Inorganic substances - 5,778 entries found
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Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for mercury: Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea, cough, reduced vital capacity, pulmonary oedema, pneumonia, fibrosis); cardiovascular effects; gastrointestinal effects (stomatitis, colic, diarrhoea, nausea); haematological effects (leukocytosis); musculoskeletal effets (tremors, muscle pain); hepatotoxic effects; nephrotoxic effects; erythema; immunotoxic effects; neurotoxic effects; reproductive effects (spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, congenital malformations, menstrual disorders, infertility); effects on child development.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Mar. 1999. xx, 617p. Illus. approx. 1280 ref.
00052.pdf [in English]
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Manganese and its compounds
Exposure to high levels of manganese via inhalation or ingestion may cause adverse effects on the nervous system (manganism) and the respiratory system. The inflammatory response in the lung can result in impaired lung function and increased susceptibility to infections (bronchitis), which can lead to manganic pneumonia. Reproductive effects include decreased libido, impotence and decreased fertility in men. Summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. iv, 42p. 238 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries).
00043.pdf [in English]
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad12.pdf [in English]
Carelli G., Masci O., Altieri A., Castellino N.
Occupational exposure to lead - Granulometric distribution of airborne lead in relation to risk assessment
The Permissible Exposure Limit for lead of 50µg/m3 set by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is based on a number of assumptions, including that which predicts that the first 12.5µg/m3 are made up of fine particles of less than 1µm diameter and the remaining 12.5mgg/m3 consist of particles >1µm. Occupational exposure to airborne lead at a concentration of 50µg/m3 and a granulometric distribution as above leads to a mean blood level of 40µg/m3. The validity of OSHA's assumption was tested in a factory that manufactured crystal glassware containing 24% lead oxide. Results indicate that the assumption cannot be considered valid in the work environment investigated in this study and that lead absorption levels in exposed workers may be noticeably different from those predicted by the OSHA model. It is therefore essential to integrate total airborne lead concentration with a measurement of the granulometric distribution of the aerosol.
Industrial Health, July 1999, Vol.37, No.3, p.313-321. Illus. 18 ref.
00158.pdf [in English]
Roscoe R.J., Gittleman J.L., Deddens J.A., Petersen M.R., Halperin W.E.
Blood lead levels among children of lead-exposed workers: A meta-analysis
Blood lead levels among U.S. children (ages 1-5) from households with lead-exposed workers was estimated in order to assess the utility of targeted blood lead level screening for such children. All reports of take-home lead exposure in the USA which included data on venous blood lead levels for children, children's ages, data for at least five children, workers' occupations, workers' blood lead levels, and data collection methods, were studied. The children of lead-exposed workers had a geometric mean blood lead level of 9.3µg/dL compared to a U.S. population geometric mean of 3.6µg/dL. Also in this group, 52% of the children had blood lead levels (BLLs) > 10µg/dL compared to 8.9% in the USA in general, and 21% of the children had BLLs > 20µg/dL compared to 1.1% in general. It is estimated that there are about 48,000 families with children under six years of age living with household members occupationally exposed to lead. About half of the young children in these families may have BLLs > 10µg/dL. Findings support the position that children of lead-exposed workers should be targeted for blood lead screening.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.475-481. 30 ref.
00154.pdf [in English]
Tetróxido de osmio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): 0.002mg/m3; ACGIH recommends a TLV of 0.0002mg/m3. Health hazards: effets tardifs; irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; skin burns; dermatitis; pulmonary oedema; may damage the eyes and the kidneys.
Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1999, Vol.61, No.12, 4p. Insert.
00040.pdf [in Spanish]
Hexafluoruro de selenio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): 0.4mg/m3. Health hazards: irritation by inhalation or by skin or eye contact. Induces strong irritation of the respiratory tract in animals.
Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 1999, Vol.61, No.10, 3p. Insert.
00035.pdf [in Spanish]
Dióxido de titanio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): 15mg/m3. Health hazards: irritation of the respiratory tract; lung diseases.
Noticias de seguridad, Sep. 1999, Vol.61, No.9, 3p. Insert.
00034.pdf [in Spanish]
Metallic tantalum powders and tantalum oxide
Polvos de metal y óxido de tantalio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: bronchitis; tantalum; data sheet; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; limitation of exposure; lung diseases; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; pulmonary fibrosis; respirators; tantalum and compounds; USA; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, May 1999, Vol.61, No.5, 3p. Insert.
991797.pdf [in Spanish]
Rhodium soluble salts (as rhodium)
Sales solubles de rodio (como rodio) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: rhodium trichloride; rhodium; data sheet; determination in air; diseases of central nervous system; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; eye injuries; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; respirators; rhodium and compounds; skin absorption; USA; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, Apr. 1999, Vol.61, No.4, 4p. Insert.
991794.pdf [in Spanish]
Pentacloruro de fósforo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: bronchitis; phosphorus pentachloride; chemical burns; data sheet; delayed effects; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; irritants; limitation of exposure; lung diseases; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; pulmonary oedema; renal damage; respirators; skin absorption; USA; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 1999, Vol.61, No.3, 4p. Insert.
991792.pdf [in Spanish]
Beyersmann D., Hartwig A.
Combined effects of carcinogenic metal compounds
Kombinationswirkungen bei krebserzeugenden Metallverbindungen [in German]
Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromates, cobalt and nickel have been added to the list of carcinogenic substances by German and international authorities. Present knowledge of the combined effects of these carcinogens with further carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or nitrosamines is reviewed. No findings concerning these combined effects are available from epidemiologic studies. Animal experiments provide evidence of cobalt chloride enhancing the carcinogenic effect of benzo(a)pyrene. In vitro studies of the influence of carcinogenic metal compounds and other substances on DNA repair shows an enhanced cancer risk in the case of combined exposure to compounds of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and nickel and mutagens such as ultraviolet radiation, oxidants and alkylating substances. Topics: alkylating substances; aromatic hydrocarbons; arsenic and compounds; beryllium and compounds; cadmium and compounds; carcinogens; chromates; cobalt and compounds; cocarcinogenic effects; DNA; literature survey; metal salts; metals; mutagens; nickel and compounds; nitroso amines; polycyclic hydrocarbons; synergism; ultraviolet radiation.
Ergo-Med, July-Aug.1999, Vol.23, No.4, p.170-175. Illus. 21 ref.
991953.pdf [in German]
Risk analysis as a tool in safety planning using heavy gases and chlorine as examples
Die Risikoanalyse als Hilfe für Sicherheitsentscheidungen gezeigt am Beispiel schwerer Gase und des Chlorstoffzyklus [in German]
A procedure is presented for determining the probability of an explosion or inadvertent release of a dangerous or harmful substance and the severity of the effects caused by the event. It takes into consideration production, processing and storage as well as road, rail, water and pipeline transport of a dangerous or harmful substance. Based on past experience, 20 heavy gases which are most widely used in industrial production in Germany were selected as examples, and the probability of them being involved in a serious accident was determined and compared. Chlorine was used in further risk analyses to identify weak spots and the most efficient preventive measures. Topics: chlorine; dangerous substances; explosion hazards; gases; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; industrial gases; major hazards; safety planning; toxic gases.
Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1999, 148p. Illus. 178 ref. Index. Price: DEM 56.00.
992008.pdf [in German]
Commission Directive 1999/51/EC of 26 May 1999 adapting to technical progress... Annex I to Council Directive 76/769/EEC... relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (tin, PCP, cadmium) [European Communities]
Directive 1999/51/CE de la Commission du 26 mai 1999... adaptation... de l'annexe I de la Directive 76/769/CEE du Conseil... relative à... certaines substances et préparations dangereuses (étain, pentachlorophénol (PCP) et cadmium) [Communautés européennes] [in French]
For Council directive 76/769/EEC, see CIS 92-22. Topics: cadmium; tin; pentachlorophenol; directive; European Communities.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 5 June 1999, Vol.42, No.L 142, p.22-25.
991764f.pdf [in French]
991764e.pdf [in English]
Manganism is a central nervous system disease first described in the 1800s following exposure to high concentrations of manganese oxides. Manganese madness was the term used to describe the initial psychiatric syndrome (compulsive behaviour, emotional lability, hallucinations). More commonly, these workers developed a Parkinson's-like syndrome. Currently, the risks of exposure to low concentrations of manganese in the industrial and in the environmental settings are being evaluated with regards to the development of subclinical neuropsychological changes. The American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists recently lowered the Threshold Limit Value (Time-Weighted Average) for manganese compounds and inorganic manganese compounds to 0.2mg Mn/m3. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; bronchitis; manganese; potassium permanganate; chelating agents; chronic toxicity; determination in blood; determination in urine; diseases of central nervous system; dose-response relationship; health hazards; limitation of exposure; literature survey; manganese and compounds; medical treatment; mental disorders; metabolic process; metal fume fever; neurological effects; neurotoxic effects; pneumonia; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.293-307. 115 ref.
991945.pdf [in English]
Zinc compounds can produce irritation and corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract, along with acute renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. In the occupational setting inhalation of fumes from zinc oxide is the most common cause of metal fume fever (fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste, salivation). Zinc compounds are not suspected carcinogens. Treatment of zinc toxicity is supportive. Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa2EDTA) is the chelator of choice based on case reports but there are few clinical data to confirm the efficacy of this agent. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; brass; zinc oxide; zinc; zinc chloride; caustic substances; chelating agents; chronic toxicity; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; faecal excretion; first aid; galvanizing; gastrointestinal diseases; health hazards; irritants; literature survey; medical treatment; metabolic process; metal fume fever; Monday fever; pigments; pulmonary oedema; renal damage; toxicology; zinc and compounds.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.279-292. 98 ref.
991944.pdf [in English]
High air concentrations of vanadium occur during boiler-cleaning operations in metallurgical process plants as a result of the presence of vanadium oxides in the dust. In general, the toxicity of vanadium compounds is low. Pentavalent compounds are the most toxic and the toxicity of vanadium compounds usually increases as the valency increases. Most of the toxic effects result from local irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract rather than systemic toxicity. Exposure to vanadium dust can result in upper respiratory tract irritation characterized by rhinitis, wheezing, nasal haemorrhage, conjunctivitis, cough, sore throat, and chest pain. Case studies have described the onset of asthma after heavy exposure to vanadium compounds. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; asthma; boilermaking; bronchitis; vanadium; catalysts; chronic toxicity; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; eczema; electrical industry; fired pressure vessels; health hazards; irritants; literature survey; medical treatment; metabolic process; pigments; rhinitis; toxicology; upper respiratory diseases; urinary excretion; vanadium and compounds.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.265-278. 101 ref.
991943.pdf [in English]
Almost all cases of acute nickel toxicity result from exposure to nickel carbonyl. The initial effects involve irritation of the respiratory tract and nonspecific symptoms. Patients with severe poisoning develop intense pulmonary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Diffuse interstitial pneumonitis and cerebral edema are the main causes of death. Nickel is a common sensitizing agent with a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel and nickel compounds are well-recognized carcinogens. However, the identity of the nickel compound or compounds which cause the increased risk of cancer remains unclear. Currently, there are little epidemiological data to indicate that exposure to metallic nickel increases the risk of cancer, or that exposure to the carcinogenic forms of nickel causes cancer outside the lung and the nasal cavity. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; antidote treatment; asthma; carcinogenic effects; nickel carbonyl; nickel; chelating agents; chronic toxicity; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; first aid; health hazards; human experiments; irritants; literature survey; lung cancer; metabolic process; nasal cancer; nickel and compounds; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; toxicology; urinary excretion.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.239-258. Illus. 144 ref.
991942.pdf [in English]
Molybdenum has relatively low toxicity. Elimination of molybdenum occurs via the kidney and usually is complete within several weeks. Little data are available on the human toxicity of molybdenum. A gout-like syndrome and pneumoconiosis have been associated with excessive concentrations of molybdenum, but the design of the studies prevents an adequate determination of the aetiology of these effects. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; molybdenum; cast iron; chelating agents; chronic toxicity; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; health hazards; irritants; joint diseases; literature survey; medical treatment; metabolic process; metallurgical products; molybdenum and compounds; pneumoconiosis; stainless steel; toxicology.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.231-237. 35 ref.
991941.pdf [in English]
Chronic copper toxicity is rare and primarily affects the liver. Wilson's disease and Indian childhood cirrhosis are examples of severe chronic liver disease that results from genetic predisposition to hepatic accumulation of copper. Copper sulfate is a gastric irritant that produces erosion of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal symptoms occur at whole blood concentrations near 3mg Cu/L. Chelating agents (CaNa2EDTA, BAL) are recommended in severe poisoning, but there are little pharmacokinetic data to evaluate the effectiveness of these agents. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; antidote treatment; biliary excretion; carcinogenic effects; copper; copper sulfate; chelating agents; chronic toxicity; copper and compounds; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; electrical industry; gastric disorders; health hazards; hepatic diseases; irritants; literature survey; medical treatment; metabolic process; toxicology; urinary excretion.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.217-230. Illus. 118 ref.
991940.pdf [in English]
In the occupational setting, exposure to cobalt alone occurs primarily during the production of cobalt powders. In other industrial exposures (e.g., hard metal, diamond polishing), additional agents (tungsten) modulate the toxicity of cobalt. An interstitial pulmonary fibrosis has been associated with industrial exposure to hard metal dust containing tungsten and cobalt, but not to cobalt alone. Exposure to cobalt alone produces an allergic contact dermatitis and occupational asthma. Treatment of cobalt toxicity is primarily supportive. Topics: acute toxicity; asthma; vitamin B12; cobalt; chronic toxicity; cobalt and compounds; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; hard metal pneumoconiosis; health hazards; literature survey; medical treatment; metabolic process; myocardial diseases; pulmonary fibrosis; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; thyroid disorders; toxicology; urinary excretion.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.201-216. 111 ref.
991939.pdf [in English]
Bradberry S.M., Vale J.A.
Therapeutic review: Is ascorbic acid of value in chromium poisoning and chromium dermatitis?
Based on experimental studies, substantial amounts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) would need to be administered, preferably parenterally, soon after exposure to prevent systemic toxicity from hexavalent chromium in humans. However, the administration of ascorbic acid in high doses could lead to acute oxalate nephropathy, particularly in the presence of renal failure. Smaller doses of ascorbic acid (e.g. 10g intravenously) probably would not reduce mortality from systemic chromium poisoning. There is currently insufficient evidence to advocate the use of ascorbic acid in the management of systemic chromium toxicity. Topical ascorbic acid may reduce dermal hexavalent chromium exposure, but this observation must be confirmed in controlled studies. Topics: animal experiments; antidote treatment; vitamin C; chromium; chrome ulcer; determination in urine; eczema; irritants; literature survey; metabolic process; renal damage; skin allergies; toxicology; ulceration of the skin; urinary excretion.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.195-200. 31 ref.
991938.pdf [in English]
Hexavalent chromium is a skin and mucous membrane irritant and some hexavalent compounds are strong corrosive agents. Hexavalent chromium compounds also produce an allergic contact dermatitis characterized by eczema. Hexavalent chromium is recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and by the US Toxicology Program as a pulmonary carcinogen. Increased risk of lung cancer occurs primarily in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium dust during the refining of chromite ore and the production of chromate pigments. There is currently insufficient evidence to advocate the use of ascorbic acid in the management of systemic chromium toxicity. Topical ascorbic acid may reduce dermal hexavalent chromium exposure, but this must be confirmed in controlled studies. Topics: acute toxicity; allergens; animal experiments; carcinogenic effects; vitamin C; chromium; caustic substances; chromium and compounds; chronic toxicity; corrosion inhibitors; determination in blood; determination in hair; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; electroplating; first aid; glass industry; health hazards; irritants; literature survey; lung cancer; match manufacturing industry; medical treatment; metabolic process; pigments; sensitization dermatitis; tanning industry; threshold limit values; toxicology; urinary excretion; wood preservatives.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.173-194. 165 ref.
991937.pdf [in English]
The toxicity of most forms of selenium is low and depends on the chemical form of selenium. The acute ingestion of selenious acid is almost invariably fatal, preceded by stupor, hypotension, and respiratory depression. Garlic odour on the breath, as a result of the expiration of dimethyl selenide, is an indication of excessive selenium exposure. The US National Toxicology Program lists selenium sulfide as an animal carcinogen, but there is no evidence that other selenium compounds are carcinogenic. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; antidote treatment; carcinogenic effects; selenium; selenious acid; chronic toxicity; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; first aid; glass industry; health hazards; literature survey; medical treatment; metabolic process; pharmaceutical industry; photography; photovoltaics industry; pigments; pottery industry; rectifiers; rubber industry; selenium and compounds; semiconductor devices; steels; threshold limit values; toxicology; urinary excretion.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.145-172. Illus. 224 ref.
991936.pdf [in English]
Aiba Y., Ohshiba S., Horiguchi S., Morioka I., Miyashita K., Kiyota I., Endo G., Takada H., Iwata H.
Peripheral hemodynamics evaluated by acceleration plethysmography in workers exposed to lead
To clarify the effect of lead exposure on peripheral haemodynamics, acceleration plethysmography (APG) was performed on 48 male subjects occupationally exposed to lead (exposure group) and 43 male subjects with no history of occupational exposure to lead (control group). In the exposure group, the blood lead concentration (Pb-B) was also measured. Each APG parameter was assessed by comparing measured data with standard aging curves. A significant negative correlation was obtained between the APG parameter -b/a and Pb-B. The exposure group showed significantly lower values of parameters -b/a and b/a than did the control group. The parameter -b/a in the exposure group showed a dose-dependent decrease with increases in length of working career (duration of exposure to lead) and Pb-B. The parameter -b/a significantly decreased in subjects with working careers of five years or more and in subjects whose Pb-B was 40µg/100mL or more. Results suggest that lead exposure affects peripheral haemodynamics as evaluated by APG. Topics: atherosclerosis; lead; determination in blood; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; lead industry; peripheral circulation; plethysmography.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.37, No.1, p.3-8. Illus. 18 ref.
991960.pdf [in English]
Odland J.Ø., Tchachtchine V.P., Bykov V., Fiskebeck P.E., Lund E., Thomassen Y., Nieboer E.
Critical evaluation of medical, statistical, and occupational data sources in the Kola Peninsula of Russia pertinent to reproductive health studies
Following reports of possible reproductive and developmental health concerns among female workers in a Russian nickel refinery, a study was conducted to ascertain whether medical, statistical, and occupational databases could be used for information about pregnancy histories, occupational histories, and life-style factors of the women affected. A registry of all births in three towns with a nickel refinery was constructed and its contents verified against patients' records obtained from hospitals and community polyclinics. Municipal Registration Board, Regional Health Statistics Board and nickel company records were also reviewed. Reproductive/developmental outcome information and workplace histories were acceptable, and a cohort or cross-sectional study for the detection of an excess risk for spontaneous abortion with adequate statistical significance and power was possible. Such investigations would need to be supplemented by workplace environmental/biological monitoring assessments for evaluation of occupational exposure and a questionnaire aimed at workers to obtain information about life styles. Topics: nickel; compilation of statistics; complications of pregnancy; epidemiologic study; expectant mothers; exposure evaluation; health service records; parental exposure; Russian Federation; teratogenic effects; women.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 1999, Vol.72, No.3, p.151-160. Illus. 19 ref.
991910.pdf [in English]
Billig P., Gurzau E., Vultur C., Stoica A., Filimon V., Puscas M.
Innovative intersectoral approach reduces blood lead levels of children and workers in Romania
An intersectoral approach involving the community, governmental and nongovernmental agencies, and local management, with the support of the U.S. Agency for International Development, succeeded in reducing the blood lead levels of plant workers and of young children living in the vicinity of a copper smelter in Zlatna, Romania. Details of the collaborative effort, which attracted enthusiastic responses from all participants, are provided. Topics: lead; copper; children; cooperation; copper ores; determination in air; determination in blood; health programmes; information of personnel; Romania; smelting plants.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.50-56. Illus.
991934.pdf [in English]
Vanadium pentoxide fumes
Humo de pentóxido de vanadio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: bronchitis; vanadium pentoxide; chronic bronchitis; data sheet; determination in air; eczema; first aid; health hazards; irritants; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; pneumotoxic effects; respirators; skin allergies; threshold limit values; USA; volatile substances.
Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 1999, Vol.61, No.1. 4p. Insert.
99-1449.pdf [in Spanish]
Fire Protection Association
Topics: trichloropropylsilane; chlorosilanes; dangerous substances; data sheet; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; irritants; labelling; spills; storage tanks; storage; transfer of liquids; United Kingdom; warning notices.
Fire Prevention, Mar. 1999, No.318, 2p. Insert. 9 ref.
99-1646.pdf [in English]
Health risks when working in and around water
Topics: agriculture; allergies; biological hazards; chemical hazards; conjunctivitis; diving; dock work; fishing; gastrointestinal diseases; hazard evaluation; health hazards; hepatitis; legislation; leptospirosis; particulate radiation; poliomyelitis; sewage; shipbuilding industry; sports and recreation; swimming pools; United Kingdom; water transport; water.
Croner's Occupational Hygiene Magazine, Dec.-Jan. 1998/1999, No.13, p.11-16. 5 ref.
99-1536.pdf [in English]
Linnett P.J., Hughes E.G.
20 years of medical surveillance on exposure to allergenic and non-allergenic platinum compounds: The importance of chemical speciation
Workers in three distinct operations in a platinum company were exposed to soluble platinum compounds as chloroplatinates, chloroplatinates with tetraamine platinum dichloride (TPC) or to TPC alone. Results of personal air sampling for soluble platinum compounds were compared together with results of medical surveillance. The levels of exposure to soluble platinum compounds in each operation were comparable but the incidence of allergy was significantly different. In a subgroup of workers consistently exposed to chemical processes in each operation, the cumulative chance of being sensitized after five years of exposure was estimated as 51% for chloroplatinate exposure, 33% for mixed exposure, and 0% for TPC alone. Results show that the soluble platinum compound TPC is not allergenic under normal industrial conditions. Characterization of the chemical compound (speciation) is essential to prevent stringent exposure limits being imposed for all soluble compounds on a generic basis. Topics: allergens; platinum; exposure evaluation; long-term study; medical supervision; personal sampling; platinum and compounds; sensitization; skin tests; smoking.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.56, No.3, p.191-196. Illus. 17 ref.
99-1595.pdf [in English]
Tielemans E., Heederik D., Burdorf A., Vermeulen R., Veulemans H., Kromhout H., Hartog K.
Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: Comparison of different methods
Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an external job exposure matrix (JEM) and a population specific JEM were compared with passive dosimeter results and measurement in urine. Passive dosimeter results indicated that exposure classifications with job specific questionnaire information could discriminate between high and low exposures. Implementation of job specific questionnaires in a general population study might be worth the extra expense it entails, bearing in mind the paramount importance of avoiding false positive exposure estimates when exposure prevalence is low. Topics: chromium; comparative study; determination in urine; evaluation of technique; exposure evaluation; organic solvents; personal sampling; questionnaire survey; urinary metabolites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.56, No.3, p.145-151. 36 ref.
99-1516.pdf [in English]
Irsigler G.B., Visser P.J., Spangenberg P.A.L.
Asthma and chemical bronchitis in vanadium plant workers
The cause of cough and breathlessness in vanadium plant workers was examined after variable periods of exposure. Twelve of 40 subjects had bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR), and these were compared to 12 age-matched companion subjects whose BHR was normal. In ten, BHR was diagnosed by histamine inhalation, and in six of these the abnormality was severe. A further two had BHR by exercise challenge. After removal from exposure, 9 of the 12 subjects returned for follow-up 5 to 23 months later. BHR was worse in one, still present although less severe in five, and was no longer found in one subject. Baseline spirometry measurements were normal in seven subjects and only mildly impaired in the remaining five of the 12 subjects with BHR. The study provides strong supporting evidence that inhaled V2O5 induces BHR and asthma in subjects previously free of lung disease; the abnormality may persist for up to 23 months following exposure; routine spirometry will not detect affected subjects. Topics: allergic reactivity; allergy tests; asthma; vanadium pentoxide; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hypersensitivity; inhalation tests; irritants; maximal expiratory flow; mining industry; respiratory function tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.35, No.4, p.366-374. Illus. 37 ref.
99-1591.pdf [in English]
Milby T.H., Baselt R.C.
Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: Clarification of some controversial issues
Data on the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide are reviewed. It is concluded that: certain neurotoxic effects of exposure are probably due to a direct toxic effect on the brain, while others are almost certainly a result of hypoxia secondary to H2S-induced respiratory insufficiency; pulmonary oedema is a common consequence of poisoning and there is suggestive evidence of hyperactive airway responses in some individuals following brief H2S-induced unconsciousness (knockdown); criteria for acceptable community levels are very different than those governing occupational standards; urinary thiosulfate determinations can be useful for monitoring occupational exposure; and determination of sulfide ion concentrations in blood or major organs can be useful in corroborating a diagnosis of fatal H2S toxicity, but there are many pit-falls in collecting, storing, and analyzing tissue and fluid samples. Topics: acute poisoning; hydrogen sulfide; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure tests; hypoxia; limitation of exposure; lung diseases; neurotoxic effects; pulmonary function; pulmonary oedema; thiosulfates; urine monitoring.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.192-195. 34 ref.
99-1241.pdf [in English]
Romundstad P., Haldorsen T., Rønneberg A.
Exposure to PAH and fluoride in aluminum reduction plants in Norway: Historical estimation of exposure using process parameters and industrial hygiene measurements
A methodology for the historical estimation of exposure to fluoride and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at two Norwegian aluminium smelters is described. Area concentrations of fluoride and PAH in periods with no measurements were estimated and relationships between measured area concentrations and process parameters were investigated by statistical modelling. Process parameters and the models were then used to estimate area concentrations in periods lacking area measurement data. The relationships between the area measurements and job specific exposure (personal measurements) were investigated by use of a measurement model. Finally, the relationships obtained were used to estimate job specific exposure in different periods. Despite limitations of available measurements in the early production period, the exposure estimates from this study provide a reasonable tool for the estimation of dose-response relations in subsequent epidemiological analyses. Topics: aluminium industry; aromatic hydrocarbons; description of technique; determination in air; exposure evaluation; fluorides; job-exposure relation; mathematical models; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.164-174. 13 ref.
99-1266.pdf [in English]
Viskum S., Rabjerg L., Jørgensen P.J., Grandjean P.
Improvement in semen quality associated with decreasing occupational lead exposure
Sperm quality changes were prospectively assessed in 19 men employed at a car battery plant where efforts were made to decrease the exposure level to lead. The participants delivered monthly samples of semen and venous blood during their employment at the factory. The factory then closed, and additional samples were obtained from 16 of the men. Average blood-lead concentrations decreased from 2.03µmol/L to 0.96µmol/L during the observation period. Concomitantly, significant improvements were seen in the proportion of motile cells both at sample delivery and after 24h, and in penetration. However, the sperm cell concentration and the proportion of morphological abnormalities did not change. These results support the notion that occupational lead exposure at currently acceptable levels has a small adverse effect on sperm quality, especially sperm motility, and that this effect is at least partially reversible. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; determination in blood; limitation of exposure; spermatogenic disturbances.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.257-263. Illus. 36 ref.
99-1253.pdf [in English]
Lindgren K.N., Masten V.L., Tiburzi M.J., Ford D.P., Bleecker M.L.
The factor structure of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and its relationship to occupational lead exposure
The Profile of Mood States (POMS) is an instrument composed of six mood scales that were developed using clinical populations. 467 current and retired lead-smelter workers completed the POMS, and a factor analysis was performed on the individual items. Factor analysis produced one factor, labelled "general distress", that was composed mainly of items from five of the six POMS subscales (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension) and a second factor labelled "psychological adjustment". Integrated blood lead level, a measure of cumulative lead exposure that included prior high exposure, was significantly related to the POMS "general distress" factor, while a current blood lead level that was relatively low was unrelated. As expected, POMS psychological adjustment was not related to lead exposure. Factor analysis did not support the use of six separate POMS subscales in this occupational population. Topics: age-linked differences; alcoholism; lead; depressive neurosis; determination in blood; evaluation of technique; exposure evaluation; human behaviour; lead industry; lead poisoning; long-term exposure; mental health; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; psychological tests.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.3-10. Illus. 34 ref.
99-834.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Safe handling of chlorine from drums and cylinders
Replaces previous edition (CIS 88-1641). Topics: alarm systems; chlorine; choice of location; drum handling; emergency organization; first aid; gas cylinders; hazard evaluation; information of personnel; inspection; leak detection; legislation; liquefied gases; materials handling; piping; pressure vessels and systems; preventive maintenance; respirators; safety by design; safety guides; toxic effects; United Kingdom; valves; vaporizers; ventilation.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1999. vi, 92p. Illus. 81 ref. Price: GBP 14.00.
99-961.pdf [in English]
Megret R., Schulte A., Gebler A., Breitstadt R., Kulzer R., Berndt E.D., Baur X., Schultze-Werninghaus G
Outcome of occupational asthma due to platinum salts after transferral to low-exposure areas
A cross-sectional study of 83 workers with diagnosed occupational asthma (OA) due to platinum (Pt) salts was carried out in 2 platinum refineries and 2 catalyst production plants. In all, 9 workers continued to be exposed at the time of examination, 16 had been transferred to other workplaces within the production building, 39 had been transferred to areas outside the building but inside the plant, and 19 had left the plant. A clear-cut exposure-effect relationship existed concerning sensitization. For the majority of subjects with OA due to Pt salts transfer to low exposure areas as defined in this study may not be associated with a more unfavorable outcome as compared with complete removal from exposure sources after a period of about 4 years. Topics: asthma; cross-sectional study; immunoglobulins; job-exposure relation; platinum and compounds; sensitization; skin tests; smelting plants; transfer to other work.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.72, No.1, p.33-39. Illus. 17 ref.
99-820.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Safety advice for bulk chlorine installations
Replaces previous edition (CIS 87-1015). Topics: alarm systems; bulk materials handling; chlorine; choice of location; emergency organization; first aid; hazard evaluation; information of personnel; inspection; leak detection; legislation; liquefied gases; loading and unloading; piping; pressure vessels and systems; preventive maintenance; protection against overpressure; respirators; safe layout; safety guides; storage tanks; toxic effects; transfer of liquids; United Kingdom; valves; vaporizers.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1999. viii, 120p. Illus. 93 ref. Price: GBP 14.00.
99-959.pdf [in English]
Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P.
Lead and its inorganic compounds
Plomb et ses composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. CD-ROM version of the document already analysed as CIS 99-1783. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; haemolytic anaemia; cytologic hepatic damage; neurological effects (intracraneal hypertension and convulsive coma) which may leave sequelae. Chronic toxicity: haematological effects (anaemia); effects on the digestive tract (deposits of lead); neurological effects (convulsive coma, sensitive-motor neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis); renal damage; high blood pressure; bone damage; effects on reproduction; carcinogenic effects (lung and stomach cancer). Exposure limits (France): 150µg/m3 (mean value over 40 hours expressed as lead). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.231-100-4 (lead), No.082-001-00-6 (lead monoxide); T, R61, R62, R20/22, R33, S53, S45, 215-267-0 (lead monoxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 8p. Illus. 38 ref.
02-1062.pdf [in French]
Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., Wilczyńska U.
Occupational lead poisoning in Poland
Problemy zawodowych zatruć ołowiem w Polsce [in Polish]
From 1970 to 1996, 8414 cases of lead poisoning, recognized as an occupational disease, were registered in Poland, with a peak between 1973-1976, with 500-800 cases per year. Most persons (64.3%) were employed in plants located in the province of Katowice. More than half of men with occupational lead poisoning were exposed to concentrations of lead exceeding MAC values by two hundred times. The diminishing number of occupational lead poisonings reported during the 1990s may not reflect the true level of occupational exposure. Most cases reported apply to large plants or industrial complexes, where prevention services are well organized. However, there may be under-reporting from small enterprises. For effective prevention of occupational lead poisoning, one would need to make a complete inventory of industrial sites where lead occurs, to identify workplaces hazardous to health, and to monitor lead concentrations in the air.
Medycyna pracy, 1998, Vol.XLIX, No.3, p.217-222. Illus. 6 ref.
01-1483.pdf [in Polish]
Nickel and chromium (VI) aerosols in workplace air in electroplating workshops
Nickel- und Chrom(VI)-Aerosole in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz galvanotechnischer Betriebe [in German]
Topics: aerosols; air sampling; nickel; chromic acid; chromium and compounds; description of technique; determination in air; electroplating; exposure evaluation; personal sampling; plating solutions; threshold limit values.
Die BG, July 1998, No.7, p.400-406. Illus.
01-1117.pdf [in German]
Hecht G., Héry M., Subra I., Aubert S., Gerber J.M., Hubert J., Oury V., Dieudonné M.
Exposure to chloramine during the treatment of fresh vegetables intended for immediate use
Exposition aux chloramines lors du conditionnement des légumes frais prêts à l'emploi [in French]
The preparation of fresh vegetables for sale to the public is of increasing importance in the food industry, currently growing at an annual rate of about 10%. In order to ensure that the products supplied are safe for consumption, the vegetables are disinfected in chlorinated water prior to packaging. Atmospheric concentration of chlorine or its derivatives was measured in six vegetable packing establishments. Most of the pollution was in the form of mono- and dichloramines, and to a lesser extent nitrogen trichloride. The study also revealed higher pollution levels in firms which used recycled water.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1998, No.173, p.381-387. Illus. 8 ref.
01-1134.pdf [in French]
Métabisulfite de potassium [in French]
Metabisulfito de potasio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: inhalation may cause asthmatic reactions. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization; repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause asthma. No TLV has been established.
Internet site: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcs/icstart.html, 1993-1998. Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain. 2p.
01-0674E.pdf [in English]
01-0674F.pdf [in French]
01-0674es.pdf [in Spanish]
Dioxyde d'uranium [in French]
Dióxido de uranio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Short-term exposure effects: eye irritation; renal lesions. Long-term exposure effects: lungs may be affected by repeated or prolonged exposure to dust particles. Threshold limit values: TWA 0.2mg/m3 A1 (ACGIH 1998); STEL 0.6mg/m3 A1 (ACGIH 1998).
Internet site: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcs/icstart.html, 1993-1998. Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain. 2p.
01-0672F.pdf [in French]
01-0672E.pdf [in English]
01-0672es.pdf [in Spanish]
Oury V., Peltier A.
Sampling and determination of chlorine dioxide by specific trapping: Development of a method applicable to workplace atmospheres
Prélèvement et dosage du dioxyde de chlore par piégeage spécifique: mise au point d'une méthode applicable aux ambiances de travail [in French]
Laboratory tests led to the selection of a chlorine dioxide trapping method that makes workplace measurements easier: the sampling filter is impregnated with triethanolamine, with immediate desorption of the filter in water. The resulting solution can be analysed up to three or four weeks later, by ion exchange chromatography. This sampling method has been made available to the occupational risk prevention departments of the French regional health insurance funds, which are required to monitor work stations where chlorine dioxide is used as a disinfectant. The method may also be used in the presence of other chlorine derivatives, by adding specific traps.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1998, No.172, Note No.2081-172-98, p.233-242. Illus. 20 ref.
01-488.pdf [in French]
Tietze A., Witkowski N., Biehl R., Pilwat G.
Radiation exposure due to the inhalation of thorium isotopes during welding with tungsten electrodes containing thorium dioxide
Strahlenexposition durch Inhalation von Thoriumisotopen beim Schweissen mit Wolframelektroden mit Thoriumdioxid [in German]
In stationary and personal air samples taken at the workplace of three tungsten inert gas welders, radioactivity produced by thorium isotopes 232, 230 and 228 was determined. The welders used electrodes which contained 2% of thorium dioxide. The annual uptake of radioactivity by inhalation of the 3 isotopes was calculated from the results. The calculations took into account the hours spent welding and on the workplace. They were based on a volume of 1.2m3 of air inhaled per hour. In 2 of 3 welders, the annual uptake of radioactivity amounted to less than 10% of the limit value. In one of the welders who applied a different welding technique, it was above 10% of the limit value.
Schweissen und Schneiden, Feb. 1998, Vol.50, No.2, p.109-112. Illus. 9 ref.
01-0223.pdf [in German]
Merget R., Baur X.
Prevention of platinum salt asthma
Prävention des Platinsalzasthmas [in German]
This literature survey on the occurrence, diagnosis and prevention of platinum salt asthma reveals that between 1978 and 1996, a total of 104 cases of platinum salt asthma occurred in precious metal refineries and catalyst production plants in Germany. For diagnosis, a highly specific skin prick test is available. Strategies to reduce incidences of the disease include lowering the exposure and annual medical supervision. Very few studies exist on the efficiency of these measures in preventing platinum salt asthma. Published studies of the dose-response relationships reveal an association between the exposure level and sensitization. The World Health Organization recommends a ceiling of 2µg/m3 for soluble platinum.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Nov. 1998, Vol.48, No.11, p.488-490. Illus. 14 ref.
01-0159.pdf [in German]
Laforest L., Annino M.C., Alluard A., Van den Wiele F., Precausta D., Albouy J.
Secondary lead contamination - Evaluation of the preventive measures undertaken by occupational medicine services
Contamination secondaire au plomb - Evaluation des mesures de prévention menées par les services de médecine du travail [in French]
Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; children; determination in blood; dosimetry; evaluation of control measures; hospitals; industrial physicians; lead industry; lead poisoning; long-term exposure; medical supervision; occupational medicine; parental exposure; permissible levels; threshold limit values.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3th Quarter 1998, No.75, p.259-263. Illus. 1 ref.
01-0137.pdf [in French]
Laforest L., Annino M.C., Alluard A., Van den Wiele F., Precausta D., Albouy J.
Secondary lead contamination - Epidemiological study of children of occupationally-exposed employees
Contamination secondaire au plomb - Etude épidémiologique sur des enfants de salariés professionnellement exposés [in French]
Topics: atmospheric pollution; battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; children; determination in blood; dosimetry; epidemiologic study; industrial physicians; lead industry; long-term exposure; medical supervision; parental exposure; permissible levels; statistical evaluation; threshold limit values.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3th Quarter 1998, No.75, p.251-257. Illus. 15 ref.
01-0136.pdf [in French]
Le Guen B., Bérard P.
Uranium and its compounds
Uranium et ses composés [in French]
Topics: aerosols; uranium; data sheet; dosimetry; encyclopaedia; exposure evaluation; faecal excretion; France; health hazards; ICRP; ingestion; inhalation; nephrotoxic effects; nuclear fuel processing; permissible levels; radiation monitoring; radioactive substances; skin absorption; uranium and compounds; urinary excretion.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1998, No.120, 6p. Illus. 17 ref.
01-0175.pdf [in French]
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