]
Building value - Lonmin Plc: Sustainable development report for the year ending 30 September 2006
Report of sustainable development activities for the year 2006 of a multinational platinum mining enterprise with important operations in South Africa. Contents: chief executive's review; highlights, performance and targets; profile and scope of report; corporate conduct; engaging with stakeholders; South African mining charter; economic growth; safety; health; HIV/AIDS; human capital; community; environment; 2006 sustainability reporting against Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators; independent assurance; glossary and definitions; company charter.
Lonmin PLC, 4 Grosvenor Place, London SW1X 7YL, United Kingdom, 2006. 37p. Illus.
http://www.lonmin.com/assets/pdf/reports/SDR_2006.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information for 2003/04
The aim of this work is to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance in order to further improve customer safety, target expenditure on CO incident prevention and identify further research work. Data on all piped natural gas and LPG CO incidents that occurred in the United Kingdom from 1st April 2003 to 31 March 2004 were collected and analysed. During this period, there were 36 domestic piped natural gas incidents and two LPG incidents reported. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 87p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr439.pdf [in English]
The silent killer
Nitrogen is an invisible, tasteless and odorless gas that comprises about 78 percent of the air we breathe, but its potential to kill workers in or near confined spaces should never be underestimated. This article describes a fatal nitrogen asphyxiation accident having occurred in an oil refinery, the common causes of accidents involving 80 fatalities and 50 injuries having occurred in the United Stated between 1992 and 2002 and the good practices to adopt for preventing these accidents (alarm systems, continuous atmosphere monitoring, ventilation with fresh air, rescue organization, training).
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2006, p.40-43. Illus.
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