Lighting and colour - 381 entries found
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Design of "Intelligent buildings" with improved use of daylight
"Intelligent Building" durch verbesserte Tageslichtnutzung [in German]
An innovative method of better using the daylight in buildings is described. The new natural lighting system takes into account the different needs of homes and offices. In offices attention is paid to providing visual comfort at work on visual display terminals. Special, patented mirrors are used to control solar radiation in summer and provide better use of it in winter. With these mirrors the daylight is directed to locations distant from the window. Solar radiation can be guided towards building structures such as concrete floor slabs which are capable of storing thermal energy.
Licht, Aug. 1996, Vol.48, No.7-8, p.588-596. Illus. 22 ref.
The selection of colour on the monitors of control panels
Zur Wahl von Farben auf Bildschirmen an Leitständen [in German]
Recommendations for the application of colour in displays on the control panels used in manufacturing are presented. They are derived from the present knowledge of the perception and effects of colours. The recommendations will be part of the new German guideline VDI/VDE 3699 which is being prepared at present.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Jan. 1996, Vol.50 (22 new version), No.1, p.1-12. Illus. 65 ref.
Webber G.M.B., Shipp M.P.
Health and Safety Executive
Review of emergency lighting and way-guidance systems for offshore structures
Current national and international codes and draft codes for emergency lighting and way-guidance systems are reviewed. Factors to be considered for application of the codes in hazardous areas are outlined, and emergency lighting standards and electrical and non-electrical way-guidance standards are assessed for potential application offshore. Findings from studies of the effects of smoke on the visibility of signs are also presented. While there is no single code that specifies appropriate criteria for offshore way-guidance systems, some current standards for emergency lighting remain applicable.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. v, 77p. Illus. 101 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Barlier A., Salsi S.
Hazards of exposure to ultraviolet radiation - Metal-halogen lamps
Risques d'exposition aux rayonnements ultraviolets - Lampes aux halogènes métalliques [in French]
Study of the risk of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from metal-halogen lamps incurred by persons making daily measurements in climate chambers: review of the effect of UV and visible radiation on the eye and the skin, evaluation of the risks, results (exposure levels below recognized exposure limits at all wavelengths). Metal halogen lamps with a single (quartz) wall are a greater hazard that ones with double walls (an inner one of quartz and an outer one of glass).
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1996, No.544, p.44-46. Illus. 3 ref.
VDT workstations: layout and lighting
Topics: artificial lighting; Canada; check lists; CRT display terminals; data sheet; illumination design; keyboard operations; man-computer interfaces; office work; seats and working surfaces; visual comfort; work posture; workplace design.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 1995. 10p. Illus. 3 ref.
Physical factors in the indoor environment
Physical factors in the non-industrial indoor environment that affect human health, comfort, productivity, and well-being are reviewed. Topics covered include: thermal comfort (environmental variables, activity and clothing levels, building design considerations, humidity); noise and vibration; light and other electromagnetic radiation (lighting design, health effects, ultraviolet radiation); combined effects and sick building syndrome.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.59-94. Illus. 78 ref.
Eclairage des lieux de travail [in French]
Round-up of French laws and derived regulations governing the lighting of workplaces; 10 texts are cited. They fall into two groups: those applicable to establishments subject to the Labour Code and specifying the responsibilities of management, and those applicable to the primary contractors in construction and remodelling work. Special attention is given to commercial enterprises, notably large retail stores.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.63, p.199-210.
Active use of daylight
Aktive Tageslichtnutzung [in German]
Two new illumination systems for offices are outlined. One artificial illumination system is switched by electronic control units according to the illumination levels produced by natural light. Its energy consumption was compared with that of a conventional artificial lighting system. Considerable energy savings could be achieved with the electronically controlled artificial lighting system. The second lighting system uses a computer-controlled mirror and a deflection mirror to direct the sunlight into the building. Sensors are used to switch the artificial lighting system on and off according to demand.
Licht, Mar. 1995, Vol.47, No.2-3, p.220-222, 224, 226-228. Illus.
Budnick L.D., Lerman S.E., Nicolich M.J.
An evaluation of scheduled bright light and darkness on rotating shiftworkers: Trial and limitations
Thirteen industrial workers were exposed to scheduled bright light of 6,000-12,000 lux on at least half of their 12-hour night shifts, as well as ambient light of 1,200-1,500 lux. Ten workers had morning melatonin suppression on the night shift, and 50% had a significant circadian change. Most findings concerning self-perceived alertness, performance at work and sleep patterns were mixed and inconsistent. The alteration in urinary melatonin levels provides objective evidence that bright light technology can alter the circadian rhythm of industrial workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1995, Vol.27, No.6, p.771-782. Illus. 45 ref.
Bodmann H.W., Eberbach K., Leszczynska H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Quality criteria for the local lighting of workstations in offices
Lichttechnische und ergonomische Gütekriterien der Einzelplatzbeleuchtung im Büro [in German]
Real-time study of the acceptance of lighting systems in offices where VDUs are used. Forty observers evaluated various lighting parameters at different work stations. Work performance was also evaluated. The usefulness of respecting the quality criteria of Standard DIN 5035 (interior lighting with artificial light sources) was confirmed. There were divergences in the importance given to veiling reflection, maximum acceptable luminance of indirect lighting systems and the utilization of desk lamps. It is recommended to take the findings of this study into account when DIN 5035 is next modified.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1995. 209p. Illus. 10 ref.
Illumination of roads and workplaces on construction sites
Beleuchtung von Verkehrswegen und Arbeitsplätzen auf Baustellen [in German]
German regulations on the illumination of workplaces do not cover roads and temporary workplaces on construction sites. Therefore, recommendations on the design and levels of illumination for various operations such as plastering and reinforcement work on construction sites are presented. For example, for reinforcement work an illumination level of 300Lux is proposed. For outdoor communication ways on construction sites illumination levels between 20 and 50Lux are recommended. With one 100W lamp installed at a height of 3m these levels can be achieved on an area of approx. 30 to 80m2.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1995, Vol.26, No.2, p.24-29. Illus.
Lighting of workplaces
La iluminación en los lugares de trabajo [in Spanish]
Topics: artificial lighting; colour of light; glare; illumination levels; lighting; luminous flux; natural lighting; reflection factor; Spain; training manuals; training material; workplaces.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, Jan. 1994. 101p. Illus. 13 ref.
Safety lighting - State of the art; Standards in force; Future developments
Illuminazione di sicurezza e di riserva - Stato dell'arte; Normative vigenti; Sviluppi futuri [in Italian]
This study describes and comments Italian regulations (incl. relevant passages of Decree No.547, CIS 91-351, on the prevention of occupational accidents) and standards on safety and emergency lighting in workplaces. Relevant passages of IEC standards 34-22 and 64-8 are also discussed.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.7, No.1, p.68-79. Illus.
Heeg F.J., Deurer W., Feld K.H., Kleine G., Lüttke-Nymphius M., Räder K., Rodzinski H.
Improvement of the working conditions and health protection of stonecutters
Verbesserung der Arbeitsbedingungen sowie des Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutzes für Steinmetzbetriebe [in German]
Exposure to quartz dust and noise, lighting conditions and work postures were determined in 10 stone dressing plants in Germany. A questionnaire survey of the stonecutters was conducted in order to determine the subjectively perceived conditions of work. An enclosure for drawing off the quartz dust and an adjustable table to improve work posture are described. Work organization was changed. The layout of an optimized stone dressing plant is illustrated.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.205-216. Illus. 10 ref.
Fröbner K.D., Richters T.
Analysis and ergonomic redesign of lighting in shunting yards of the Hamburg harbour railway
Analyse und arbeitwissenschaftliches Neugestaltungskonzept der Licht- und Beleuchtungssituation auf den Rangierbahnhöfen der Hamburger Hafenbahn [in German]
Measurements of the illumination levels and luminance on the shunting yards in the harbour of Hamburg, Germany, yielded values below the recommended standards. Contrasts between the tracks and railway wagons were sometimes so low that no distinction could be made. An interrogation of the harbour workers confirmed that visibility at night was poor. From the results of the measurements, the required levels of illumination, luminance and reflection were derived. The lamps and their installation sites as well as their height were selected accordingly.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.198-204. Illus. 9 ref.
Glare - Optimizing illumination of computer aided design workplaces
Geblendet - Raum-Beleuchtung lichttechnisch optimieren bei CAD-Arbeitsplätzen [in German]
Computer aided design (CAD) workplaces need lighting that is not so strong that it reduces contrast on the computer screen. Yet it must be strong enough to allow reading printed manuals, drawings or diagrams. Glare is to be avoided. Great differences in luminance in the room strain the eyes and may cause headaches. Best illumination is obtained by taking into account not only the layout of the workplace, but also the arrangement of furniture, windows and light sources. German standard DIN 5035 (parts 1, 2 and 7) provides the criteria for optimized illumination of these workplaces. Some of the recommendations of this standard are reviewed.
Maschinenmarkt, Feb. 1994, Vol.100, No.6, p.28-31. Illus.
Light and vision at work
Ljus och seende i arbetslivet [in Swedish]
This manual describes the relationship between light, objects and the eye, how to reduce the risk of strain injuries and other injuries, save electricity and maintain the lighting in a safe and simple way. It also describes a method to identify and map the situation in premises with respect to light sources, lighting fittings, assignments and individual requirements. Examples of the elimination of lighting/vision problems are given. The manual is also useful for quality assurance in the work environment and for internal control. It covers: vision; visual ergonomics; light and light sources; light fixtures; glare; technical aspects (reflection, absorption, transmission); work with visual display units; energy and economy; maintenance; measurement; practical examples; legislation; table of light sources and their properties.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1st ed., 1993. 71p. Illus.
Salsi S., Barlier A.
Hazards of tungsten halogen lamps
Dangers présentés par les lampes halogène [in French]
This booklet presents the results of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation level measurements conducted on 11 office tungsten halogen lamps of different strengths. For each lamp the following information is given: technical characteristics, where it is used, limits on use. The hazards due to halogen lamps used for direct lighting without protective glass envelopes are not insignificant. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light from these lamps may be dangerous in the long run. On the other hand, lights equipped with protective glass should not present any danger, unless under direct viewing conditions (avoidance reflexes of the eye should, however, prevent this latter danger, considering the high intensity of the light emitted by these lamps).
Institut national de Recherche et de Sécurité, INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1993. 27p. Illus. 3 ref.
Light and vision in working life
Ljus och seende i arbetslivet [in Swedish]
This manual gives descriptions necessary for planning appropriate lighting in the work place. It contains basic descriptions of: vision, ergonomics of vision, light and light sources, light devices, glare, light properties of materials, visual display units, energy consumption, vision and safety, maintenance, measurement of light, examples from different kind of workplaces. The descriptions are supported by examples with photographs. A glossary, checklist and guidelines for evaluation of lighting are included.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Stockholm, Sweden, 1993. 71p. Illus.
Küller R., Wetterberg L.
Melatonin, cortisol, EEG, ECG and subjective comfort in healthy humans: Impact of two fluorescent lamp types at two light intensities
An office environment was reconstituted in a lighting laboratory. Volunteers spent a working day (9am-4pm) in the space under one of two illumination levels, reading, working at set tasks or undergoing tests. Pre- and post-"shift" urine samples were collected for cortisol and melatonin determination. High illumination (1700 lux) increased visual discomfort and reduced the subjects' opinion of the environment in comparison with the low level (450 lux), and electroencephalographic changes were observed. The effects were more marked with "daylight" tubes than with "warm white" ones. No effect on hormone excretion was observed.
International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology, 1993, Vol.25, No.2, p.71-81. Illus. 53 ref.
Lindner H., Kropf S.
Asthenopic complaints associated with fluorescent lamp illumination (FLI): The role of individual disposition
"Asthenopia" is diminished visual acuity associated with eyestrain, pain in the eyes and headache. During routine mass eye examinations in a number of enterprises, 3,030 normal subjects and 200 subjects with FLI complaints were identified. Psychological questionnaire were administered to 150 asthenopic subjects and 60 normal subjects, and electroencephalogrammes with photostimulation were recorded for 31 from each group. Asthenopic individuals tended to be female, 20-30 years of age, with poorer vision, higher light sensitivity and higher flicker sensitivity than those without FLI complaints, and had a characteristic personality profile.
International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology, 1993, Vol.25, No.2, p.59-69. Illus. 47 ref.
Müller S., Stolzenberg K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Design and measurement of lighting for open-air working areas
Planung und Messung der Beleuchtung von Arbeitsplätzen im Freien [in German]
Open-air workplaces are subject to specific photometric conditions and environmental influences. Up to now, no appropriate standardised method of calculation and measurement of illuminance has been developed in Germany although proper lighting is crucial for the well-being and safety of workers. Regulations (especially VBG 1) and DIN, IEC and CEN standards applicable in Germany are being reviewed as are the experiments and analyses made in various industries and the ensuing assessment criteria for lighting. Outline of the specific standards for photometers and comments on the methods for the calculation and measurement of illuminance in open-air workplaces. A computer program specially designed for calculation of illuminance at open-air installations is also presented. An abstract of the report is provided in English, German and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1993. 132p. Illus. 68 ref.
Occupational hygiene: Illumination
This training manual on illumination was developed as part of a three-year training programme for factory inspectors in English-speaking African countries. Contents: anatomy and physiology of vision; lighting terms; recommendations; procedure for illumination measurement; general recommendations in lighting design; test questions.
International Labour Office, African Regional Labour Administration Centre, P.O. Box 6097, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1992. 24p. Illus. 2 ref.
Lighting at work
This booklet explains how lighting at work can affect safety and health. Poor lighting makes it difficult to see and recognize hazards, causes eye strain, induces stressful postures and can give rise to other safety or health problems. The booklet offers guidance on how to approach problems with lighting at work. The main steps are to design the workplace so as to avoid such problems, and to identify and assess them at the workplace (lighting levels, glare, reflection and shadow), and to develop, implement and evaluate solutions. Examples of solutions are provided, as well as a checklist and a questionnaire for the identification and assessment of lighting problems. Relevant legislation and regulations are also mentioned.
Occupational Health and Safety Authority, World Trade Centre, Corner Flinders and Spencer Streets, PO Box 414, Melbourne, Victoria 3005, Australia, July 1992. 24p. Illus. 9 ref.
Research results for practical use - Measurement of lighting in the workplace
Forschungsergebnisse für die Praxis - Messung von Beleuchtungsanlagen in Innenräumen [in German]
The rules applicable in Germany relating to lighting in the workplace must follow the prescriptions in Standard DIN 5035 as well as in Paragraph 7 of the Ordinance on Workplaces (see CIS 95-3). Main features of this information note: preparatory work preceding lighting measurement; measurement; utilization of results; global evaluation of lighting in the workplace; sample form used for the evaluation of lighting data. Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz reports on which this information note is based: Forschungsbericht No.354 (CIS 85-643), 388, 504 (CIS 88-2089) and 567.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Postfach 17 02 02, 44061 Dortmund, Germany, 1992. 16p. Illus. 13 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Evaluation of visual problems with colour CRT screens
Evaluierung visueller Probleme bei Farbrasterschirmen [in German]
While using colour coding of characters on VDUs vision problems arise that do not exist with monochrome screens. These problems, that include chromatic aberrations, double contours and stroke sharpness, involve both the visual transmission properties of colour perception and the technical realization of colour CRTs. There is no systematic way to make the best possible choice of colours. It is concluded that if most of these problems are to be avoided, the monitor's colour space should be significantly reduced. Summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. ix, 216p. Illus.
Ultraviolet radiation emitted by tungsten halogen lamps
Ultraviolett-Strahlung von Halogen-Glühlampen [in German]
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can damage the eye (cataract, conjunctivitis) and the skin (erythema, cancer). Published values for the UV emission of different models of tungsten halogen lamps show that some of them can expose users to levels above typical exposure limits at distances less than 1m. Excessive exposure can be prevented by fitting the lamps with screens or by mounting them more than 1m from potentially exposed persons.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Jan. 1992, No.1, p.4-6. Ilus. 8 ref.
Bean A.R., Bell R.I.
The CSP index - A practical measure of office lighting quality as perceived by the office worker
The Comfort, Satisfaction and Performance index (CSP) has been developed as an indicator of the effectiveness of a lighting installation as perceived by the workers who use it. The index is based on existing data, current CIBS code recommendations and detailed studies of over 650 individual workers and their offices. The physical parameters of a lighting installation are interrelated so as to produce a single figure of merit (0-100) which relates to the probability that office workers will be satisfied with their visual environment. The construction of the CSP index is described along with pilot experiments designed to refine the formulations.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1992, Vol.24, No.4, p.215-225. Illus. 7 ref.
Salsi S., Barlier A.
Tungsten halogen lamps. Optical radiation hazards and limits for use
Lampes tungstène halogène - Risques et limites d'utilisation [in French]
This study identifies and quantifies on the one hand the risks related to the use of 11 tungsten halogen lamps for direct lighting, and on the other hand, sets limits for their use (taking into account the distance from and duration of daily exposure to these lamps). The spectral irradiance of the lamps was measured from ultraviolet to infrared (200-3,000nm) and their mean spectral radiance was determined in the visible range of the spectrum (400-700nm). The risks when tungsten halogen lamps are used in "abnormal" conditions, i.e. for direct lighting without protective glass shields, are not negligible. Chronic exposure to the ultraviolet radiation these lamps emit is dangerous in the long term. Projectors equipped with protective glass covers and tungsten halogen lamps with double envelopes represent no particular health risk, except under direct viewing conditions. Appendices: Effects of optical radiation; calculation of MED (minimal erythemal doses).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1888-148-92, p.329-343. Illus. 12 ref.
Contrast rendering factor: Comparison of measurements using different tasks
Measurements of the contrast rendering factor (CRF) using the B&K luminance standard were compared with CRF measurements using other tasks. CRF values obtained for the ballpoint pen task and dry-transfer task were very similar to those for the B&K reflectance standard. Since this standard is durable and manufactured to a high degree of technical accuracy, it can be used to replace other tasks in future CRF or similar measurements.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1992, Vol.24, No.2, p.81-91. Illus. 18 ref.
Fluorescent lighting and health
Effects of fluorescent lighting on the skin, eyes, stress, the pineal gland and sick building syndrome are considered along with the effects of glare and flicker. It is concluded that the risk of skin cancer from normal use of fluorescent lamps is extremely small and symptoms of erythema, photoconjunctivitis or photokeratitis are unlikely. Factors such as glare and flicker are known to cause discomfort to some people, but the causes of these effects need to be better understood. It is suggested that the absence of windows and lack of visual variety in interior design may exert a greater influence on complaints about lighting than any radiation from fluorescent lamps.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1992, Vol.24, No.2, p.55-61. 40 ref.
Tiller D.K., Rea M.S.
Semantic differential scaling: Prospects in lighting research
Data from two studies using semantic differential ratings (individual rating scales are defined by polar opposite adjectives) to characterise the psychological aspects of lighting are examined and compared. In the first, subjects rated six different task lighting schemes, and in the second, subjects rated their impressions of four office spaces that were illuminated with different types of lighting but were otherwise identical. The patterns of scale intercorrelations were found to vary across the different lighting schemes in both sets of data. The implications of these findings are discussed and possible strategies to improve the use of semantic differential scaling for lighting are described.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1992, Vol.24, No.1, p.43-52. 33 ref.
Belysning [in Swedish]
The ordinance came into force on 1 July 1992. It covers: scope; basic provisions; light sources and workplace planning; investigation and evaluation of lighting; advice for the implementation of the ordinance.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 14p.
Piccoli B., Parazzoli S., Zaniboni A., Demartini G., Fraschini F.
Non-visual effects of light mediated via the optical route - A survey of the literature and implications for occupational medicine
Effetti extravisivi della luce mediati dalle vie ottiche - Rassegna della letteratura e implicazioni per la medicina del lavoro [in Italian]
Literature survey on the non-visual effects of prolonged exposure to artificial light, particularly in young people. The role of melatonin, excreted at particular phases of the circadian rhythm, is explored in relation to endocrine functions, psychiatric illness, stress, carcinogenesis and the immune system.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1991, Vol.82, No.3, p.213-232. Illus. 113 ref.
Day R., Bailey S.
Lighting at work
Contents of this module usable for an OSH training course or for private study, accompanied by question-and-answer tests: light and visual performance (basic concepts, the human eye and the sense of sight, visual performance parameters and tests); sufficient light (the British Industrial Code for interior lighting, variations in illuminance); instrumentation, measurements and surveys (basic instrumentation for measuring light, illuminance surveys); suitable lighting (suitable safe lighting, suitable task lighting, a suitable visual environment).
OHSOL Unit, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE, United Kingdom, 1991. 45p. Illus.
Visual display - A practical guide to office lighting and healthy use of VDUs
Guidance is given on the evaluation of visual problems of VDU workstations and on how correct lighting can be used to reduce them. Basic visual mechanisms are explained along with factors affecting visibility (size of detail, contrast and luminance of task, disability glare, adaptation time, chromaticity contrast). Different types of lighting systems are discussed including uplighting and low-brightness reflector fittings.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 1991, Vol.9, No.4, p.28-33. Illus.
Lighting for occupational hygienists
Contents of this handbook: fundamentals of light and vision; lamps (filament, discharge and fluorescent lamps, lamp designations and characteristics, disposal of spent lamps); luminaires (light distributions, classification according to types of protection); hazardous area lighting; elements of lighting design (daylight, lighting systems, lumen method of design, utilisation factor and room index, spacing-to-height ratio, multiple design criteria, luminance method of design, exterior lighting); lighting for the working environment (glare, good visual task conditions, contrast rendering factor; lighting in general offices; lighting for work with visual display units, modelling, inspection lighting, emergency lighting); techniques and equipment for lighting surveys; legislation and standards.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT 27, Leeds, LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1991. xi, 119p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Cail F., Mouzé-Amady M.
Physical hazards and work with visual display units in industry - Experimental simulation
Nuisances physiques et travail sur écran en industrie - Simulation expérimentale [in French]
This study investigated the behavioural and psychophysiological changes during a simulated process control task performed under single and combined physical stressors. Twenty-four subjects took part in the task on a visual display unit (VDU), in 4 experimental conditions: adequate lighting (control); noise; inadequate lighting; noise and inadequate lighting. Response times (performance), electroencephalogrammes, electro-oculogrammes and heart rate (vigilance indicators) were continuously recorded during the task. The main results show that the longest response times and the highest activation levels occurred in a multistressor environment. This suggests that combined inadequate lighting and noise impairs the operator's efficiency in process control on a VDU. Recommendations are made for improving the situation in such workplaces.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1816-142-91, p.71-77. Illus. 15 ref.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Fluorescent lighting and malignant melanoma
Topics: artificial lighting; directive; fluorescent tubes; IRPA; melanoma; skin cancer; ultraviolet radiation.
Health Physics, Jan. 1990, Vol.58, No.1, p.111-112. 30 ref.
Hartmann E., Buser A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
The effects of illuminating workplaces with fluorescent lamps
Einflüsse der Beleuchtung mit Leuchtstofflampen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Experimental studies with volunteers were carried out in order to find out whether fluorescent lighting leads to visual accommodation fluctuations and ensuing premature fatigue, whether cortical activity resulting in subjective complaints is affected by flickering, and whether this type of lighting results in increased radiation exposure and possible skin damage. Ultraviolet radiation levels emitted by various types of fluorescent lamps were at most 0.25% of the outdoor levels on a sunny day, i.e. far below hazardous levels. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. v, 114p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: DEM 20.50.
Guidelines on the ergonomics of underground illumination in coal mines
These guidelines were first published in 1987 and have since been updated by the addition of several supplements giving the illumination requirements in specific areas of the mine. Contents: general philosophy of mine illumination (factors to be considered in defining additional lighting requirements, major sources of additional lighting); lighting at fixed material transfer stations, movable loading and unloading stations and storage areas; lighting at the insets shafts and staple shafts; belt conveyor lighting; lighting in shield support faces; lighting at face-ends; ergonomically acceptable lighting levels and their measurement (quantities and units of measurement, measuring devices, measurement methods).
Bureau of Information and Coordination of Community Ergonomics Action, European Coal and Steel Community, P.O. Box 237, 2102 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1990. 92p. Illus.
Dehoff P., Zembrot D.
Computer simulation of lighting systems - Applying the proper light
Computersimulation von Beleuchtungssystemen - Ins rechte Licht gerückt [in German]
The luminances in a room were compared by volunteers with those in a computer graphic. A laboratory set-up was used to facilitate the comparison. Direct and indirect lighting were assessed. The actual luminances were transformed into simulated luminances by linear and logarithmic transformation. The linear transformation brought good agreement in the case of direct lighting. For indirect lighting logarithmic transformation according to Fechner's law gave better conformance.
Technische Rundschau, 14 Sep. 1990, Vol.82, No.37, p.150-155. Illus. 16 ref.
Lighting for office and display screens
Beleuchtung für Büro- und Bildschirmmix [in German]
Illumination levels and satisfaction of employees with the illumination in offices were investigated. In the offices studied, CRT display work and conventional office work were done. Based on the results of the investigation, recommendations for proper lighting are made: there should be individual halogen desk lamps with a light refraction grid in addition to ceiling lamps.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Sep. 1990, Vol.21, No.9, p.40-42. Illus.
Light and health - Impairment through artificial illumination
Licht und Gesundheit - Beeinträchtigung durch künstliche Beleuchtung [in German]
The influence of artificial and natural lighting at the workplace on irritability, fatigue, eye strain, vision, headaches, and concentration ability of 1000 randomly selected employees was studied in Germany on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Recommendations taken from existing German standards were used as a basis for establishing the questions used in the survey. Based on the responses it is concluded that there is no substitute for natural lighting. Recommendations in the standards were not found to be always relevant.
Fortschrittliche Betriebsführung und Industrial Engineering, 1990, Vol.39, No.5, p.269-271. Illus.
Lamps for workplaces where there is a fire hazard
Leuchten für feuergefährdete Betriebsstätten [in German]
In Germany the standards VDE 0100 Part 720/3.83 as well as Part 705/11.71 and VDE 0165/9.83 address the design of flame safety lamps for workshops and agricultural facilities where flammable dusts and chemical substances are present. The most important requirements of these standards are outlined. For example, no hot component may fall off from lamps. Temperatures at the lamp surface may not exceed 95°C.
Licht, 1990, Vol.42, No.10, p.748-749. Illus.
Lighting. Nonvisual effects
The rhythmic variations of several hormones in man have been shown to be regulated by changes in the environmental light-dark cycle. In experiments with environmental lighting conditions the seasonal variation and the latitude of the study may influence the results. The non-visual effect of light has recently been used for treating affective disorders. The clinical improvement of some depressed patients from the use of evening bright-light therapy may be related to an effect of light on the melatonin-rhythm generating system.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1990, Vol.16, Suppl.1, p.26-28. Illus. 31 ref.
Lighting the office and factory
This article in a popular OSH journal provides advice on appropriate lighting techniques for the workplace. Coverage: the need for good lighting conditions; modern trends and the real cost of lighting; objectives of good lighting; the right lighting (general, localised, local and contrast lighting; lighting and visual display terminals); equipment (fluorescent lamps; high-frequency ballasts; stroboscopic effects; compact fluorescent lamps; discharge lamps; tungsten and tungsten halogen lamps; light fittings); use and maintenance of lighting installations.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1990, Vol.8, No.8, p.32-38. Illus.
Highway construction work at night - Illumination requirements
Strassenbauarbeiten auf Autobahnen bei Dunkelheit - Ein Beitrag zu den Anforderungen an die Beleuchtung [in German]
Illumination levels for construction sites on highways were determined by field tests in Nuremberg (Germany). From the results an illumination plan for construction work on Bavarian highways was derived. It requires illumination levels of 120lux for the construction site itself, while illumination levels on lanes open to traffic may not exceed 2lux.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1989, Vol.101, No.12, p.834-836. Illus. 7 ref.
Principles of visual ergonomics - The lighting of indoor work systems
Principes d'ergonomie visuelle - L'éclairage des systèmes de travail intérieurs [in French]
This international standard is intended primarily for the non-specialist involved in matters concerned with the visual environment. It is applicable to working areas in industrial buildings, offices, hospitals, etc. It lays down the principles of visual ergonomics and identifies the parameters that influence visual performance. It also presents the criteria that have to be satisfied to achieve an acceptable visual environment.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1989. 28p. Illus.
L'éclairage ergonomique [in French]
Topics covered in this document include: sources of light, i.e. daylight and electric lighting; basic types of artificial lighting and light fixtures; the importance of correct lighting for colour judgement; detection and correction of common lighting problems such as insufficient light, glare, inproper contrast, poorly distributed light and flicker; components of a basic lighting survey covering illuminance, luminance, contrast and reflection. Tables list commonly used types of bulbs and their applications, and illuminance categories and levels for a range of activities.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 15p. Illus. 15 ref.
Lighting in industry
This guidance note looks at hazards resulting from inadequate illumination and explains how correct lighting can be effective in decreasing errors and accidents and improving productivity. Factors to be considered in reducing light-related hazards include human factors, size and shape of area to be illuminated, maintenance and glare. Reference is made to a Canadian standard suggesting levels of illummination for industrial and office environments, and relevant Canadian legislation is quoted. Types of lighting design and light distribution patterns are also described.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 31st Floor, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontartio M4W 3N8, Canada, 1989. 6p.
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