Visual display terminals (VDTs) - 595 entries found
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Understanding your VDU
Mieux connaître votre écran [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met beeldschermen [in Dutch]
This pamphlet describes the potential risk factors associated with working with visual display units (VDUs) (visual fatigue, muscular discomfort, radiation), and provides guidance on preventive measures: correct positioning of the screen and other equipment, design and positioning of desks and seating, lighting, work organization and relaxation exercises.
Association Nationale pour la Prevention des Accidents du Travail (ANPAT), rue Gachard 88, Boîte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1995. 20p. Illus. 6 ref.
Eye strain and response. Study based on log book, measurements of eye movements and number of blinking during eye-straining work
Augenermüdung und Beanspruchung. Untersuchungen mit Augensymptomtagebüchern, Messung der Augenbewegungen und der Lidschlaghäufigkeit bei visuell belastenden Arbeiten [in German]
The psychophysiological effects on the eyes caused by the introduction of the computer at the workplace were studied. Volunteers in a telephone exchange in Vienna where an electronic database was introduced and volunteers in two small firms where the use of computer-aided design was inaugurated participated in the study. Indicators of visual fatigue such as frequency of eye blinking and saccadic eye movement velocity were measured. In addition, volunteers kept a diary of subjectively perceived symptoms of eyestrain such as red and burning eyes. The physiological parameters were found to reflect the effort rather than visual fatigue.
Peter Lang AG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1995. 167p. Illus. 226 ref. Index. Price: DEM 51.00.
Visual display units in the place of work
Training kit consisting of three booklets: 1 - Code of Practice (new edition of the 1993 publication abstracted as CIS 94-603), contents: introduction, compliance, health problems of VDU work, relationship between the Code and the relevant provisions of the Health and Safety in Employment Act (CIS 93-701), glossary, ISO 9241; 2 - Checklists for monitoring hazards of VDU work (work organization, VDU selection, hazard identification, evaluation of workplace visual conditions); 3 - Information booklet: promotion of workstation comfort (why we get discomfort, relaxation, body positions, getting comfortable at the workstation, workplace exercises, preventing visual and ocular discomfort, finger and wrist techniques for keyboard users), general advice (lighting, noise, thermal comfort, air quality, electromagnetic fields).
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1995. Information kit (Code of Practice: 66p., illus, bibl.ref., index + Checklists: 11p. + Information booklet: 43p., illus.) Price: NZD 20.00 (Code of Practice only: NZD 10.00).
Order of 24 July 1995 regarding specific complementary provisions for the use of visual display screens on working equipment (extractive industries); Order of 24 July 1995 regarding minimal safety and health provisions for manual handling (extractive industries) [France]
[Arrêtés du 24.7.95] - relatif aux dispositions ... concernant l'utilisation d'écrans de visualisation sur les équipements de travail (industries extractives); relatif aux prescriptions minimales de SST concernant la manutention manuelle (industries extractives) [France] [in French]
Visual displays are covered regardless of the display process [cathode-ray, liquid crystal, etc.]. Operators should undergo medical examinations to verify their aptitude for the work and in case of complaints associated with visual display work. Employers are responsible for identifying and eliminating hazards. Software must meet performance standards. Screens, keyboards and other equipment must be ergonomically satisfactory. The workplace must be free of excessive heat, radiation, humidity and noise. Regarding manual handling, work should be organized and mechanized so as to minimize recourse to manual labour. Possible hazards should be identified and preventive measures undertaken; occupational physicians should assist employers in this. Employers must provide workers with relevant information and training.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.63, p.213-215.
Hermans V., Spaepen A.
Perceived discomfort and electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius while working at a VDT station
Subjective muscular fatigue was evaluated for 10 female VDT workers over a working day; 5 workers had previous musculoskeletal problems in the shoulder-neck region, 5 had not. Electromyographic activity of the upper right and left trapezius was measured. The subjective scores for the shoulder were significantly higher for the group with complaints. The activity of the trapezius increased for both groups, with no significant differences between the groups. A reduction in load intensity by the introduction of frequent short breaks in continuous activity should be considered even for tasks with low static loads.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.3, p.208-214. Illus. 20 ref.
Computer workstation adjustment: A novel process and large sample study
An automated process based on linked-segment anthropometry was developed to analyze computer workstations, identify improper configurations and recommend adjustments. A survey of over 3300 employees in a large industrial complex indicated significant relationships between hours or years worked and symptoms associated with computer use. In a follow-up study, 90% of the respondents indicated a clear understanding of recommendations and an increased knowledge of proper workstation configurations. 80% of those making recommended changes indicated benefits through enhanced work efficiency and comfort. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1995, Vol.26, No.5, p.315-326. Illus. 45 ref.
Even a wallfull of television sets or computer monitors is not dangerous
Même en batterie, les écrans et moniteurs d'ordinateurs ne sont pas dangereux... [in French]
The French Research and Safety Institute (INRS) measured the levels of X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, electrical and magnetic fields and ultrasound emitted by video and computer equipment. Even when large numbers of screens are present together, as in displays in stores, the levels of radiation and ultrasound are well below exposure limits and do not constitute a hazard.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1995, No. 542, p.576-578. Illus. 13 ref.
About working with display screen equipment
Training booklet on the proper use of visual display terminals. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###
van den Brulle P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitschutz
Acoustic design of offices with VDUs
Schalltechnische Gestaltung von Büroräumen mit Bildschirmen [in German]
Working at visual display units requires high concentration, which is often disrupted by high noise levels. The acoustic parameters influencing the noise level in offices have been analyzed and measured as well as the noise produced by the equipment attached to visual display workstations in 82 offices. Recommendations are given for the selection of quieter equipment and for an ergonomic layout ensuring a more favorable acoustic environment.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 176p. Illus. Price: DEM 32.00
VDT workstations: Layout and lighting
Postes de travail avec terminal à écran de visualisation: disposition et éclairage [in French]
These guidelines address the factors affecting physical and visual demands on people working with video display terminals (VDTs). Contents: workstation layout (position of keyboard and monitor, use of hand-held input devices, spectacle wearers, adjustable seating and working surfaces); lighting levels and the reduction of glare; task design; checklist for VDT workstations.
Publications Section, Ontario Ministry of Labour, 400 University Avenue, 9th Floor, Toronto M7A 1T7, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 1995. 10p. Illus. 3 ref.
Sanz Merinero J.A.
Visual display terminals: Recommendations for the ergonomic design of work stations
Pantallas de visualización: Recomendaciones para el diseño ergonómico de los puestos de trabajo [in Spanish]
Contents of this ergonomic recommendation: main features of microcomputer equipment; physical design of work stations; the physical work environment (lighting, noise, thermal and humidity conditions, electrostatic fields); job design for workplaces with VDUs. These Recommendations are based on Standards ISO 9241 and EN 29241.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna, 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 27p. Illus.
Work on VDUs. Interactive computer software on diskette
Le travail à l'écran. Didacticiel interactif sur disquette [in French]
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Case postale, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1995. Computer software (usable on IBM-compatible microcomputers, 286 or superior; MS-DOS version 3.2 or higher). Price: CHF 35.00. ###
Bodmann H.W., Eberbach K., Leszczynska H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Quality criteria for the local lighting of workstations in offices
Lichttechnische und ergonomische Gütekriterien der Einzelplatzbeleuchtung im Büro [in German]
Real-time study of the acceptance of lighting systems in offices where VDUs are used. Forty observers evaluated various lighting parameters at different work stations. Work performance was also evaluated. The usefulness of respecting the quality criteria of Standard DIN 5035 (interior lighting with artificial light sources) was confirmed. There were divergences in the importance given to veiling reflection, maximum acceptable luminance of indirect lighting systems and the utilization of desk lamps. It is recommended to take the findings of this study into account when DIN 5035 is next modified.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1995. 209p. Illus. 10 ref.
Widerszal-Bazyl M., Żołnierczyk D.
Dimensions of job control in computerized and traditional work and its health effects
A questionnaire survey of VDU and non-VDU users was conducted to investigate the relationship between computerization and both global job control and control related to specific tasks. Results showed no clear relationship between job control and computerization of work; latitude of control depended on the task performed and the aspect of control under consideration. There were significant relationships between global control and psychological stress symptoms (job satisfaction, moods) and somatic complaints; other aspects of control were correlated with stress symptoms in a variety of ways. It is recommended that the concept of global control should be avoided, and where possible, specific indexes of control should be applied.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.29-41. 25 ref.
Aronsson G., Strömberg A.
Work content and eye discomfort in VDT work
A questionnaire survey of Swedish public employees with frequent and different types of VDT work was conducted. Eye discomfort was statistically related to aspects of work organization. The highest levels of discomfort were reported by computer-aided design, data entry and word processing groups; groups with mixed VDT tasks displayed the lowest level of symptoms. Time spent at a VDT, low degree of work control, time pressure and high pace of work were all associated with relatively high levels of eye discomfort.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.1-13. 16 ref.
Legislative Decree No.626 of 19 Sep. 1994 - Implementation of eight EEC Directives concerning the improvement of workers' safety and health at the workplace [Italy]
Decreto Legislativo 19 sett. 1994, n. 626 - Attuazione delle direttive ... CEE riguardanti il miglioramento della sicurezza e della salute dei lavoratori sul luogo di lavoro [in Italian]
This decree was adopted by the Council of Ministers on 16 Sep. 1994. It introduces into Italian legislation the provisions of the following EEC Directives: 89/391 (general improvements in OSH, CIS 89-1401), 89/654 (minimum OSH requirements for the workplace, CIS 90-356), 89/655 (minimum OSH requirements for work equipment, CIS 90-357), 89/656 (minimum requirements for PPE, CIS 90-385), 90/269 (manual handling, CIS 90-1101), 90/270 (VDU work, CIS 90-1069), 90/394 (exposure to carcinogens, CIS 90-1758) and 90/679 (exposure to biological agents, CIS 91-29). The main headings of the decree are: general provisions; workplaces; use of work equipment; use of personal protective equipment (PPE); manual handling of loads; protection against carcinogens; protection against biological agents; penalties for non-compliance. In annex (among others): table of PPE requirements depending on the hazards present in the workplace; non-exhaustive list of activities and sectors where PPE has to be worn; list and classification of hazardous biological agents.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 12 Nov. 1994, No.265, Part I, Ordinary supplement, 60p. Illus.
Fanelli C., Bergamaschi A.
Working with computers: Synthesis of ISPESL investigations
Il lavoro con il computer: sintesi Ricerca ISPESL [in Italian]
Results of various studies conducted in Italy on man-computer interactions were presented at HCI International '93 (5th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, held at Orlando, FL, USA, 8-13 Aug. 1993). The following aspects of working with computers were studied (statistical analysis is presented in annex): subjective comfort of computer work stations; relationship between years of work with VDUs on one hand and psychosomatic complaints, visual fatigue and musculoskeletal complaints on the other. Suggestions are made for areas of further study.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.7, No.1, p.20-26.
Lips W., Weickhardt U., Buchberger J., Krueger H.
Work at video display terminals
Le travail à l'écran de visualisation [in French]
Main contents of this training brochure dealing with work on visual display units: general (ergonomics, lighting, luminance, visual acuity, accommodation, eye movements); components and requirements of work on a visual display unit (screen size, keyboard, mouse, etc.); layout of workplaces with visual display units (lighting of premises, requirements, reflexion, keyboard, desk and seat, etc.); software (coding, communication, interfacing, etc.); medical aspects (radiation, heat, ophthalmological and orthopedic considerations, etc.); psychological aspects and work organization (anxiety, psychosocial stress factors, etc.); checklists (for practical purposes, for the selection of a VDU, for the selection of furniture, etc.); information and counselling; equipment. Replaces the 1991 edition (CIS 91-1825).
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Dec. 1994. 72p. Illus. 13 ref.
Pennarola R., Scarselli R., Bongiorno V., Iannuzzi G.
The visual apparatus and work with particular reference to video-terminal using activities
Apparato visivo e lavoro con particolare riferimento alle attività con uso di videoterminali [in Italian]
Seventy-four visual display terminal (VDT) operators were surveyed in Italy in relation to the action which dust and chemical, physical, biological and ergonomic agents may have on workers' eyes. The principal associated symptoms included: tired eyes, stress, psycho-social disorders, arthropathies. The detected vision disorders are the symptoms of a reversible dysfunctional state. Psychological aspects and disturbances of the locomotor apparatus are of notable importance in the studied sample. Medical surveillance is recommended for VDT operators on the accommodative function and on the structure of the anterior segment, using microbioscopic monitoring techniques. Psychological aspects of the work, including studies of the locomotor apparatus and environmental conditions, should also be conducted.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar., 1994, Vol.6, No.1, p.41-55. Illus. 43 ref.
Henning R.A., Kissel G.V., Maynard D.C.
Compensatory rest breaks for VDT operators
Discomfort associated with continuous visual display terminal (VDT) use can be moderated by short rest breaks at 10 or 15-min intervals. This laboratory study evaluated an alternative break administration system in which operators only received short breaks when their spontaneous rest pauses were inadequate. Typists (n=38) were assigned to one of two conditions, regimented (20sec breaks every 5min) or compensatory (20sec breaks every 5min if spontaneous pauses totalled less than 17sec), during a 48-min period. Although the number and length of computer-administered breaks decreased in the compensatory condition, no differences in work performance, operator mood, or acceptance of the break system were found. However, back discomfort was lower in the compensatory condition. These findings suggest that a compensatory rest break system can eliminate unnecessary task interruptions and be as effective as a regimented break schedule in ensuring that operators do not perform computer work continuously.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.14, No.5, p.243-249, 19 ref.
Kopardekar P., Mital A.
The effect of different work-rest schedules on fatigue and performance of a simulated directory assistance operator's task
The directory assistance operator's task with a visual display terminal was simulated to determine the preferable work-rest schedule from among three different schedules: 30min of work followed by a 5min break (30-5); 60min of work followed by a 10min break (60-10); and 120min of work without any break (120-0). The total working duration was 2h. Errors made during the work and subjective responses before and after the working period (2h) were recorded and analyzed. Results showed that the first two work-rest schedules were preferable to the third as significantly fewer errors were made (p ≥ 0.01) when a short break was provided. There was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.10) in errors between the (30-5) and (60-10) schemes. Fewer before and after subjective responses differed significantly for the (30-5) and (60-10) schemes than for the (120-0) scheme. The overall effect of the schemes on subjective responses, however, was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Since both the (30-5) and (60-10) schemes were found acceptable, the (60-10) scheme is recommended since it is easy to implement, causes fewer breaks and therefore fewer work interruptions, and leads to fewer total minutes of break.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.37, No.10, Special Issue, p.1697-1707. Illus. 16 ref.
Carter J.B., Banister E.W.
Musculoskeletal problems in VDT work: A review
This paper discusses the possible causes of musculoskeletal pain in VDT workers and outlines strategies to minimize it. Workstation, chair, and keyboard design are reviewed and recommendations are made to improve user comfort. Also discussed is worker selection, training, posture, conditioning, and rest breaks. Short-term musculoskeletal discomfort is experienced by many VDT operators in the telecommunications industry and chronic disability may result in the long term. Ergonomists and office managers should work together to improve the working conditions in this important occupational area.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.37, No.10, Special Issue, p.1623-1648. Illus. 79 ref.
Hales T.R., Sauter S.L., Peterson M.R., Fine L.J., Putz-Anderson V., Schleifer L.R., Ochs T.T., Bernard B.P.
Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal users in a telecommunications company
The relationship between workplace factors and work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UE disorders) was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 533 telecommunication employees utilizing video display terminals (VDTs). Cases of UE disorders were defined using symptom questionnaires and physical examinations. Data on demographics, individual factors, work organization and practices, and psychosocial aspects of work, were obtained by questionnaire. Associations between workplace factors and UE disorders were assessed by multiple logistic models generated for each of the four UE areas (neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrists). One-hundred and eleven (22%) participants met the case definition for UE disorders: probable tendon-related disorders were the most common (15% of participants), and probable nerve entrapment syndromes was found in 4%. The hand/wrist was the area most affected (12% of participants). The results indicate that work-related UE musculoskeletal disorders are relatively common among telecommunication workers who use VDTs and that the psychosocial work environment is related to the occurrence of these disorders.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.37, No.10, Special Issue, p.1603-1621. 79 ref.
Presidential decree concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment, in conformity with Directive 90/270/EEC [Greece]
Elahistes prodiagrafes asfaleias kai ugeias kata tēn ergasia me othones optikēs apeikonisēs se summorfōsē me tēn odēgia tou Sumbouliou 90/270/EOK [in Greek]
This Decree (effective 17 Dec. 1994) implements into Greek legislation the provisions of Directive 90/270/EEC (CIS 90-1069). Contents: definitions; obligations related to workstation analysis; information, training, consultation and participation of the workers; protection of workers' eyes and eyesight. In annex: minimum requirements for the equipment, the environment and the operator/computer interface.
Efēmeris tēs Kubernēseos tēs Ellēnikēs Dēmokratias, 19 Dec. 1994, No.221, p.3987-3992.
Relationship between trapezius load and the incidence of musculoskeletal illness in the neck and shoulder
A relationship between trapezius load measured by electromyography (EMG) and the incidence of musculoskeletal illness in the neck and shoulder regions, was investigated for both assembly workers and VDT operators. For assembly workers, the static trapezius load was significantly reduced from 4.3% MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction) to 1.4% MVC as a group median value after an ergonomic adaptation of their work places. Musculoskeletal sick-leave was significantly reduced from 22.9 days to 1.8 days as a medium duration per-man-labour year for the same group. All three groups of VDT operators reported significantly less intensity or duration of pain either in the neck or shoulder region after ergonomic intervention. The trapezius load was reduced for all groups post vs. prior intervention. The results from this study indicate that the trapezius load may be a predictor for development of musculoskeletal illness in the neck and shoulder regions.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Dec. 1994, Vol.14, No.4, p.341-348. Illus. 22 ref.
Work with visual display terminals
Le travail sur écran [in French]
This training booklet surveys the provisions of the French Decree of 14 May 1991 (CIS 92-13) concerning the use of visual display terminals (VDUs), itself issued in conformity with Directive 90/270/EEC (CIS 90-1069) on the same subject. Step-by-step instruction is provided on the application of the Decree in the workplace (work equipment characteristics, work organization, training, medical surveillance).
Institut pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail (IN.PACT), 4 Blvd. de la Villette, 75019 Paris, France, 1994. 45p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: FRF 80.00.
Seated VDU work-station organization
Méthodes d'aménagement de postes assis avec écran de visualisation [in French]
Two methods are described for choosing a fixed-height screen keyboard configuration that would eliminate errors during the design of a VDU workstation and respect the recommended angles and work surfaces for maximum user comfort.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.271-273. Illus. 6 ref.
Lie I., Watten R.G.
VDT work, oculomotor strain and subjective complaints: An experimental and clinical study
In an experimental study, two groups of workers performed three hours of continuous VDT work, one group watching the visual display and the other looking out of the window. There were significant group differences in work-related effects on the eyes' ciliary and extraocular muscles and on subjective symptoms; not only visual symptoms but also muscle pain in the head, neck and upper back may result from near-point induced oculomotor strain. The effect of optical correction was examined in 14 symptomatic workers. There was a significant reduction in symptoms, indicating that visual anomalies contribute to work-related symptoms.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.37, No.8, p.1419-1433. Illus. 38 ref.
Sanz Merinero J.A.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Manual of technical standards for the ergonomic design of work stations with visual display units
Manual de normas técnicas para el diseño ergonómico de puestos con pantallas de visualización [in Spanish]
Contents of this ergonomics guide: guideline applicable to office work with visual display units (VDUs); requirements for VDU design; requirements for the design of data entry equipment; physical design of workplaces; requirements applicable to the physical environment; software ergonomics; design of the operator-computer interface; design of user-friendly VDU systems; overview of relevant regulations and standards. Appendix: dir. 89/391/EEC on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work (CIS 89-1401); dir. 90/270/EEC on the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment (CIS 90-1069).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna, 73 - 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 155p. Bibl.ref. Illus.
Work with video display units [Norway]
Arbeid ved dataskjerm [in Norwegian]
This directive states the rules that apply to workers that often spend most of their time using a VDU. It came into force 1 Jan. 1995, and complies with European Union Directive 90/270/EEC (CIS 90-1069). Employers are responsible for compliance with the directive. Work planning should ensure that workers do other tasks than VDU work during the day. The planning should be done in cooperation with the workers and their representatives. An evaluation of the physical and psychological risks should be performed. Man-machine interactions (software, system performance) should be assessed. General requirements concerning the screen, keyboard, table and chair are given. The environment should be appropriate. Workers should be offered a visual test before taking up work with the VDU, and regularly thereafter. The employer must provide suitable visual aids if the test has identified the need for it.
Tiden Norsk Forlag, Postboks 8813 Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway, Mar. 1995. 8p.
Hasegawa T., Kumashiro M.
A study on the work hour for data entry work with VDT
Dēta nyūroku sagyō o rei to shita VDT sagyō ni okeru ichi renzoku sagyō jikan ni tsuite no jikkenteki kentō [in Japanese]
The performance and fatigue levels of volunteers were measured before, during and after a 60min simulated data entry job. When the work was interrupted at 10-30min intervals by 2-10min of rest, the overall performance of the subjects in entering data was better than in a 60min period without a break. When a sorting task was substituted for rest during the intervals, performance was even better, but the subjects' reaction time and visual fatigue increased.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, 15 Dec. 1994, Vol.30, No.6, p.405-413. Illus. 13 ref.
Grant C., Brophy M.
An ergonomics guide to VDT workstations
This guide describes hazards associated with work at video display terminals (VDTs) (cumulative trauma disorders, back and neck pain, eyestrain, the effects of heat, electrostatic fields, electromagnetic radiation, and psychological stresses). Suggested control measures include: rest breaks, periodic posture changes, correctly designed seating and equipment, good lighting and elimination of glare, correct viewing distances, and adequate ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031, USA, 1994. 37p. Illus. 130 ref.
Faucett J., Rempel D.
VDT-related musculoskeletal symptoms - Interactions between work posture and psychosocial work factors
This study describes the relationship between work tasks and musculoskeletal symptoms for workers in the editorial department of a newspaper. All of the workers were video display terminal operators, but they had different responsibilities. Work posture related to VDT workstation and psychosocial work factors were investigated and related to musculoskeletal symptoms. Relationships were found between postures, work stress, psychological workload and musculoskeletal symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.26, No.5, p.597-612. Illus. 38 ref.
Software ergonomics between design and quality assurance - A continued task for the enterprise councils
Software-Ergonomie zwischen Arbeitsgestaltung und Qualitätssicherung - eine Daueraufgabe für Personalräte [in German]
The CE directive 90/270 (CIS 90-1069) on work with visual display terminals contains among other things requirements on the ergonomic design of computer software. Until the introduction of national regulations complying with the directive, standards DIN 66234 Part 8 and ISO 9241 Part 10 and directive VDI 5005 can be used in Germany. These standards and directives, which are summarized, spell out the requirements for the ergonomic design of dialogues with the computer. Enterprise councils in German government offices have the right to check compliance with the standards and the directive. Check lists for the ergonomic evaluation of software in use in offices, for quality control during the development of software and for determining the satisfaction of the users as well as a glossary are included.
Der Personalrat, June 1994, Vol.11, No.6, p.252-264. 32 ref.
Tellers: Sector affected by banking automation
Caixas: Segmento de impacto da automação bancária [in Portuguese]
This statistical study, based on interviews, involved 585 bank employees in the State of São Paulo, 88 (15%) of whom were tellers. When compared with bank employees as a whole, tellers had a statistically significant increase in health problems in general, and in the incidence of gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, eye and repetitive strain problems. Among the preventive methods suggested: more rest breaks; limitation of working time at tellers' workstations to 3h at a time; limitation of work load (expressed in terms of number of verifications registered at the computer terminal); improved ergonomic conditions.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.22, No.81, p.33-41. 12 ref.
Watten R.G., Lie I., Birketvedt O.
The influence of long-term visual near-work on accommodation and vergence - A field study
A study of the influence of sustained, visual near-work on a set of oculomotor functions (ZCSV, Zone of Clear Vision) was carried out in a group of young, female accountants engaged in full-time work using a video display terminal. PRA (Positive Relative Accommodation), NRA (Negative Relative Accommodation), PRC (Positive Relative Convergence) and NRC (Negative Relative Convergence) were measured before work and at the end of the working day. There were significant reductions in the four ZCSV components over the working day; vergence reductions accounted for over 60% of the changes.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1994, Vol.23, No.1, p.27-39. 49 ref.
Bergqvist U.O.V., Knave B.G.
Eye discomfort and work with visual display terminals
A study involving 327 office workers was conducted by questionnaire and worksites were investigated in order to determine the relationship between eye discomfort symptoms and work with visual display terminals. The data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. The occurrence of eye discomfort increased as the extent of VDT work increased, as did the specific symptoms of sensitivity to light and smarting, gritty feeling, or redness. The use of spectacles during visual display work, age, stomach stress reaction, distances between the eye and different visual task objects, as well as the vertical position of the terminal also influence certain symptoms. Having (1) the terminal at about eye level during prolonged terminal work; (2) using monofocal glasses during terminal work in situations with large distance variations to visual task objects, or (3) being elderly with prolonged terminal work and reporting stomach stress, all led to increased odds ratios for certain eye discomfort symptoms. The use of a visual display terminal in routine office work is associated with an increased occurrence of certain eye discomfort symptoms. This association is affected also by the presence of certain other individual and ergonomic factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1994, Vol.20, No.1, p.27-33. Illus. 34 ref.
Gur S., Ron S., Heicklen-Klein A.
Objective evaluation of visual fatigue in VDU workers
Accommodation and convergence tests were carried out on 16 VDU workers and 13 controls before work at the beginning of the week and again four days later at the end of the working day. VDU workers showed a significant decrease in both accommodation and convergence range compared with controls; workers with high values of these variables at first examination showed a greater decrease. It is suggested that accommodation and convergence measurements can be used to evaluate visual fatigue objectively in VDU workers.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.44, No.4, p.201-204. Illus. 19 ref.
Van der Steen M.
Legislation in practice. Visual display units
Législation en pratique. Ecrans de visualisation. [in French]
Wetgeving in de praktijk. Beeldschermen [in Dutch]
The purpose of this booklet is to advise enterprises in the implementation of Belgian legislation concerning visual display units (VDUs). Part 1 retraces the history of relevant legislation on VDUs and employer's responsibilities in Belgium and the EEC. Part 2 discusses the hazards of VDUs: eye troubles, muscle pains, electromagnetic radiation, mental stress. Part 3 deals with the layout of the workplace: proper procedures for purchasing equipment; work organization; hard- and software issues; environment and layout of work stations; training and information. A table summarizes the factors to be taken into consideration for an ergonomic evaluation of work stations.
Association nationale pour la prévention des accidents du travail (ANPAT), Rue Gachard 88, Boîte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1994. 24p. Illus. 22 ref.
Armstrong T.J., Foulke J.A., Martin B.J., Gerson J., Rempel D.M.
Investigation of applied forces in alphanumeric keyboard work
First, three personal computer keyboards were tested as described by the American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of visual display workstations (ANSI/HFS 100-1988). Second, keyboard reaction forces were recorded while ten subjects typed four alphanumeric sentences on the keyboards. The peak forces corresponding to each keystroke were 2.5 to 3.9 times the required activation forces, indicating that the subjects consistently displaced the keys to their limits. The average of the peak forces for all keystrokes was lowest for the keyboard with the lowest required activation force. Thus keyboard reaction forces can be used as an index of finger forces for keying tasks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.30-35. Illus. 17 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
VDUs. An easy guide to the regulations
This booklet provides guidance on the British Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-24). Contents: identifying the workers and the workstations covered; training users and assessors; assessing workstations and reducing risks; planning breaks and activity changes; arranging eye and eyesight tests; making sure new workstations comply with the Regulations; keeping users informed. A checklist is included.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. iii, 18p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
National Radiological Protection Board
Health effects related to the use of visual display units
This report reviews epidemiological and laboratory studies relevant to the possible adverse health effects of electromagnetic emissions from visual display units (VDUs). The report concludes: animal and epidemiological studies offer no support to reports of increased spontaneous abortion rates nor of an increased proportion of congenital malformations in women using VDUs during pregnancy; skin diseases do not appear to be caused by electromagnetic fields from VDUs, although existing conditions may be aggravated; there is no evidence that VDU work results in a disposition to the formation of cataracts. A supplementary report reviews studies on electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. iii, 81p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Aronsson G., Dallner M., Åborg C.
Winners and losers from computerization - A study of the psychosocial work conditions and health of Swedish state employees
Results of a questionnaire survey of 1,738 visual-display terminal showed that work conditions varied considerably, both between groups of users and between men and women. Data-entry tasks and a combination of data-entry and data-acquisition tasks were more common among women. The data-entry group reported a greater number of somatic and psychological problems and contained the greatest percentage of people spending more than six hours per day at a terminal. There appeared to be critical limit of five to six hours per day beyond which the incidence of symptoms rose sharply. Recommendations for preventive measures are presented.
International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.6, No.1, p.17-35. 20 ref.
Typing risk - Computer keyboards are the stepchildren of ergonomics
Computertastaturen - die Stiefkinder der Ergonomie [in German]
A recent study of 200 office employees in Darmstadt, Germany, confirmed results of earlier studies in Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA: first symptoms of repetitive strain injury (RSI) appear after more than 5 years of keyboard operations. Pains in the fingers, wrist, shoulder and neck are typical. The first ergonomically designed computer keyboards on the market are described. Initial tests seem to indicate that they do not prevent harmful bending of the wrist.
c't - Magazin für Computer-Technik, Feb. 1994, No.2, p.42, 44, 46-47. Illus. 3 ref.
Glare - Optimizing illumination of computer aided design workplaces
Geblendet - Raum-Beleuchtung lichttechnisch optimieren bei CAD-Arbeitsplätzen [in German]
Computer aided design (CAD) workplaces need lighting that is not so strong that it reduces contrast on the computer screen. Yet it must be strong enough to allow reading printed manuals, drawings or diagrams. Glare is to be avoided. Great differences in luminance in the room strain the eyes and may cause headaches. Best illumination is obtained by taking into account not only the layout of the workplace, but also the arrangement of furniture, windows and light sources. German standard DIN 5035 (parts 1, 2 and 7) provides the criteria for optimized illumination of these workplaces. Some of the recommendations of this standard are reviewed.
Maschinenmarkt, Feb. 1994, Vol.100, No.6, p.28-31. Illus.
Bergqvist U., Wahlberg J.E.
Skin symptoms and disease during work with visual display terminals
A cross-sectional study of 353 routine office workers was carried out in order to investigate relationships between skin diseases, signs or reported symptoms and work at visual display terminals. There was a tendency for increased occurrence of eczema, nonspecific erythema and symptoms among VDT users compared to non-VDT users. Organizational conditions such as a perceived high work pace, or work load, and inability to take rest breaks were found to be associated with reported skin symptoms and nonspecific erythema. A low relative humidity was associated with a diagnosis of eczema.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1994, Vol.30, No.4, p.197-204. Illus. 19 ref.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Visual display units: Radiation protection guidance
This ILO publication provides an overview of knowledge concerning radiation issues of work with visual display units (VDUs). Contents: principles of VDU construction; types, sources, measurements and levels of electromagnetic fields from VDUs; assessment of exposure and laboratory studies; health effects and human studies; organization of prevention and control measures. In appendix: statement of the IRCA Committee concerning alleged radiation risks from VDUs. As an overall conclusion based on current biomedical knowledge, it is stated that there are no health hazards associated with electromagnetic radiation or fields from VDUs. Further research is recommended, however, in particular in order to find out whether some skin complaints might be related to VDU work, and whether there might exist interactions between low-frequency magnetic fields and biological systems.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. viii, 53p. Illus. 93 ref. Price: CHF 15.00.
Decree No.989/93 concerning minimum safety and health requirements for work with visual display equipment [Portugal]
Portaria n°989/93 sobre às prescrições minimas de segurança e de saúde respeitantes ao trabalho com equipamentos dotados de visor [in Portuguese]
Decree taken pursuant to Decree-Law No.349/93 (CIS 99-23). Topics: CRT display terminals; illumination levels; law; lighting; noise level; Portugal; thermal environment; workplace design.
Diário da República, 6 Oct. 1993, I Serie-B, No.234, p.5603.
Decree-Law No.349/93 concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment [Portugal]
Decreto-Lei n°349/93 sobre as prescrições mínimas de segurança e de saúde respeitantes ao trabalho com equipamentos dotados de visor [in Portuguese]
Decree-Law transposing into Portuguese law Council Directive 90/270/EEC of 29 May 1990 (CIS 90-1069) on the same subject. Topics: CRT display terminals; information of personnel; law; medical supervision; penalties; Portugal; responsibilities of employers; vision tests; workplace design.
Diário da República, 1 Oct. 1993, I Serie-A, No.231, p.5554-5556.
Rest breaks for video display terminal (VDT) operators
Pauses pour les opérateurs et opératrices d'ordinateurs [in French]
Topics: Canada; CRT display terminals; data processing; data sheet; keyboard operations; workbreaks.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Nov. 1993. 2p.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
Data sheet on legal requirements for display screen equipment in the health services (United Kingdom), 1993. Topics: comment on law; CRT display terminals; data sheet; health services; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Apr. 1993. 2p. 1 ref.
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