Visual display terminals (VDTs) - 595 entries found
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McLean L., Tingley M., Scott R.N., Rickards J.
Computer terminal work and the benefit of microbreaks
Microbreaks are scheduled rest breaks taken to prevent the onset or progression of cumulative trauma disorders in the computerized workstation environment. The benefit of microbreaks by investigating myoelectric signal (MES) behaviour, perceived discomfort, and worker productivity while individuals performed their usual keying work were examined. Participants (all women) provided data from working sessions where they took no breaks, and from working sessions where they took microbreaks at their own discretion (control), microbreaks at 20min intervals, and microbreaks at 40min intervals. Four main muscle areas were studied: the cervical extensors, the lumbar erector spinae, the upper trapezius/supraspinatus, and the wrist and finger extensors. It was determined that microbreaks had a positive effect on reducing discomfort in all areas studied during computer terminal work, particularly when breaks were taken at 20min intervals. Microbreaks showed no evidence of a detrimental effect on worker productivity.
Applied Ergonomics, June 2001, Vol.32, No.3, p.225-237. Illus. 35 ref.
Order No.247/2001 of 20 May 2001 of the Government concerning the minimum safety and health requirements of work with visual display terminals [Slovak Republic]
Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky z 20. mája 2001 o minimálnych bezpečnostných a zdravotných požiadavkách pri práci so zobrazovacími jednotkami [in Slovak]
Order specifying the duties of employers related to the use of VDU terminals by their employees, as well as work-rest schedules related to such activities.
Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 30 June 2001, No.104, p.2638-2641.
Prevention of risks to health from work at data display screens
Prevención de riesgos en puestos de trabajo con pantallas de visualización de datos [in Spanish]
This booklet describes the characteristics of a work position in front of a computer screen and its ergonomic environment (work surface, chair, footrest, copy holder, work posture, equipment layout, lighting, arrangement of workplaces within the office, thermal environment). The ergonomics of the computer application used (ease of use, efficiency and suitability to the task at hand), the work organization and psychological issues (anxiety, stress) linked to work at computer screens are also important elements that need to be taken into account when conducting a job study. Appendices include: forms for conducting job studies of display-screen workplaces and self-evaluation exercises, including answers and comments.
IBERMUTUAMUR, Ramírez de Arellano 27, 28403 Madrid, Spain, 3rd Rev.ed., 2001. 64p. Illus. 21 ref.
Wolska A., Bugajska J., Drygała M., Najmiec A., Grabarczyk Z., Augustyńska D.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health at computer workstations - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy na stanowiskach z komputerami - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health at computer workstations is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 26+31p. 35+20 ref.
50 questions concerning work at screens
Le travail sur écran en 50 questions [in French]
This practical ergonomic guide consists of a compilation of 50 questions frequently asked by persons working on computer screens. For each question, it provides one or several solutions, ranked where possible by their ergonomic quality.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 3rd ed., May 2000. 29p. Illus. Price: EUR 5.10.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/F2A3325063AEA1E3C1256F09003F22E8/$FILE/ed923.pdf [in French]
Lonne-Rahm S., Andersson B., Melin L., Schultzberg M., Arnetz B., Berg M.
Provocation with stress and electricity of patients with "sensitivity to electricity"
A total of 24 patients with self-reported skin symptoms when exposed to electromagnetic fields were tested in a provocation study, together with 12 controls matched by age and sex. Both groups were exposed to 30-minute periods of high or low stress situations, with and without simultaneous exposure to electromagnetic fields from a visual display unit. Stress was induced by requiring the participants to react to a random sequence of flashing lights while simultaneously solving complicated mathematical problems. Blood samples were analysed for levels of the stress-related hormones and the expression of different peptides, cellular markers and cytokines. Skin biopsies were also analysed for the occurrence of mast cells. Patients reported increased skin symptoms when they knew or believed that the electromagnetic field was turned on. However, there were no differences under blind conditions. Inflammatory mediators and mast cells in the skin were not affected by the stress exposure or by exposure to electromagnetic fields.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.42, No.5, p.512-516. 30 ref.
Bertini M., Fattorini E.
The effects of monotonous tasks on ultradian and circadian changes in alertness and mood and EEG levels of drowsiness for VDT work activities
Effetti della monotonia del compito sulle variazioni ultradiane e circadiane della vigilanza e dell'umore e sui livelli di sonnolenza EEG nelle attività lavorative ai videoterminali [in Italian]
The vigilance and wakefulness of six male workers on computer terminals were evaluated by examining electroencephalographic changes in their sleep patterns. The changes can be attributed to relaxed vigilance subsequent to the performance of monotonous work. This kind of work may result in unforeseeable periods of sleep during the performance of the task.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.25-34. Illus. 20 ref.
Work without risk at your screen
Travaillez sans risque sur votre écran [in French]
Work at visual display screens under inappropriate conditions can give rise to health problems. This leaflet offers practical guidance for eliminating factors responsible for discomfort and fatigue. Contents include: characteristics of software applications; characteristics of the workplace for avoiding visual and postural fatigue; characteristics of the environmental conditions; work time schedules; medical supervision and visual aptitude.
Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 8p. Illus.
Stress and strain in the call centre
Belastung und Beanspruchung im Call-Center [in German]
The results of interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted in call centres in Germany are summarized. Employees in call centres spend long hours at visual display units while answering customer queries on the phone. Noise levels above 55dB(A), low humidity and inadequate furniture were observed at these workplaces. In interviews, managers of these units reported the following stress factors: simultaneous communication with many clients, uncertainty with regard to the callers' needs and handling complaints. The employees mainly reported constant time pressures, lack of recognition and frequently having to cope with new software. Evaluations of the results of questionnaire surveys on the neuropsychic stress among workers in call centres yielded lower stress scores for varied and demanding work than for monotonous work with low decision latitude.
Computer Fachwissen für Betriebs- und Personalräte, May 2000, Vol.9, No.5, p.4-11. Illus. 2 ref.
Park M.Y., Kim J.Y., Shin J.H.
Ergonomic design and evaluation of a new VDT workstation chair with keyboard-mouse support
A new-concept VDT workstation chair with an adjustable keyboard and mouse support was designed, based upon the result of 3-D graphical simulations and the anthropometric specifications of the Korean population. A prototype chair was constructed with a keyboard and mouse support directly attached to the chair body. An experiment was conducted to compare the new workstation chair to a conventional computer chair without a keyboard-mouse support by measuring muscle fatigue and surveying subjective discomfort. Six volunteer subjects participated in six 1-hour word-processing sessions with the two chairs and three different work postures. Results indicate that the new-concept VDT chair generally improved subjective comfort level and reduced fatigue in the finger flexor and extensor, and the low back muscles. Implications of the new design and suggestions for further development are addressed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 2000, Vol.26, No.5, p.537-548. Illus. 19 ref.
Shieh K.K., Lin C.C.
Effects of screen type, ambient illumination, and color combination on VDT visual performance and subjective preference
The effects of screen type, ambient illumination, and the target and background colour combination on visual identification performance and subjective preference for visual display terminal (VDT) screen characteristics were studied. Screen type significantly affected visual performance, subjects performing better with the thin film transistor liquid crystal display than with the cathode ray tube. Visual performance was better under 450 lx ambient illumination versus 200 lx. Colour combination also significantly affected visual performance, with blue letters on a yellow background resulting in the best performance and purple-on-red the worst. These were also the best and worst subjective preferences.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 2000, Vol.26, No.5, p.527-536. Illus. 29 ref.
Abreu P., Cruz E.
Working while seated - How to prevent backache
Trabalhar sentado - como prevenir as dores na sua coluna [in Portuguese]
The aim of this guide and CD-ROM edited by the Portuguese association of physiotherapists is to prevent back problems and discomfort during work in a seated posture, particularly when working with a computer. Main topics covered: anatomy of spinal column; causes of back problems; causes of discomfort (muscular tension, psychological stress, disc lesions, spondylarthrosis); health consequences of incorrect seated posture and repetitive movements; correct posture and movements; ergonomic design of the workplace; exercises to be done at the workplace and at home; advice for a healthy lifestyle.
Associação Portuguesa de Fisioterapeutas, Lisboa, Portugal, 2000. 15p. Illus. + CD-ROM
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 3: Visual display requirements - Amendment 1
Exigences ergonomiques pour le travail de bureau avec des terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 3: Exigences relatives aux écrans de visualisation - Amendement 1 [in French]
This is an amendment of the international standard ISO 9241-3 summarized in CIS 94-390. It describes a procedure for testing the visual quality of VDTs where the entire set of physical requirements cannot be applied, for example, to novel display technologies such as new types of flat panel display (such as electro-luminescent and field emission displays). The test consists of a search task and an assessment of visual comfort. The combination of test results will be referred to as the visual quality of a display. The intention is to provide a test method for displays that cannot otherwise be tested for conformance with this part of ISO 9241.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2000. iii, 13p. 40 ref.
International Labour Organization (ILO)
Working on CRT screens
Le travail sur écran de visualisation - T.E.V. [in French]
This tutorial kit for work on computer screens consists of 6 parts: complaints and rumours regarding computer screens; specific aspects of work at screens; definitions of the different types of work at screens; the screen environment (equipment and infrastructure, nature of the work and workload, work organization and conditions of work, challenges in the area of occupational medicine); ergonomics of the screen workplace (keyboard, screen, printer, work posture, lighting, sound and climatic conditions, radiation); ergonomic approach for improving the conditions of work at screens (design ergonomics and corrective ergonomics). Appendices are included on the nature of tasks, visual aspects and postural disorders.
Bureau international du Travail, Equipe multidisciplinaire pour l'Afrique Centrale, B.P. 13, Yaoundé, Cameroun, 2000. 3p., 3p., 6p., 17p., 18p., 21p. (6 folders in a box).
Health and Safety Executive
Display screen equipment work. Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 - Guidance on Regulations
This booklet provides guidance on the Health and Safety (Display Screen) Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-24), which came into force on 1 January 1993, and which implement Directive 90/270/EEC of 29 May 1990 (CIS 90-1069). Contents: type of equipment and categories of workers covered by the Regulations; analysis of workstations to assess and reduce risks associated with postural and visual problems, fatigue and stress; requirements for workstations (equipment, environment, interface between computer and user); daily work routine of users; eyes and eyesight (eyesight and vision screening tests and provision of corrective appliances); provision of training; provision of information; exemption certificates. Annexes include guidance on workstation minimum requirements and possible health effects of display screen equipment. Replaces CIS 93-543.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 2000. iii, 45p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 5.75.
Ergonomic visual display fonts
Bildschirmschriften ergonomisch [in German]
Resolution and size of the characters of different fonts available on most computers have been optimized for good legibility in documents printed by high-resolution ink-jet or laser printers. Also, choices with regard to character size, font, line spaces and format for a text being typed into the computer are made with the printed version of the text in mind. As a result, the text is not optimized for legiblity on the VDU screen. It is recommended to retain a wider spacing between lines, a character size of 12 or 14 points and a left-aligned format up to the final editing step. For computers using mandatory company-specific fonts which might not be screen-optimized, a software programme called "delta-hinting" is available which automatically adjusts the selected format to optimum legibility on the VDU screen regardless of the printed format.
Computer Fachwissen für Betriebs- und Personalräte, Mar. 2000, Vol.9, No.3, p.27-30. Illus.
Computers and data processing in the working environment
Datorn i arbetsmiljön [in Swedish]
Training manual on the ergonomics of computer use. Contents: overview of workplace issues; the ergonomy of computer work stations; vision and lighting; programming and system development; radiation, emissions and health effects; various types of computer screens and other computer equipment.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 4th Rev.ed., 2000. 92p. Illus. 38 ref.
Safety and health when working with VDUs
Segurança e saúde no trabalho com equipamentos dotados de visor [in Portuguese]
This leaflet provides information on the design of ergonomic workplaces for VDU users. Main topics covered: layout of the room, blinds, curtains, lighting, table height, position of the chair, footrest, keyboard, screen and clipboard, vision angle.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, no date. 4p. Illus.
Hernández Manso J.
Visual display units
Pantallas de visualización de datos [in Spanish]
This issue is devoted to the prevention of hazards related to working at screens. A first part presents the regulatory framework: Council Directive 90/270/EEC on the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment; Royal Decree 488/1997 concerning the assessment and prevention of hazards from using equipment with visual display units (CIS 99-684) and the health surveillance Protocol applicable to visual display units. Articles cover various aspects related to visual display units: hazard evaluation among employees of public administrations; health surveillance protocol for hospital workers; integrating ergonomics in office work; computer vision syndrome; integrated management of musculoskeletal hazards; measurement variations in the contrast threshold during extended periods of work. UNE and ISO standards on visual display units are listed, and 94 literature references from the CIS database are included, together with 43 references drawn from HSELINE, 4 from MEDLINE and 3 from NIOSHTIC.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1999, Vol.XLVI, No.181-182, p.i-vi; 3-259 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Wieland R., Koller F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
VDT workplaces on the test table of European Directives: Concepts, strategies and practical experiences
Bildschirmarbeit auf dem Prüfstand der EU-Richtlinien - Konzepte, Strategien und betriebliche Erfahrungen [in German]
This report describes SANUS, an approach for evaluating and organizing the layout of VDT workstations that take all current safety and health standards into account. The ergonomic aspects of computer hardware and software are discussed, together with the design of VDT workstation layouts that protect users' health while enhancing their productivity. Practical experiences in implementing SANUS in both small and large enterprises are presented. Results of these observations confirm the effectiveness of the SANUS approach.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 277p. Illus. 190 ref. Price: EUR 22.50.
What you need to know: Work with visual display units - What are the health concerns?
The use of VDUs at the workplace has become very widespread. This paper presents the main health hazard-related issues concerning VDUs, which include: radiation emission which causes adverse pregnancy outcomes, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields which may result in skin rashes, cataracts and visual complaints, photosensitive epilepsy, musculoskeletal disorders and stress-related complaints. The need for a multidisciplinary approach is highlighted, and guidelines for a suitable workstation and work environment, good work technique, work schedules and medical surveillance are outlined.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1999, Vol.40, No.9, p.612-613. 6 ref.
Choffat P., Desbazelle A., Eugène G.
Study of workplaces which require the use of both a screen and a telephone in customer-service jobs
Etude de postes de travail utilisant le couple téléphone-écran dans les services de relation-clientèle [in French]
This study investigated the working conditions of a total of 150 operators working in call centres of three catalogue-sales companies. Subjects were predominantly women. The tasks performed, environmental conditions, work organization and work evaluation were analysed. Findings include a high mental workload, as well as a risk that productivity targets imposed on workers goals give rise to stress. The use that supervisors and managers make of productivity-measuring tools could have important consequences on the mental health of call centre workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.8, p.755-759. 5 ref.
Brisson C., Montreuil S., Punnett L.
Effects of an ergonomic training program on workers with video display units
The effect of an ergonomic training programme for video display unit (VDU) users on their work posture and on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was evaluated. For both a study group that received the training and for a control group that did not, data were collected through direct observation of the workstations, self-administered questionnaires and a physical examination. The prevalence of the three postural stressors evaluated (twisted neck, inappropriate height of visual target, broken hand-wrist line) decreased in the experimental group after the training. In the control group, two of the three stressors decreased in frequency but to a lesser extent. Some of these beneficial changes were more frequent in workers under 40 years of age, for whom there was also a decrease in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.255-263. Illus. 34 ref.
Eisfeller G., Lorenz D., Schubert P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Implementation in enterprises of the Ordinance on VDU Use at Work. Collective agreements and methods for assessing working conditions with visual display units
Integration der Bildschirmarbeitsverordnung in die betriebliche Praxis - Betriebsvereinbarungen und Methoden zur Beurteilung der Arbeitsbedingungen an Bildschirmgeräten [in German]
The rising proportion of work tasks carried out with visual display units (VDUs) contributes to the increasing incidence of musculoskeletal disease, stress and impairment of visual faculties. This report examines the practical implementation of the German Ordinance on VDU Use at Work. In a questionnaire sent to 200 companies and answered by 137, it was found that only 29 had a collaborative agreement on the organization of VDU work, and that the aims and requirements of the underlying health and safety regulations had not been taken into account. With the help of check lists and flow diagrammes, this booklet gives detailed advice as to how risks must be assessed and workplaces and work schedules designed to reduce risks. As an example, frequent short breaks are recommended.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 108p. Illus. 118 ref.
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 6: Guidance on the work environment
Exigences ergonomiques pour le travail de bureau avec terminaux à écran de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 6: Guide général relatif à l'environnement de travail [in French]
Part 6 of this international standard specifies ergonomic requirements for work environment and workstations for work systems where VDTs are used for office work. Main factors to consider are: natural and artificial lighting; noise; mechanical vibration; electromagnetic fields and static electricity; thermal comfort, space organisation; workplace layout.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1999. iv, 32p. Illus. 29 ref.
NIOSH publications on video display terminals
This revised compilation (see CIS 88-170 and 92-179 for earlier editions) comprises a bibliography of publications on video display terminals (VDTs) written by NIOSH staff or funded by NIOSH, along with full-text copies of selected references. These include results of NIOSH studies and recommendations on VDTs regarding reproductive effects, exposure to radiation, musculoskeletal diseases, keyboard ergonomics, rest breaks and glare. Information on how to obtain listed items is included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 3rd ed., 1999. v, 134p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Fernandez J.E., Agarwal R., Landwehr H.R., Poonawala M., Garcia D.T.
The effects of arm supports during light assembly and computer work tasks
Three different investigations were conducted on the implementation of an arm support system and its effect on the level of pain and/or discomfort experienced by subjects while completing either a light assembly or a computer typing task. The types of arm support systems included no arm supports, Ergorest articulating arm supports, chair arm supports at maximum breadth, midpoint breadth, minimum breadth and counter-balanced arm slings. Results indicated that arm supports significantly impacted comfort, effort required, RPE, EMG activity and heart rate. It was concluded that in light assembly and computer work tasks, an arm support system would be recommended to minimize effort and RPE, and to maximize comfort. Computer use and light assembly work are an integral part of various workplaces which often require employees to work in constrained unsupported postures, at repetitive tasks and in precision work with hands, arms and fingers. The paper proposes a solution that could aid individuals in these environments.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 1999, Vol.24, No.5, p.493-502. 14 ref.
Forsman M., Kadefors R., Zhang Q., Birch L., Palmerud G.
Motor-unit recruitment in the trapezius muscle during arm movements and in VDU precision work
Shoulder myalgia, which is common in many occupations involving light-to-moderate manual work, may be due to an overuse of low threshold muscle fibres, causing damage at the muscle cell level. The study was undertaken to investigate to what extent it is possible to track low threshold motor-units in non-isometric conditions in the trapezius muscle, and to study the effect of arm movements on recruitment and firing patterns. Intramuscular fine wire electrodes were inserted in the trapezius muscle of four volunteers, who performed arm movements as well as standardized work using a computer mouse. Results showed that it was possible to perform signal tracking during slow movements and that there were motor-units that were active over a wide range of shoulder abduction movement, as well as in work with computer mouse. Stereotypic recruitment patterns are therefore shown to exist in the trapezius muscle not only in static work, but also in work situations involving arm and shoulder movements.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.24, No.6, p.619-630. Illus. 24 ref.
Kleine B.U., Schumann N.P., Brandl I., Grieshaber R., Scholle H.C.
Surface EMG of shoulder and back muscles and posture analysis in secretaries typing at visual display units
Female office workers typed texts spoken from tape during three 1-h-long sessions. EMG was recorded from the erector spinae, trapezium, deltoid and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Root mean square (RMS) and power spectrum median frequency of the EMG were calculated. The normalized RMS of the left and right trapezium muscle increased, while the median frequency did not change. The increase of the normalized RMS was significantly lower when the linear influence of posture was excluded. On average, the distance between C7 and the left and right acromion decreased within each working an hour. C7 became lower on average by 5.5mm within an hour, whereas the acromions became lower by only 1.7mm (left) and 3.3mm (right). The increase in trapezium muscle activity was partly related to a lifting of the shoulders to compensate a slight slumping of the back. The EMG activity increase is also attributed to fatigue, to attention-related activity or to both. Training of the back muscles and a varied organisation of work might have a preventive effect with respect to musculoskeletal complaints in VDU workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1999, Vol.72, No.6, p.387-394. Illus. 53 ref.
Marklin R.W., Simoneau G.G., Monroe J.F.
Wrist and forearm posture from typing on split and vertically inclined computer keyboards
A study was conducted on 90 experienced office workers to determine how commercially available alternative computer keyboards affected wrist and forearm posture. The alternative keyboards tested had the QWERTY layout of keys and were of three designs: split fixed angle, split adjustable angle and vertically inclined. When set up correctly, commercially available split keyboards reduced mean ulnar deviation of the right and left wrists from 12° to within 5° of a neutral position compared with a conventional keyboard. The finding that split keyboards place the wrist closer to a neutral posture in the radial/ulnar plane substantially reduces one occupational risk factor of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs): ulnar deviation of the wrist.
Human Factors, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.559-569. Illus. 20 ref.
Kayis B., Hoang K.
Static three-dimensional modelling of prolonged seated posture
Prolonged seating can cause musculoskeletal problems in the long term if poor postures are adopted. A three-dimensional static model of the body to calculate the intervertebral disc compression at the fifth lumbar disc was built. SAMMIE, a computer aided ergonomics package was used for modelling a computer operator workstation and determination of joint centre locations and joint angles in a seated posture. Experimentation was also performed to determine the body-mass distribution on the seat used. No significant difference between male and female body-mass distribution was found. The static model found that postures with the seat pan and backrest reclined predicted the lowest disc compression. Postures in which the operator was bent forwards gave the highest disc loadings. Topics: body mechanics; computer simulation; computer terminals; ergonomic evaluation; mathematical models; sitting posture.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1999, Vol.30, No.3, p.255-262. Illus. 42 ref.
Ergonomic requirements for work with visual displays based on flat panels - Part 1: Introduction
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail sur écrans de visualisation à panneaux plats - Partie 1: Introduction [in French]
Topics: CRT display terminals; design of equipment; ergonomics; evaluation of equipment; ISO; luminance measurement; office work; reflection; standard.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1 Oct. 1999. iv, 3p. 8 ref.
Burgess-Limerick R., Plooy A., Fraser K., Ankrum D.R.
The influence of computer monitor height on head and neck posture
The influence of "eye level" and "low" monitor locations on the head and neck posture of subjects performing a word processing task was investigated. Lowering the monitor to a position 18° below eye level had no significant effect on the position of the neck relative to the trunk, while mean flexion of the head relative to the neck increased by 5°. In the "eye level" condition the mean gaze angle was 17° below the eye-ear line, and in the "low" condition the average gaze angle was 25° below the eye-ear line. Lowering the monitor thus allows gaze angles closer to that preferred (somewhere between 35° and 44° below the eye-ear line) to be adopted. This suggests that recommendations of the "top of monitor at eye height" type must be questioned. Topics: angle of vision; computer terminals; CRT display terminals; design of equipment; ergonomic evaluation; man-computer interfaces; motion study; visual comfort; work posture.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.3, p.171-179. Illus. 21 ref.
Karlqvist L., Bernmark E., Ekenvall L., Hagberg M., Isaksson A., Rostö T.
Computer mouse and track-ball operation: Similarities and differences in posture, muscular load and perceived exertion
Posture, muscular load, perceived exertion, preference and productivity were investigated in 20 healthy VDU-operators during text editing with two different data input devices, a mouse and a track-ball. Arm support reduced muscle activity in the neck/shoulder region irrespective of the input device used. A table height lower than 3cm above elbow height allowed arm and shoulder support without undue shoulder elevation. Work with the track-ball entailed more wrist extension than work with the mouse. Perceived exertion ratings were lower for the shoulder and higher for the hand with track-ball than with mouse operation. Women elevated and rotated the right shoulder outwards more often than men during work with both input devices. Electromyography results showed higher activity among the women than among the men in two of the examined muscles. This may relate to anthropometric differences which influence biomechanical load moments or to the observed differences in working techniques between men and women. Topics: computer terminals; design of equipment; ergonomic evaluation; forearm rotation; man-computer interfaces; measurement of load on muscles; muscle contractor activity; muscular work; physical workload; sex-linked differences; upper extremities; work posture.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.3, p.157-169. Illus. 26 ref.
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 17: Form filling dialogues
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail de bureau avec terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 17: Dialogues de type remplissage de formulaires [in French]
Part 17 of this international standard provides conditional recommendations on dialogue design, input design and output design for computer dialogues in which form-filling and dialogue boxes are used to accomplish typical office tasks. It pertains to form-filling through both character-based and bit-mapped screens and input through keyboards and optional pointing devices such as mice. In addition, it includes the use of non-text methods for providing form entry data, such as list boxes. These recommendations can be used by designers throughout the development process and can also represent equipment-selection criteria in the procurement process.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1998. vii, 35p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: CHF 122.00.
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 12: Presentation of information
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail de bureau avec terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 12: Présentation de l'information [in French]
Part 12 of this international standard provides ergonomic recommendations for the presentation of information and specific properties of presented information on text-based and graphical user interfaces used for office tasks. It provides recommendations for the design and evaluation of visual presentation of information, including coding techniques. These recommendations can be used throughout the design process. The coverage of colour is limited to ergonomic recommendations for the use of colour for highlighting and categorizing information. Additional recommendations for the use of colour are provided in Part 8 of this standard.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1998. v, 46p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: CHF 142.00.
Do you know the right way of working with visual display units (VDU)?
Work at visual display units (VDUs) may give rise to eyestrain and muscular pain of the back, neck, arm, shoulders and wrists. This information leaflet provides guidance on ergonomic principles to be applied in VDU workstation design and work practices. Contents: checklist of workstation features (screen, keyboard, mouse, chair, table size); position of the VDU; glare prevention; lighting; work practices; work posture; medical examinations.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 1998. 6p. Illus.
International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Visual display units: Radiation protection guidance
Arabic translation of the ILO publication analysed under CIS 94-693. It provides an overview of knowledge concerning radiation issues of work with visual display units (VDUs). Contents: principles of VDU construction; types, sources, measurements and levels of electromagnetic fields from VDUs; assessment of exposure and laboratory studies; health effects and human studies; organization of prevention and control measures. In appendix: statement of the IRCA Committee concerning alleged radiation risks from VDUs. As an overall conclusion based on current biomedical knowledge, it is stated that there are no health hazards associated with electromagnetic radiation or fields from VDUs. Further research is recommended, however, in particular in order to find out whether some skin complaints might be related to VDU work, and whether there might exist interactions between low-frequency magnetic fields and biological systems.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1998. 107p. 89 ref.
Cail F., Cnockaert J.C., Méreau P.
Visual display units - Guide to a methodological approach for occupational physicians
Les écrans de visualisation - Guide méthodologique pour le médecin du travail [in French]
The new working environments resulting from the spread of information technology require an understanding of the problems of visual load, workplace layout and task organization. This guide is aimed at helping occupational physicians avoid or correct situations likely to give rise to physical or mental health problems among operators working on visual display units. Contents include: basic concepts of visual fatigue; display of information; the physical environment; postural constraints; psychological factors; aptitude testing; medical follow-up. Replaces CIS 85-981.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 4th ed., Dec. 1998. 83p. Illus. 21ref.
Order No.973 of 1 Dec. 1998 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy on occupational safety and hygiene in places of work equipped with computer screens [Poland]
Rozporządzenie Ministra Pracy i Polityki Socjalnej z dnia 1 grudnia 1998 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy na stanowiskach wyposażonych w monitory ekranowe [in Polish]
Topics: angle of vision; computer terminals; CRT display terminals; ergonomic evaluation; law; Poland; visual comfort; work posture.
Dziennik Ustaw, 10 Dec. 1998, No.148, p.5392-5394.
Giannini A.M., Bonaiuto P.
Stress characteristics and conditions in people working with computers: Ideas for preventive action
Caratteristiche e condizioni dello stress negli operatori al computer: Indicazioni per la prevenzione [in Italian]
Major study of mental stress in people who work regularly with computers. Contents: definition of stress and its opposite states; criteria for the classification of different kinds of stress; study techniques; short-term stress and the so-called alarm phase; principal medium- and long-term effects of stress - resistance and burn-out phases; stress, comfort and computer and telecommunication technologies - work with computers; ideas for prevention (main areas for intervention: training, work equipment, working environment, job activities, factors outside the job, personality issues, forms of specific job training).
Istituto Italiano di Medicina Sociale, Via P.S. Mancini, 28, 00196 Roma, Italy, 1998. xi, 112p. Illus. Approx. 300 ref.
Working with VDUs - The implementation of Directive 90/270/EEC in Sweden and Germany
Detailed commentary on the implementation in Sweden and Germany of the European directive concerning visual display units (see CIS 90-1069).
European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety (TUTB), 155 Bd Emile Jacqmain, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1998. 41p. Illus. 16 ref.
Turville K.L., Psihogios J.P., Ulmer T.R., Mirka G.A.
The effects of video display terminal height on the operator: A comparison of the 15° and 40° recommendations
Standard workplace design recommendation is to position the centre of video display terminals (VDTs) 15° below horizontal eye level. Recently a viewing angle of 40° below horizontal has been suggested for visually intensive tasks. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of these two VDT positions on muscular activity, muscular fatigue, head/neck posture, visual acuity, operator performance, heart rate and operator subjective assessment. The experimental task consisted of reading text from a computer screen and answering reading comprehension questions using a mouse and a keyboard. The 40° VDT position showed significantly greater head tilt angles and higher muscle activity levels for six of the 10 neck, shoulder and back muscles sampled. No significant differences in visual acuity, operator performance or heart rate were detected as a result of monitor location. Seven of the 12 subjects preferred the 15° monitor position.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1998, Vol.29, No.4, p.239-246. Illus. 35 ref.
Protection from solar radiation at the workplace
Sonnenschutz im Objektbereich [in German]
The new German ordinance which regulates the design of visual display workstations requires the prevention of glare. In many offices sunshades will have to be installed to comply with this requirement. A survey of available sunshades is given. Horizontal and vertical baffles inside windows, and awnings outside windows are discussed. Tips for the selection of sunshades are presented. Manufacturers of sunshades in Germany are listed and the types of products they offer are illustrated. Topics: CRT display terminals; Germany; glare; offices; screens; selection of equipment; solar radiation; visual comfort; windows.
BTH, Bodenbeläge, Tapeten, Heimtextilien, July 1998, No.7, p.91-106. Illus.
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail de bureau avec terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 5: Aménagement du poste de travail et exigences relatives aux postures [in French]
Topics: anthropometry; CRT display terminals; equipment layout; ergonomics; ISO; office work; sitting posture; standard; standing posture; work posture; workplace design.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1 Oct. 1998. v, 25p. Illus. 2 ref.
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 13: User guidance
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail de bureau avec terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 13: Guidage de l'utilisateur [in French]
Topics: check lists; CRT display terminals; design of equipment; ergonomics; ISO; man-computer interfaces; office equipment; office work; standard.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 July, 1998. v, 32p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: CHF 106.00.
Aptel M., Cail F., Claudon L., Morel O., Renouard M.L., Tranchet E.M.
Ergonomics of hand tools - Key issues and state of the art
Ergonomie des outils à main - Problématique et état de l'art [in French]
This report contains two literature analyses on the ergonomic design of industrial hand tools and visual display unit input devices. Two examples are given concerning: 1) the assessment of biomechanical stresses resulting from the use of hand tools and 2) the conditions and environment of hand tool use. Topics: age-linked differences; anthropometry; body mechanics; computer terminals; design of equipment; ergonomics; hand tools; literature survey; man-computer interfaces; musculoskeletal diseases; repetitive strain injury; sex-linked differences; stapling; work posture.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 1998. 148p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Chi C.F., Lin F.T.
A comparison of seven visual fatigue assessment techniques in three data-acquisition VDT tasks
Methods of measuring visual fatigue (accommodation power, visual acuity, pupil diameter, critical fusion frequency (CFF), eye movement velocity, subjective rating of visual fatigue, and task performance) were compared for their sensitivity to visual load. Ten participants performed a monitoring task at two viewing distances, read articles under two levels of screen contrast, and tracked visual targets at two different speeds. The techniques were also compared by extending the task time from 20 to 60min with the same tasks to test for possible improvement in sensitivity. Results indicated that sensitivities of accommodation power, visual acuity, and CFF were greatly improved by a longer task period, but these techniques did not distinguish among tasks. Pupil diameter, eye movement velocity, and subjective rating of visual fatiguewere sensitive in differentiating tracking from reading and monitoring tasks. Eye movement velocity and subjective rating were sensitive to the changes in target velocity of the tracking task. Task performance helped to ensure that participants maintained the same performance level by devoting more resources to the high-load conditions. Topics: comfort assessment; CRT display terminals; data processing equipment; evaluation of technique; visual acuity; visual comfort; visual fatigue; visual flicker fusion; visual performance; visual tasks.
Human Factors, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.4, p.577-590. Illus. 15 ref.
Effects of display resolution on visual performance
The role of display resolution in visual information processing was investigated in two experiments. The first examined the effects of two CRT conditions (resolutions of 60 and 120dpi) and a paper control condition (255dpi) on proofreading speed and accuracy. Results showed that reading performance was significantly better in the paper condition than in the two CRT conditions. The second experiment examined the effects of three different CRT resolutions (62, 69, and 89dpi) on eye movement parameters in a visual search task. Search Reaction Times (RTs) and fixation durations were significantly increased in the low resolution condition as compared with the high resolution condition. There is evidence for stronger fatigue in low resolution conditions. Additionally, the extent of visual fatigue correlates both with search RTs and eye movement parameters. Observers' responsiveness to effects of display resolution in terms of visual fatigue differs markedly. Use of high resolution displays (90dpi and greater) is recommended to optimize visual performance, to make prolonged on screen viewing more comfortable, and to avoid visual fatigue. Topics: comfort assessment; CRT display terminals; data processing equipment; design of equipment; perceptual-motor performance; visual acuity; visual comfort; visual displays; visual fatigue; visual performance; visual tasks.
Human Factors, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.4, p.554-568. Illus. 28 ref.
Sharit J., Czaja S.J., Nair S.N., Hoag D.W., Leonard D.C., Dilsen E.K.
Subjective experiences of stress, workload, and bodily discomfort as a function of age and type of computer work
A sample of 394 subjects ranging in age from 20-75 years performed a computer task (data entry, information retrieval, and accounts balancing) across a 3-day period. Age differences in the subjective experience of stress, workload, and bodily discomfort were evaluated. The results indicated that age effects for these measures varied according to task. The older subjects perceived greater workload for the more mentally challenging problem-solving oriented accounts balancing task (which involved a graphical user interface) than the younger participants, even with increased exposure to the task. However, the older subjects generally experienced less stress than the younger subjects on an information retrieval task that involved a more socially interactive telephone component. A positive relationship between the frustration component of workload and the measure of stress was also found, suggesting an important link between the constructs of stress and workload. Overall, the outcomes of this study provide important insights into design interventions intended to accommodate older as well as younger persons in the workforce. Topics: age; age-linked differences; comfort assessment; CRT display terminals; mental stress; mental workload; office work; physical workload; questionnaire survey; stress evaluation; subjective assessment; work capacity; workload assessment.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1998, Vol.12, No.2, p.125-144. Illus. 24 ref.
Travis D., Heasman T.
Health and Safety Executive
DSE health problems: User-based assessments of DSE health risks
Topics: artificial lighting; backache; CRT display terminals; eye irritation; fatigue; hazard evaluation; health hazards; migraine; neck disorders; questionnaire survey; risk factors; shoulder; thermal environment; visual function disorders; workplace design.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. vi, 47p. 2 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
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