Lighting and colour - 381 entries found
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Method for determining the equivalent luminance for mesopic vision
Metoda wyznaczania luminancji równoważnej w obszarze mezopowych adaptacji oka [in Polish]
The method described consists of comparing photopic and scotopic luminances found by specific photometric tests (for example, using coloured filters) with those found by a standard test, for various eye adaptation levels. It permits the graphic representation of the relationship between standard values and spectral sensitivity relative to the eye for a given luminance level. This relationship is valid for light sources with an ordinary spectral distribution (the difference, compared to means found for monochromatic light around 420-640 nm, does not exceed 20%). Consequently, the correction coefficients for readings made using physical photometers varied from 0.01 to around 15 for the various luminance levels of mesopic vision.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1973, Vol.23, No.77, p.157-178. Illus. 33 ref.
A luminance concept for working interiors.
Paper presented at the Illuminating Engineering Society Conference held on 24-27 July 1972 at Tulsa, USA. A discussion of preferred object luminances in working interiors includes definitions of minimum and optimum object luminances for ordinary and exacting visual tasks, and an illumination scale. A luminance scale for interior lighting based on preferred wall and ceiling luminance and maximum luminaire luminance is presented; the consequences for practical installations are reviewed. A survey of the lighting installations in a radio components factory and an office based on the author's luminance scale concludes the article.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Jan. 1973, Vol.2, No.2, p.92-98. Illus. 5 ref.
Visibility assessment in lighting engineering.
Report No. 19 (1972) of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) entitled "A unified framework of methods for evaluating performance aspects of lighting" is reviewed by a member of the CIE committee which prepared it. Different criteria for the determination of thresholds of visual perception are discussed, especially the suggested concept of relative contrast sensitivity. The concepts developed are used to evaluate and specify lighting conditions on the consistent basis of contrast factors and their significance for visibility and performance of visual work. It is concluded that this system provides a basis for comparing lighting conditions and is applicable to visual tasks involving small targets, young observers and photopic luminance levels.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, July 1973, Vol.2, No.4, p.437-444. Illus. 14 ref.
The I.E.S. code for interior lighting.
This code, which takes into account all important developments in lighting in the last 5 years, is intended as a guide to good practice for daytime and night-time lighting of building interiors. Part 1 deals with lighting design principles and covers: general lighting design (amount of light, directional effects in lighting, colour, glare etc.); maintenance of general lighting systems; emergency lighting design; lighting in relation to heating, ventilating and acoustics; check list for design of electric lighting systems. Part 2 deals with lighting design data (lamp data, daylighting schedule, general schedule). 7 appendices include: illuminance and luminance calculations; design methods for interior lighting schemes; measurement of illuminance; surface colours and reflectances; directional effects in lighting; contrast rendering; CIE colour rendering index. A glossary of terms used in interior lighting and a bibliography are appended.
The Illuminating Engineering Society, York House, 199 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7UN, United Kingdom, Jan. 1973. 99p. Illus. 109 ref. Price: £2.00.
Some problems concerning the environmental conditions in office rooms.
Even in modern well-equipped buildings where environmental conditions are within the range of health and comfort standards, complaints are made concerning temperature, air cleanliness, noise and lighting. An investigation was carried out among office workers to compare the opinions of the workers on their environment with actual measured conditions. Points discussed include: comparison of opinions between smokers and non-smokers; relation between evaluation of the work environment and sleep on the previous night; relation between evaluation and stress of work; relation between comfort evaluation and actual health condition of workers.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Aug. 1973, Vol.49, No.8, p.425-447. Illus. 48 ref.
A method for determining colour schemes for rooms at the design stage
O metodike rasčeta cvetovogo rešenija pomeščenija po ėskizu [in Russian]
The method described consists in: (1) determining the colour co-ordinates of the walls and the reflection factors of the walls, floor and ceiling with the aid of the architect's drawings; (2) calculating the colour saturation of the walls and the luminance of the floor and ceiling; (3) determining the relation between the colour saturation of the walls and the luminance of the floor and ceiling; and (4) selecting the colour saturation of the walls, their reflection factor and the reflection factors of the floor and ceiling from the chromaticity diagram in such a way that they satisfy a given equation.
Naučnye raboty institutov ohrany truda VCSPS, 1973, No.83, p.37-42. Illus. 1 ref.
Hultgren G.V., Knave B.
Discomfort glare and disturbances from light reflection in an office environment with CRT display terminals
Kontrastbländning och reflexstörningar i kontorslandskap med bildterminaler [in Swedish]
The authors studied the lighting of an office equipped with 17 CRT display terminals and analysed complaints from the staff. Discomfort glare and reflections on the terminal screens were found to be the main causes of the complaints. Discomfort glare resulted from difference in luminance between the dark screen and other lit surfaces in the room. Reflections from windows and ceiling lighting appearing on the glossy screen were often found to have higher luminance values than the text on the screen. On the basis of these results, guiding principles are suggested for the design of lighting in similar workplaces.
Arbete och hälsa - vetenskaplig skriftserie, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 10026 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1973:1, 16p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: Swe-cr.6.00.
Henderson S.T., Marsden A.M.
Lamps and lighting.
Contents of this manual containing 34 contributions from different authors: fundamentals (light, vision, colour, photometry, colorimetry, lighting data and computations); lamps (lamp materials; phosphors; incandescent lamps; tungsten halogen lamps; photoflash lamps; fluorescent lamps; sodium lamps; mercury lamps; metal halide, xenon and neon lamps; electroluminescent devices; semiconductor lamps); luminaires and circuits (electrical circuits for lamps; design and manufacture of luminaires; optical control in luminaires); and lighting (electric lighting of interiors; daylight in interiors; industrial lighting; office lighting; shop lighting; school and hospital lighting; stage and studio lighting; transport lighting; installation, maintenance and economics). Lamp data, a glossary of terms (IEC terminology is used throughout the book), conversion tables to SI units, standards and technical reports and a bibliography are appended.
Edward Arnold (Publishers), 25 Hill Street, London W1X 8LL, United Kingdom, 2nd edition 1972. 602p. Illus. 207 ref. Price: £5.75.
Light and lighting - Theory and practice of lighting engineering
Licht und Beleuchtung - Theorie und Praxis der Lichttechnik [in German]
Condensed account of the current state of lighting engineering, covering physical and mathematical principles, the physiology and psychology of light, its evaluation and applications. This is more a reference work than a manual. A description of the structure and function of the eye and of the measurement system used in lighting engineering is followed by an account of different aspects of visual capacity. Further sections are devoted to classical lighting problems: measurement of light and colour; lighting engineering considered as the science of light generation; materials used in lighting and luminaires; interior and exterior lighting and other applications of light. The book is not confined to practical information; it gives scientific guidance for the establishing and carrying out of projects.
Siemens A.G., Berlin and München, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1972. 344p. Illus. 400 ref. Price: DM.89.00.
Koehler and Wolf permissible flame safety lamps.
The purpose of this guide is to assist instructors in enabling trainees unfamiliar with the Koehler and Wolf safety lamps to learn the proper operation and care of the instrument. It is in 4 parts: suggestions to the instructor; introduction to the course; text of the course (history, theory and description of permissible flame safety lamps, assembly, disassembly, maintenance, safety testing, testing for methane by the travelling flame and "cap" flame methods, detection of oxygen-deficient atmospheres, limitations); and visual aids. The course is supplemented by a questions and answers section and an instructor's course evaluation form. The 24 visual aids are available in various forms (slides, flip charts, etc.).
Instruction Guide 15, Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, Sep. 1972. 52p. Illus. Gratis.
USSR State Board for the Building Trade (Gosstroj SSSR), Moskva.
Standards and rules for building construction - Part II, section A, chapter 9: Artificial lighting - Design standards
Stroitel'nye normy i pravila - Čast'II, razdel A, glava 9: Iskustvennoe osveščenie - Normy proektirovanija [in Russian]
This standard, which was adopted on 21 June 1971 and entered into force on 1 Oct. 1971, applies to the design and choice of lighting equipment for newly built or rebuilt industrial buildings and premises, agricultural installations, outdoor workplaces and communication ways. Tables give recommended illumination levels for different visual tasks (according to contrast and background characteristics), ancillary premises, outdoor workplaces and communication ways, etc. Specifications are given for lamp installation heights and tolerable glare.
Izdatel'stvo literatury po stroitel'stvu, Kuzneckij most 9, Moskva K-31, USSR, 1972. 24p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.15.
Natural lighting and colour schemes in work premises
Oświetlenie dzienne i kolorystyka pomieszczeń pracy [in Polish]
Having considered the architectural aspects of lateral lighting in industrial premises (window size and arrangement, sunlight, etc.), colour schemes are discussed with special reference to the need to integrate colour and lighting at the design stage. Physical colour characteristics must be exploited to correct lighting conditions, facilitate visual perception, etc.
Ochrona pracy, Feb. 1972, Vol.26, No.2, p.15-18. Illus.
Colour psychology at the workplace
Farbenpsychologie am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Application of colour psychology principles to workplace design contributes to conditions that are favourable to a happy work atmosphere, a happy worker and increased output. Data on optimum illumination, light density and colour temperature are followed by recommendations on colour recognition, visual field colour breakdown and, in particular, a choice of colours psychologically suited to the job. It is claimed that a careful choice of colour miight reduce the accident frequency rate by 40%.
Ärztliche Praxis, 29 Feb. 1972, Vol.24, No.18, p.927.
Bennett C.A., Rey P.
What's so hot about red ?
It is a popular belief that lights or surfaces whose dominant frequencies are toward the red end of the visual spectrum are "warm" and those toward the blue end are "cool". Simple tests conducted on 21 subjects confirmed previous results and indicated that hue does not have any observable effect on thermal comfort judgment. It is concluded that the hue-heat effect is strictly an intellectual belief.
Human Factors, Apr. 1972, Vol.14, No.2, p.149-154. 7 ref.
Experience with an artificially lit and ventilated factory
Erfahrungen mit einer künstlich beleuchteten und belüfteten Fabrikanlage [in German]
Description of a factory building (12.600m2, manufacturing telecommunications equipment, 1000 employees) artificially lit and ventilated and devoid of all roof glazing: factory characteristics, operation with and without heating, regulation of atmospheric humidity, lighting, colour selection, sound levels, dust collection. Special reference is made to microclimate control.
WT - Werkstattstechnik, 1972, Vol.62, No.4, p.189-193. Illus. 1 bibl.
Sicherheitsbeleuchtung [in German]
To eliminate the hazards of lighting failure in artificially lit premises, an emergency lighting system should be installed even where this has no direct effect on plant productivity. The purpose and value of emergency lighting are explained and the various systems available are described with special reference to those operating from a central battery, and the various types of lamps that can be used (incandescent and fluorescent). Reliability and viability criteria are considered.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, May 1972, No.5, p.167-171, and June 1972, No.6, p.210-212. Illus.
Luminescent materials in safety lighting
Leuchtstofflampen in der Sicherheitsbeleuchtung [in German]
The minimum illumination of 5 lx recommended in 1949 by the ILO in its Model Code of Safety Regulations for Industrial Establishments is considered inadequate in many countries. Fluorescent lamps are therefore required in such installations, and for this reason semiconductor inverters and series equipment have been developed for fluorescent lamps; circuit diagrams are provided to show their operation. Switching from mains to battery operation occurs virtually without interruption. Another piece of equipment makes it possible to switch in the emergency-operation circuit in the event of a starter proving defective. Advice is given on suitable batteries.
Technische Rundschau, 9 June 1972, Vol.64, No.24, p.41-43. Illus.
Krol' C.I., Mjasoedova E.I.
Method of calculating the level of glare produced by lighting in industrial buildings
Metody rasčeta pokazatelja osleplennosti v osvetitel'nyh ustanovkah vnutrennego osvesčenija proizvodstvennyh zdanij [in Russian]
Description of a simple technique for checking whether industrial lighting meets the permissible glare requirements laid down in USSR standards. Tables of maximum glare are included.
Svetotehnika, May 1972, No.5, p.19-24. Illus.
Lighting-level standards for metal-cutting machine tools
Normy osveščennosti metallorežuščih stankov [in Russian]
The criteria used in the standardisation of industrial lighting are: the visibility of the visual task (threshold of contrast between the object and the background); relative visibility (comparison between existing lighting conditions and optimal conditions); and perception velocity. Graphs are given to show the results of calculations of these criteria applied to the lighting of machine-tool operator work stations. It is found that visual work capacity increases with work-surface luminance, and this is of particular importance in the case of precision work. Referring to the results of field studies, the author makes recommendations on the optimal layout of light sources for illuminating machine-tool work stations.
Svetotehnika, May 1972, No.5, p.1-4. Illus. 7 ref.
Recommendations for the provision of emergency lighting in premises
Recommendations for providing adequate emergency lighting for persons in the event of interruption of normal illumination, with particular reference to the level of hazard and the familiarity of occupants with the particular premises. The 2 requirements to be met by emergency lighting are that all means of escape from the premises must be easily recognisable and that everyone should be able to see the way to the nearest exit speedily and in safety. Individual sections are devoted to: vision and illumination; emergency lighting systems; general design considerations; specific design considerations; categories of emergency lighting systems; classes of premises; typical specification for an installation.
British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers' Association Ltd., 8 Leicester Street, London WC2H 7BN, United Kingdom, 1972. 24p. Illus.
Neil A.G., Bell W.B.
Lighting in coal mines
The history of lighting in mines is reviewed and the introduction of mains lighting explained. Tbjectives of underground lighting are indicated (to enable work to be done safely, to increase and to improve the environment) and the types of light sources and fittings used underground are described (roadway lighting, coal-face lighting and personal lamps). Work on the qualitative assessment of underground lighting is described.
Light and Lighting and Environmental Design, Aug. 1972, Vol.65, No.8, p.259-262. Illus.
Flameproof or explosionproof construction for lighting units is explained and reference is made to recent British Standards on this subject. The areas in which flameproof luminaires must be used are described and classified and a review is made of the various suitable types of luminaire available on the market in the United Kingdom. Typical applications of flameproof luminaires in areas where there are vessels, pumps, compressors, etc., containing flammable liquids, gases or vapours are detailed and the system of approval and certification is explained.
Light and Lighting and Environmental Design, Aug. 1972, Vol.65, No.8, p.256-259. Illus.
Hultgren G.V., Knave B.
Illumination studies - Guidelines and examples for their application
Belysningsstudier - Riktlinjer och exempel på tillämpning [in Swedish]
These general guidelines for the investigastion and assessment of workplace lighting conditions give advice on how to make inquiries (a model questionnaire for interviews is reproduced), how to measure the illumination level, how to determine the luminance, light direction and light colour, and how to make the final report (a report form is attached). Two examples illustrating the application of these guidelines are described in detail. The first applies to a chemical laboratory with mixed natural and artificial lighting, and the second to a data processing centre where the staff complained of eye troubles and excessively strong lighting.
Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Stockholm, Sweden, 1972. 15p. Illus. 5 ref.
Voronkova S.V., Nesterova I.L.
A comparison of various alternative methods of lighting spinning frames
Sopostavlenie variantov osveščenija prjadil'nyh mašin [in Russian]
Results of illumination calculations for different methods of lighting spinning frames. Comparison of illumination levels showed that for the majority of the spinning frames tested, where the yarn passes through the drawing section at an angle of 70-75° with the horizontal, the effective illumination is higher if lighting units are placed parallel to the machines instead of crosswise. This was not true, however, for the following cases: where there was only a narrow passageway between the machines, where the machines were very wide, or where the lighting units were not mounted high enough.
Svetotehnika, Sep. 1972, No.9. p.5-7. Illus. 5 ref.
Association française de l'éclairage
Recommandations relatives à l'éclairage intérieur [in French]
Individual sections are devoted to: definitions; general concepts; natural exterior and interior lighting; artificial lighting (lamps, fittings); lighting quality (elimination of discomfort sources, choice of light source, colour rendition); lighting levels (general lighting, local lighting, safety lighting, installation degradation and maintenance, light measurement) and recommended illumination levels for various premises, sites and jobs (manufacturing industries, food, printing, textile, clothing, leather, woodworking, rubber, chemical, glass, pottery industries, smelting, refining and metalworking, collieries, transport, commerce, agricultural buildings; residential accommodation, theatres, cinemas, gymnasiums, offices, educational establishments, and hospitals).
Lux, Société d'éditions de propagande, 52 boulevard Malesherbes, 75 Paris 8, France, 9th edition, Jun. 1971. 47p. Illus.
The effect of light on man and its significance in accident prevention
Der Einfluss des Lichtes auf den Menschen und seine Bedeutung für die Unfallverhütung [in German]
Light not only serves for information transmission via the eye but also acts, through special nerve paths, on the neurovegetative-system regulation organs which control the whole of the body's metabolism and functions. Thus good lighting not only facilitates vision but also increases the worker's appetite for work and his sentiment of wellbeing, intensifies concentration and prevents premature fatigue. Sections are devoted to: the effect of illumination level on visual acuity; the stimulating effect of light on motivation, concentration and reactivity; the effect of thermal radiation from lamps; requirements for the achievement of good illumination quality and good colour rendition; results of research on the effect of lighting on accidents and productivity.
Moderne Unfallverhütung, 1971, No.15, p.67-71. Illus.
Thorington L., Parascandola L., Cunningham L.
Visual and biologic aspects of an artificial sunlight illuminant
A new criterion is proposed for artificial light sources involving both visual and biological considerations. Characteristics of a fluorescent light source which closely approximates this criterion. Review of research relating to the biological effects of this light on plants, animals and people.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Oct. 1971, Vol.1, No.1, p.33-41. Illus. 53 ref.
Committee on Testing Procedures, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York
Practical guide to photometry
This guides is intended to supplement the IES "General guide to photometry" by providing detailed practical information on photometric testing equipment and procedures. It consists of 9 sections: introduction, nomenclature, definitions and explanations; the photometric laboratory; photometric equipment; instruments in the photometric laboratory; photometry of fluorescent luminaires; photometry of incandescent luminaires; measuring luminance; and calibration of lamps.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Oct. 1971, Vol.1, No.1, p.73-96. Illus. 35 ref.
Cotton Gin Subcommittee, Industrial Committee, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York
Lighting for cotton gins
These recommendations are applicable to the various operations and premises in the cotton ginning industry. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of illumination, lighting for specific tasks, and maintenance of light fittings and room surfaces.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Oct. 1971, Vol.1, No.1, p.68-72. Illus. 3 ref.
Lighting and vision at the work post
Beleuchtung und Sehen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
An introduction summarising various concepts and some of the laws of lighting and discussing the measurement of levels of illumination is followed by an account of various aspects of the physiology of vision (variation of visual capacity and acuity as a function of luminance and contrast, adaptation, glare, effect of fatigue on visual capacity). Much space is devoted to the problem of brightness on which indirect glare depends. The second section of the book covers the applications of lighting engineering: direct, indirect and mixed lighting of the workpost; distribution of illumination levels and luminous efficacy; luminance; light colour and colour rendering; flickering; illumination level required at the workpost; general or individual lighting; landscaped offices and premises without windows. In conclusion: rules for the design of workplace lighting (luminaire arrangement, study of internal and natural lighting).
Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, Neumarkter Strasse 22, 8 München 80, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1970. 224p. Illus. 130 ref. Price: DM.28.00.
Artificial lighting in factory and office
Künstliche Beleuchtung in Betrieb und Büro [in German]
L'éclairage artificiel dans les ateliers et les bureaux [in French]
This information note describes the basic requirements of lighting in the workplace and provides guidance on the choice of illumination level, selection of lamps and light fittings, installation planning, interior colour treatment, maintenance, situations requiring special lighting techniques, glare assessment and control and diagnosis and remedy of complaints.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Sep. 1965. ii, 61p. Illus. 6 ref.
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