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Lighting and colour - 381 entries found

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CIS 76-1882 Birkhahn.
Climate, light, colour
Klima, Licht, Farbe [in German]
Part 1 of this article: brief comments on in-plant microclimate, psychological environment and ventilation, followed by a study of visual acuity and lighting conditions (luminance and colour). Part 2: considerations on lighting conditions necessary for good vision (sufficient luminance, illumination homogeneity, prevention of glare and diffuse reflection, colour rendition). Comparison of colour of light from various lamps.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1976, Vol.7, No.2, p.8-12; and Mar. 1976, No.3, p.30-33. Illus.

CIS 76-1292 Coudray M.
Study on the effect of working conditions on the eye in the Cellulose du Pin paper manufacturing plant (with reference to the Bègles, Facture, Roquefort and Tartas factories)
Enquête sur les conditions oculaires de travail dans les Papeteries de la cellulose du pin (à propos des usines de Bègles, Facture, Roquefort, Tartas). [in French]
MD thesis. Review of the principles of lighting conditions of workplaces from the point of view of preservation of visual function. Results of a study in the maintenance and fabrication departments of a structured cellulose pulp plant, with fixed and mobile workposts, and definition of new internal standards to improve illumination conditions. Analysis of eye hazards and eye accidents occurring throughout the plant, and recommended prevention measures. Summary of specifications for illumination and prevention of eye accident hazards at each workpost of the service department (machinery maintenance, carpentry, boiler maintenance, electricity, garage), and the fabrication department (wood shop, pulping, bleaching and refining, pulp presses, packing, dispatch, etc.), boiler room, power substation, laboratories and administration offices.
Université de Bordeaux II, Faculté de médecine, Bordeaux, France, 1975. 50p. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 78-995 Glagoleva T.A., Rjabec V.A.
Standardisation of artificial lighting in workplaces in the USSR and other countries
Normirovanie iskusstvennogo osveščenija proizodstvennyh pomeščenij v SSSR i za rubežom [in Russian]
This booklet analyses and compares recent progress in the standardisation of artificial lighting conditions in workplaces in the USSR and other countries (Australia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Germany (Dem.Rep.), Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, USA, Yugoslavia): illumination levels according to visual task, quality of lighting (reduction of glare, distribution of luminance within the visual field, limitation of light reflection and flicker). A large part of this booklet is devoted to standards for certain industries (machinery industry, joining and fastening work, printing, textiles, clothing, woodworking industry, footwear, building, mining, offices). Conclusions and recommendations for subsequent standardisation. Annex: comparative tables taken from standards of various countries.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda VCSPS, Moskva, USSR, 1975. 67p. 46 ref. Price: Rbl.0.35.

CIS 76-2041 Bourderioux J.
The working environment in the textile industry
Les ambiances de travail dans l'industrie textile. [in French]
Paper presented to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Textile Industry (Lille, France). Contents: microclimate (heat balance, sense of comfort, hygrometric situation); air renewal (ventilation, distribution); heating (air heaters, heating units, etc.), air conditioning (psychrometric chart, installations, etc.); visual comfort; natural and artificial lighting; illumination levels; general or localised lighting; choice of lamps and luminaires; colour contrast, choice of colouring of interior surfaces. Tables show temperature levels, degree of humidity and illumination level measured or recommended in various wool, cotton, flax, synthetic-fibre and other spinning and weaving mills. Temperature and humidity curves.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 16 Oct. 1975. 21p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 76-1879 Kaplinskaja M.Ju.
Diffuse reflection and means of eliminating it
Vualirujuščee otraženie i sposoby ego ustranenija [in Russian]
Results of experimental research with a view to preventing eye strain due to diffuse reflection from locally lit work surfaces, as in the case in draughtsmen's, industrial design and blueprint copying offices, etc. The research covered interdependence of the relative positions of observer, visual task and light source, and the optical characteristics of the object. Parameters of visibility in relation to flux spread are shown in diagrams.
Svetotehnika, June 1975, No.6, p.2-5. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 76-1291 Spieser R., Herbst C.H., Höfler K., Wuillemin A.O.
Lighting engineering handbook
Handbuch für Beleuchtung [in German]
This manual, which is concerned mainly with practical aspects, is the work of more than 30 specialists belonging to West German, Swiss and Austrian lighting engineering associations. Contents: definitions and units; effects of lighting on man; lamps; properties of materials and light fixtures; calculation and measurement of daylight; study and calculation of interior lighting; light measurement; design of interior lighting (especially in industry, business, offices, schools, hospitals, apartments, restaurants, theatres, museums, libraries, sports centres), public lighting and industrial exterior lighting; safety and emergency lighting. Each chapter is preceded by a table of contents and followed by a bibliography and mention of pertinent standards of international organisations or those of the 3 countries.
Verlag W. Girardet, Postfach 9, 43 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 4th edition, 1975. 486p. Illus. 535 ref. Price: DM.140.00.

CIS 76-1290 Hollwich F., Dieckhues B., Meiners C.O.
Physiological importance of light for man
Die physiologische Bedeutung des Lichtes für den Menschen [in German]
In the course of its evolution the human eye has become fully adapted to daylight. Results of experiments on animals and human subjects show the relations which exist between light, on the one hand, and metabolic and enzyme activity, on the other. Referring to previous work, the authors consider possible physiological influence of artificial light on man: spectrum differences between artificial light and daylight, intensity, stress and blood picture; performance, monotony of artificial light. Conclusions: the artificial light spectrum is still very different from that of daylight; artificial light should be considered only as an adjunct to daylight; illumination levels should be chosen having regard to biological effect and not merely with a view to performance.
Lichttechnik, 1975, Vol.27, No.10, p.383-394. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 76-1289 Courau P.J.
Lighting at the workplace
L'éclairage des lieux de travail. [in French]
This article presents a general review of the subject. Contents: natural lighting; evaluation (daylight factor), conditions for good sidelighting (arrangement of windows, glass materials), rooflighting (skylights with plane glass or sky domes, sawtooth sections); conditions for visual comfort; articifial lighting: visual performance, illumination level, glare, balancing of luminance values, light sources (incandescent, fluorescent and discharge lamps), colour temperature and colour rendering index, various types of luminaires, lighting installations (determination of illuminance, choice of lighting installation, choice of light sources and colour, determination of total luminous flux and of the power and number of light sources); air-conditioning and light. Detachable inserts (18p.) contain a systematic summary of the study.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1975, Vol.15, No.59, p.5-59. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 76-1288 Colour schemes for workplaces
Couleurs d'ambiance pour les lieux de travail. [in French]
This standard gives general information on this subject and makes recommendations enabling the choice of colours for workplaces to be made in the light of standardised basic principles and criteria. Contents: general conditions for achieving optimal visual environment (definitions, study of balanced luminance and colour contrasts, importance of incidental light); implementation (examples).
Norme française enregistrée NF X 08-004, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, July 1975. 4p. 3 ref.

CIS 76-992 Kelley W.D., Riegel K., Nelson H., Weale R.A., Crouch C.L., Cogan D.G., Halldane J.F., Fry G.A., Blackwell H.R., Blackwell O.M., Grimaldi J.V., Yonemura G.T.
The occupational safety and health effects associated with reduced levels of illumination.
Papers presented at a symposium held in Cincinnati, Ohio, on 11-12 July 1974, on the following subjects: the Federal Energy Administration's lighting energy conservation programme; the General Services Administration's approach to energy conservation in lighting; illumination levels in the United Kingdom; the Illuminating Engineering Research Institute and illumination levels currently being recommended in the United States; lighting and health hazards; some notes on photometric units and an abstract on behavioural performance criteria; lighting, performance and age variation; ocular discomfort and other symptoms of eyestrain at low levels of illumination; visual dysfunction; individual differences in contrast sensitivity; illumination levels and safety; what are the lighting needs of the worker? Appendices include lighting and thermal operations guidelines of the U.S. Federal Energy Administration and additional statements by the participants.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-142, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Mar. 1975. 149p. Illus.

CIS 76-991 Lindner H.
Illumination level and work performance - Systematics of experimental studies
Beleuchtungsstärke und Arbeitsleistung - Systematik experimenteller Grundlagen [in German]
Experimental evaluation of the illumination level is distinguished as physiological-optical, work-physiological or psychophysiological. This article classifies and analyses the literature according to this scheme. Details of the publications (year, author, type of activity dealt with, increased illumination level and enhancement of performance, and reduction in errors and accidents) are tabulated and discussed. Optimum values of 1,300-2,500lx were obtained on the basis of subjective criteria. The article also aimed to show that there are various methods of evaluating the illumination level, each of which investigates very specific effects of light. Age structure should be taken into account in subsequent studies.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Feb. 1975, Vol.21, No.2, p.101-107. 67 ref.

CIS 76-703 Nussbaum H.
Overcoming glare, a problem with interior lighting installations
Speziell in Innenbeleuchtungsanlagen: Schach der Blendung [in German]
The various types of glare occurring in lighting technology as a result of excessive or irregular luminance are explained: glare caused by temporal or local differences in luminance ("successive" and "relative" glare), reflected glare, disability and discomfort glare. Söllner's method of evaluating glare is fully explained for the planning of lighting installations. The main factors operative are luminance, luminous intensity, luminous flux, solid angle, luminance distribution and critical viewing angle. The calculation is illustrated by a number of examples. A further technique is based on the maximum permissible luminance curves laid down in the German standard DIN 5035, which is also illustrated by examples of calculation.
Elektro und Radio, 20 June 1975, Vol.28, No.12, p.12-13; 5 July 1975, No.13, p.13-14; 20 July 1975, No.14, p.8-9; and 5 Aug. 1975, No.15, p.16-18. Illus.

CIS 76-702 Epanešnikov M.M., Undasynov G.N., Fedjukina G.V.
Influence of discomfort on fatigue and on output
Issledovanie vlijanija diskomforta na utomlenie i proizvoditel'nost' truda [in Russian]
Description and results of research carried out in artificial conditions of visual comfort and discomfort in proofreaders. Visual discomfort (glare, low level of illumination) causes significant increase in eye fatigue and a slight falling-off in output and quality of work. The relations established between increase in eye fatigue and reduced output, on the one hand, and increase in the discomfort factor, on the other, can be used as criteria for evaluating lighting conditions.
Svetotehnika, Feb. 1975, No.2, p.10-12. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 76-107 Schütz R.
Technical consideration on the lighting of underground workings in coal mines
Lichttechnische Überlegungen zur Beleuchtung im Steinkohlenbergbau unter Tage [in German]
After a review of the physical parameters and physiological ocular effects of light underlying the solution of lighting problems, the author gives some general recommendations on the lighting of underground workings, dealing more particularly with lighting of indoor premises and transport installations in coal mines: illumination level, uniform distribution of light, reduction of glare, direction of incident light and shadow formation, light colour.
Glückauf, Jan. 1975, Vol.111, No.1, p.25-30. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 76-106 Wegner J.
A new basis of calculation for natural lighting of indoor premises
Neue Grundlage für die Innenraumbeleuchtung durch Tageslicht [in German]
The natural illumination of indoor premises is determined essentially by the luminance of the sky. The distribution of the mean effective luminance serves as a basis for calculating the illumination level. Description of an apparatus for measuring luminance with recording on punched tape and automatic scanning of the sky (optical and mechanical elements and measuring procedure). Comparison of luminance values shows that an "average" sky is distinctly brighter than an overcast one, and that luminance depends on the direction faced. As a result, the duration of useful periods of daylight for the purpose of lighting is longer than that hitherto employed in calculations.
Gesundheits-Ingenieur, May 1975, Vol.96, No.5, p.127-131. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 76-105 Bedocs L., Pinniger M.J.H.
Development of integrated ceiling systems.
This paper discusses the requirements to be met by fully integrated ceiling systems incorporating lighting, air-handling, sound control and fire protection and the test specifications for their individual components. Appendices are devoted to the determination of plenum depression and heat transfer values of the luminaire and to the presentation of integrated ceiling systems in use in two large offices. The discussion which followed the presentation of the paper is reproduced.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1975, Vol.7, No.2, p.69-84. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 76-104 Wright W.D., Birch J., Palmer D.A.
Colour vision characteristics.
This paper is in 3 parts. Part 1 summarises present knowledge about the colour perception process (not the colour vision theory) and discusses questions which are still unanswered. Part 2 deals with defective colour vision, its classification and investigation. Part 3 is devoted to the relationship between colour perception and level of illumination. The discussion which followed the presentation of the paper is appended.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1975, Vol.7, No.3, p.155-168. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 76-103 Lighting outdoor locations of electric generating stations.
These recommendations deal with the lighting requirements of outdoor installations and areas in hydroelectric power plants, pumped-storage stations, fossil-fuel plants and nuclear power stations. A table lists the levels of illumination recommended for various areas and tasks; these range from 2 to 54lx. Advice is also given on lighting techniques, lighting control and emergency lighting.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Electric Generating Stations Subcommittee, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, Jan. 1975. New York, USA, Apr. 1975, Vol.4, No.3, p.220-228. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 76-102
Aircraft Industry Subcommittee, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, Jan. 1975.
Lighting for the aircraft/airline industries - Manufacturing and maintenance.
These recommendations cover all operations which are peculiar to the aircraft manufacturing industry and to the maintenance of aircraft engines. Lighting for safety is also dealt with. Illumination levels required for efficient production are tabulated for the various areas and tasks; they range from 11 to 11,000lx in aircraft manufacturing, and from 540 to 2,200lx in aircraft maintenance. The minimum levels of illumination recommended for the safety of personnel and for allowing movement (but not for task performance) vary between 5lx (slight hazards and low activity) and 54lx (high hazards and high activity).
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Apr. 1975, Vol.4, No.3, p.207-219. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 76-266 Roedler F.
Aspects of the working climate in landscaped offices
Arbeitsklimatische Gesichtspunkte für Grossraumbüros [in German]
The interrelations between lighting, microclimate and noise in landscaped offices render close collaboration between the architect and specialists in these 3 disciplines necessary. The author examines problems of lighting (relation between illumination level, firstly, and daylight, heat production, glare, and influence of windows); microclimate (temperature distribution, supply and exhaust of air via the ceiling, cigarette smoke); the acoustics (sound level up to 50-55dB(A), ceiling design, carpeting and furniture, production of background noise by electroacoustic means). Recommendations on these different points are made.
Gesundheits-Ingenieur, July-Aug. 1975, Vol.96, No.7/8, p.184-189. Illus.

CIS 75-1592 Arnold F.D.
Lighting conservation - Environmental implications.
Pertinent excerpts from a technical letter, "The conservation of lighting energy" published by Syska and Hennesy, Inc., in Jan. 1975 are reproduced. More effective lighting can be obtained while conserving energy by: use of task-oriented lighting, use of non-uniform lighting patterns, new and imaginative lighting controls, luminaire light controlling elements, paying attention to surface colours and reflection, utilisation of daylight, improving operations and maintenance. The article emphasises that all these lighting energy economy measures will not sacrifice lighting effectiveness, if properly applied.
Journal of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1975, Vol.37, No.5, p.438-441.

CIS 75-1591 Henderson R.L., McNelis J.F., Williams H.G.
A survey of important visual tasks in offices.
Profusely illustrated article describing investigations carried out with visibility meters on light requirements for various office tasks, and pointing out the hazards of eyestrain and risk of serious consequences when, for instance, poor carbon copies of handwritten medical data are wrongly interpreted, due to inadequate or badly placed lighting, by copy typists in hospitals, etc. The article analyses seeing tasks and visibility data. Illumination requirements for 29 office tasks are given in tabular form. Conclusions and recommendations include: grouping work of similar task difficulty in space illuminated uniformly to appropriate level; providing non-uniform lighting appropriate for each workplace, etc.
Lighting Design and Application, Jan. 1975, Vol.5, No.1, p.18-25. Illus. 6 ref.


CIS 75-1590 Faermark M.A.
Influence of illumination level on performance of various visual tasks
Vlijanie urovnja osveščennosti na ėffektivnost' zritel'noj raboty pri raznoj strukture tehnologičeskoj operacii [in Russian]
Results of a comparative study concerned with visual tasks of varying complexity performed at 3 illumination levels (70, 260 and 1,600lx). Performance was evaluated according to 3 criteria (speed, quality and eye fatigue). The operating speed increased by 20-25% between 70 and 1,600lx, while eye fatigue was reduced. The quality of the work was also improved, as the fall in the reject rate (35-45%) testifies. The illumination level has a marked influence on precision tasks.
Svetotehnika, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.8-10.

CIS 75-1589 Epanešnikov M.M., Perova N.S., Undasynov G.N.
Choice of optimum illumination levels for administrative workplaces
Vybor optimal'nogo urovnja osveščennosti dlja pomeščenij administrativnyh zdanij [in Russian]
Recapitulation of the various criteria applied to date to establish optimum illumination levels and comparison of lighting standards of 12 countries. Results of studies on work output, eye fatigue and subjective evaluation of lighting at different illumination levels between 100 and 3,000lx, in young subjects with normal vision. The optimum illumination level yielded by the criteria output and eye fatigue was around 1,000lx; that based on subjective criteria ranged from 1,200 to 3,000lx. Consideration of all the criteria used in the study yielded values of 1,000-1,200lx.
Svetotehnika, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.12-14. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 75-1588 Rajcel'skij L.A.
Installation of emergency lighting
K voprosu ustrojstva avarijnogo osveščenija [in Russian]
Considerations on the installation of emergency lighting networks in industry (safety and economic aspect) are followed by tables indicating the minimum illumination levels prescribed by Soviet standards for industrial and emergency lighting in workshops of different sizes for a variety of activities.
Svetotehnika, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.8-10.

CIS 75-1309 Sokolova E.G., Loseva E.I., Sosnova T.L., Frid Ju.V.
Optimum parameters for artificial lighting in a locomotive cabin
Ob optimal'nyh parametrah iskusstvennogo osveščenija v kabine lokomotiva [in Russian]
Results of observations on 26 healthy persons aged 18-30 years, carried out with a view to establishing the optimum illumination level for locomotive control panels. 800 observations were made in conditions of daylight, dusk and night darkness. It was found that an illumination level of 20-30lx gives optimum visibility of the control panel instruments, and that the optimum ratio of brightness distribution lies between 1:1 and 1:3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.20-23. 3 ref.

CIS 75-1308 Zenkov V.G., Zemcov V.A.
Lighting in breeding farms
Osveščenie pomeščenij životnovodčeskih kompleksov [in Russian]
Recommendations for mixed lighting of large-surface sheds, stables, and pigsties. The article reproduces equations for calculating natural lighting (from above and the side) and gives advice on the installation of additional artificial lighting. Table comparing the minimum illumination levels laid down in national standards (USSR, USA, United Kingdom, France, Fed.Rep. and Dem.Rep. of Germany, Poland) for different types of breeding farms.
Mehanizacija i ėlektrifikacija socialističeskogo sel'skogo hozjajstva, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.22-24. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 75-1379 Prokeš P., Pelikán M.
Occupational disease due to rubber affecting miners in the Ostrava-Karviná Basin
Profesionální poškození pryží u horníků ostravsko-karvinských dolů [in Czech]
The authors report an outbreak of 198 cases of allergic eczema of occupational origin among miners, due to contact with the electric flexes of helmet lamps. The results of an inquiry held showed that the phenomenon was caused by an increase in the amount of antiozonant, Santoflex IP (N-isopropyl-N'-phenylparaphenylenediamine) added to the rubber sheathing of the flexes, without prior consultation with hygienists. The authors had the flexes covered with extra sheathing to prevent contact with the rubber, and then had the composition of the rubber modified.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1974, Vol.26, No.8, p.305-308. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 75-990 Lindner H., Knoche H.
Faulty lighting as a cause of visual disturbances - A study of lighting conditions in a dispatcher centre
Mangelhafte Beleuchtungsgüte - Ursache von Sehbeschwerden: Eine Untersuchung der Beleuchtungsverhältnisse in einer Dispatcherzentrale [in German]
After some introductory remarks on the quality of lighting and the relationship between the illumination level and luminance, the authors stress that a knowledge of the illumination level alone does not provide information on the lighting conditions that can be used for physiological evaluation. Report on the method and results of research on the illumination levels and luminance values in a road traffic dispatcher centre. Recommendations on the illumination level, prevention of glare, luminance conditions, shadows, and colour of the light.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1974, Vol.21, No.3, p.107-114. 10 ref.

CIS 75-1132 Floss E.F.
Occupational hygiene problems involved in the reconstruction of a shotblasting workshop
Arbeitshygienische Probleme bei der Rekonstruktion einer Stahlkiesanlage [in German]
Review of the layout and installation of a shotblasting shop for steel sheets and sections in a railway equipment factory. Description of the measures taken, in collaboration with various specialists, in the fields of noise abatement, air conditioning and lighting, having regard to the results of research undertaken in the Dem. Rep. of Germany and abroad: lining of the roof with wooden elements and installation of sound baffles (sound-absorbent cones); soundproofing of cabins and shotblasting machines; use of air-supplied dust hoods; exhaust of dust-laden air and supply of fresh air with humidity and temperature regulation; illumination by daylight; general lighting by fluorescent lamps.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1974, Vol.21, No.3, p.93-106. 98 ref.

CIS 75-988 Light and lighting - Artificial lighting in enclosed spaces - Determination of average illumination on the working plane and walls
Lumière et éclairage - Eclairage artificiel en espace clos - Détermination des éclairements moyens sur le plan utile et sur les parois. [in French]
This standard prescribes a general method for the determination of average illumination delivered, under artificial lighting, on the working plane or the walls of any given premises, in relation to the characteristics of the luminaires used, the photometric features of the premises and the geometric features of the lighting system. The procedure for calculating the average illumination is in 2 steps: determination of the direct luminous fluxes on the walls, then of the reciprocal reflections. Reference tables for calculations are appended.
Norme française homologuée NF S 40-001, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, June 1974. 39p. Illus.

CIS 75-987 Zieseniss C.H.
Lighting in industrial establishments
Beleuchtung in Industriebetrieben [in German]
The principal characteristics of various types of lamps for general lighting are given in tabular form. Advice on illumination levels, luminance distribution, prevention of glare, colour of light, colour rendering. Study of installations for general and local lighting. Combination of artificial lighting and daylight roof lighting in factory premises. Maintenance of lighting installations. Conditions to be met by emergency lighting. Integrated air-conditioning and acoustic systems.
VDI-Z, Sep. 1974, Vol.116, No.13, p.1060-1065. Illus.

CIS 75-986 The determination of illumination at a point in interior spaces.
This report of the Illuminating Engineering Society discusses the assumptions, limitations, advantages and disadvantages of various common methods of determining illumination at a point in a space. Each method is briefly described, and the procedures to be followed in making the relevant computations are illustrated by examples.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Jan. 1974, Vol.3, No.2, p.170-201. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 75-701 Brundrett G.W.
Human sensitivity to flicker.
Flicker of fluorescent lamps may have a fatiguing effect. To assess the importance of lamp flicker in offices, three types of study were undertaken: sensitivity to flicker (fusion threshold, influence of age on flicker sensitivity, electro-physiological study), measurement of cyclic light fluctuations of fluorescent lamps on 50Hz a.c. supply, office appraisals to assess attitudes of personnel and effects of flicker. The results reveal that significant numbers of people, especially young people, see flicker, and that the 50Hz component is the one which is normally seen. Lamp measurements show that this 50Hz light modulation remains at a low value for the first 7-8000h of operation and thereafter rises more rapidly. Planned lamp replacement is therefore essential. Discussion of the experiments.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1974, Vol.6, No.3, p.127-143. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 75-395 Rüschenschmidt H.
Influence of lighting on safety at the workplace
Einfluss der Beleuchtung auf die Sicherheit am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
It has been claimed that the human factor plays a part in 80% of accidents and that lighting is involved in 40% of them. A study of the relationship between the illumination level and human reactivity and fatigue shows that a bright white light enhances attention and work capacity. Other correlations are to be found between lighting, visual acuity and the colour of the light. The effect on safety of general colour scheme, visual adaptation, glare and visual functional disorders is examined.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, July 1974, No.7, p.281-288. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 75-394 Kaplinskaja M.Ju., Šerman A.A.
Plotting the curve of luminous intensity of a luminaire to be used for design offices
Rasčet krivoj sily sveta svetil'nika dlja osveščenija čertežno-kopiroval'nyh i konstruktorskih bjuro [in Russian]
In design offices and similar premises, direct glare (reflection of the light source by the working surface) has a primary influence on visibility. Research undertaken to improve the conditions of work of draftsmen and designers has resulted in the development of a mathematical method for determining the influence of direct glare on the efficiency of lighting. This method enables the curve of luminous intensity required for the uniform lighting of a given office to be plotted.
Svetotehnika, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.10-12. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 75-393 Hultgren G.V., Knave B.
Discomfort glare and disturbances from light reflections in an office landscape with CRT display terminals.
Detailed analysis of lighting conditions in a landscaped office following complaints by computer terminal operators of sore eyes, eye strain and headaches from glare and light reflections on the 17 variously situated terminal display screens. Describes the methodology and examines the levels of illumination and the luminance at the various workplaces, their relation to the positions and backgrounds of the terminals, and the respective effects of daylight and artificial light. Measures suggested to eliminate reflections include placing of screens around workplaces; artificial lighting might best solve the problem of discomfort glare.
Applied Ergonomics, United Kingdom, Mar. 1974, Vol.5, No.1, p.2-8. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 74-1765 Measures to avoid noisy and poor lighting conditions in restaurants, etc.
Motvirkning av skadelige lyd- og lysforhold i bevertningsbedrifter m.v. [in Norwegian]
Measures to protect the staff of restaurants, night clubs, etc. against the harmful effects of noise and insufficient lighting: the noise level of music amplifiers should not exceed 85 to 90dB(A); the general lighting conditions should be such as to avoid eye strain or fatigue; adequate lighting should be maintained during the floor show or stage performance to enable waiters to perform their duties without eye strain.
Veiledning nr.4, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, Apr. 1974, 3p. Gratis.


CIS 75-989
Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, July 1973.
Recommended practice for marine lighting.
This data sheet contains lighting recommendations for the principal parts of merchant ships. Seeing tasks are defined and illumination levels for tasks in the living, recreation, service, navigating, and operating areas are listed. Individual chapters deal with the objectives of shipboard lighting, selection of light sources, lighting distribution systems and lighting design with examples for interior and exterior lighting. An annex gives rules for maintenance of the lighting system.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, July 1974, Vol.3, No.4, p.397-410. Illus.

CIS 75-386 Safety lighting in industrial establishments
L'éclairage de sécurité dans les établissements industriels. [in French]
Distinction between safety lighting and emergency lighting; physiological data concerning safety lighting; assessment of required illumination levels; elements of safety lighting, installations, etc.; choice of light source. Extracts from French regulations on the subject.
Edition INRS n°347, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Oct. 1973. 12p. Illus.

CIS 75-243 Čabák L.
Work environment in the textile industry
Technika prostredia v textilnom priemysle [in Slovak]
A report on the results of a large-scale survey of health conditions in the Czechoslovak textile industry. References to pertinent Czechoslovak standards and literature published in other countries on the subject. A distinction is drawn between old and new undertakings. The following aspects are covered: microclimate (dilemma posed by the exigencies of technical engineering factors on the one hand, and occupational health criteria on the other); dust problem in the cotton, flax and wool industries at all production stages (considerable numerical data); noise problem; lighting. Each section contains information on preventive measures (recommended or already in use).
Bezpečná práca, 1973, Vol.4, No.6, p.18-24. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 74-1891 Sommer J., Loef C.
Subjective illumination level
Subjektive Beleuchtungsstärke [in German]
The experiment described demonstrates that the luminous effect produced by 2 surfaces with equal reflective power depends not only on their luminance but also on the angle of view. The results of a series of evaluation tests showed that there is a psychological lighting scale and a simple mathematical relationship between subjective and objective illumination levels. These results confirm the opinion that lighting should be considered as an independent psychophysical criterion which facilitates the development of simpler models than those which could be produced on the basis of luminance.
Lichttechnik, 1973, Vol.25, No.6, p.305-308. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 74-1595 Code of basic data for the design of buildings - Chapter I. Lighting. Part 2. Artificial lighting.
This code provides basic data for the design, installation and maintenance of artificial lighting systems in buildings. Sections are devoted to: general principles (definitions, materials, design process, etc.); lamps and control gear; luminaries (associated with air conditioning, etc.); lighting requirements for various types of buildings (industrial premises, offices, catering, etc.).
CP3: Chapter I:Part 2:1973, British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London W1A 2BS, United Kingdom, 28 Sep. 1973. 30p. 47 ref. Price: £3.00.

CIS 74-1278 Stark H., Nickel D.
Exterior and interior lighting on construction sites
Die Gestaltung der Beleuchtung auf Baustellen und bei Innenausbauten [in German]
A statement of the criteria which should be satisfied by construction site lighting is followed by an account of the current situation from the engineering viewpoint with reference to work carried out in various countries and particularly in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The following texts are appended: relevant GDR standards and "Directives concerning external lighting systems in worksites", which ccntain detailed guidelines concerning illumination levels, fitting out lighting systems, calculation methods applicable to exterior lighting, etc.
Ergonomische Berichte, 1973, No.11, 79p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: M.7.40.

CIS 74-1275 Gramoni R., Perez J., Rey P.
Lighting standards and visual perception at workposts (lithography and textile industry)
Normes d'éclairage et perception visuelle aux postes de travail (lithographie et industrie textile). [in French]
A study of the lighting of 3 workposts involving considerable eye strain: lithographic workers' luminous workbenches; mending weaves and fabric, and inspecting knitted fabric, in the textile industry. The article reviews the complaints of lithographic workers and the results of eye tests carried out on them. Laboratory experiments were carried out to quantify the diminution of visual acuity the workers complained of and which it was impossible to detect objectively. Apart from the question of the recommended level of illumination at a given workpost, the authors stress the importance of the distribution of luminance which ergonomists designing the lighting for a workpost should bear in mind.
Lille médical, 1973, Vol.18, No.8, p.909-916. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 74-1019 Specification for light sources for miners' portable electric lamps.
This standard specifies light sources (i.e. filament lamps) for use in miners' portable electric lamps, states technical requirements for ensuring quality and interchangeability and describes test methods together with conditions of compliance concerning the acceptability of batches of light sources. The batch tests described cover: inspection tests (visual, mechanical and physical requirements); rating tests (initial current and luminous flux); and life tests (lumen maintenance and life). Quantities of lamps to be used and compliance numbers for each test are given. The statistical basis of the tests is explained in an appendix.
BS 535:1973, British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London W1A 2BS, United Kingdom, May 1973. 10p. Illus. Price: £1.00.

CIS 74-1018 Lowson J.C.
Lighting for seeing.
The basic requirements for the comfortable and efficient performance of visual tasks are defined, and reference is made to the relevant Australian standards. In planning workplace illumination, the quality of lighting is as important as the quantity supplied. Causes of common complaints are given, and the influence of lighting level on the performance of tasks of varying detail size is discussed. The idea that older workers need more light than normal to maintain their efficiency is examined in some detail and shown to be a fallacy.
Personnel Practice Bulletin, June 1973, Vol.29, No.2, p.126-135. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 74-1017 Lewin I.
New concepts in direct glare control.
An account of the visual comfort probability (VCP) method for the evaluation of discomfort glare is followed by the presentation of a simplified technique, the "equal area equal glare" system. Optical lighting design stressing high VCP and efficiency is discussed and a new lens system for luminaires consisting of a grid of uniform refractive elements is presented. Results of a comparative assessment of this lens system are tabulated.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Apr. 1973, Vol.2, No.3, p.209-215. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 74-1016 Faulkner T.W., Murphy T.J.
Lighting for difficult visual tasks.
The most effective method for improving the visibility of difficult visual tasks is to determine the optimal character of light for each task. The nature and applicability of the following types of light are given: colour of light source; transillumination (directing the light of a large diffuse source through a transparent product); crossed polarisation; polarised light; shadow-graphing; spotlighting; brightness patterns; diffuse reflection; edge lighting; dark-field illumination; convergent light; stroboscopic lighting; moving light images; surface grazing or shadowing; black light; moiré patterns; and "combination" lights.
Human Factors, Apr. 1973, Vol.15, No.2, p.149-162. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 74-1015
RP-7, Illuminating Engineering Society, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 1973. 47p. Illus. Price: US-$4.00.
Standard practice for industrial lighting.
This standard, approved on 6 June 1973 as American National Standard ANSI A11.1-1973, deals with: general conditions (factors affecting seeing tasks in industry, factors of good illumination, influence of environmental factors); building design for the use of daylight; electric lighting (luminaires, general and supplementary lighting, special techniques); maintenance (cleaning of luminaires). Tables give recommended levels of illumination for special working areas and lighting techniques for specific visual tasks. A section describes the effect of lighting on safety and lists minimum levels of illumination for safety purposes. Appendices provide additional information as to determination of desirable illumination levels, measurement of disability glare, electrical distribution systems and light sources.
RP-7, Illuminating Engineering Society, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 1973. 47p. Illus. Price: $-US.4.00.

CIS 74-1014 Konarski S.P.
Method for determining the equivalent luminance for mesopic vision
Metoda wyznaczania luminancji równoważnej w obszarze mezopowych adaptacji oka [in Polish]
The method described consists of comparing photopic and scotopic luminances found by specific photometric tests (for example, using coloured filters) with those found by a standard test, for various eye adaptation levels. It permits the graphic representation of the relationship between standard values and spectral sensitivity relative to the eye for a given luminance level. This relationship is valid for light sources with an ordinary spectral distribution (the difference, compared to means found for monochromatic light around 420-640 nm, does not exceed 20%). Consequently, the correction coefficients for readings made using physical photometers varied from 0.01 to around 15 for the various luminance levels of mesopic vision.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1973, Vol.23, No.77, p.157-178. Illus. 33 ref.

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