Lighting and colour - 381 entries found
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Richez J.P., Lemarié J.
Artificial optical radiation - First advances in uncharted territory
Rayonnements optiques artificiels - Premiers pas en terre méconnue [in French]
In France, more than 210,000 workers are exposed to artificial optical radiation, among whom 25% for more than 20h per week, despite the fact that its health effects remain largely unknown. This collection of articles on artificial optical radiation addresses the issues of exposure evaluation, health hazards, preventive measures, and French and European regulations.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2011, No.722, p18-35. Illus.
Rayonnements_optiques_artificiels_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Kakooei H., Ardakani Z.Z., Ayattollahi M.T., Karimian M., Saraji G.N., Owji A.A.
The effect of bright light on physiological circadian rhythms and subjective alertness of shift work nurses in Iran
In this study, the effects of bright light (BL) on the rhythms in body temperature, plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol and subjective alertness were assessed in 34 shift work nurses at an Iranian university hospital. They were exposed to very BL (4,500 lx) during two breaks (21:15-22:00 and 03:15-04:00) or dim light (300 lx). The subjects were studied under 24h of realistic conditions during which their plasma cortisol and melatonin were measured at 3-h intervals; their body temperature was also measured during and after night shift work. Subjective alertness was evaluated with the Karolinska sleepiness scale. Administration of BL significantly suppressed night-time melatonin levels. A one-way ANOVA revealed that BL tended to increase cortisol levels and body temperature and significantly improved alertness. These results demonstrate that photic stimulation in a hospital setting can have a powerful influence on the adjustment of the circadian system.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.4, p.477-485. Illus. 42 ref.
Tseng F.Y., Chao C.J., Feng W.Y., Hwang S.L.
Assessment of human color discrimination based on illuminant color, ambient illumination and screen background color for visual display terminal workers
Human performance on colour discrimination in visual display terminals may be affected by illuminant colours, the level of ambient illumination and background colours of the monitor. Few studies have focused on this topic. This study investigated human colour discrimination ability in a simulated control room. Ten subjects were recruited as participants to perform a series of experimental tasks. The independent variables were three illuminant colours (red, blue, and white), two ambient illumination levels (50 lux and 300 lux) and three background colours (black, blue and brown); the three dependent variables were the colour discrimination ability (error scores), completion time and subject preference. The results showed that the illuminant colours and the screen background colours both significantly influenced human color discrimination ability.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.438-446. Illus. 28 ref.
Assessment_of_human_color_discrimination.pdf [in English]
Boivin D.B., Tremblay G.M., Boudreau P.
Rotating shifts for police officers: Study on complementary preventive approaches for fatigue reduction
Les horaires rotatifs chez les policiers - Etude des approches préventives complémentaires de réduction de la fatigue [in French]
Rotating schedules put greater stress on the body than night work because they force the biological clock to constantly readapt to a new activity and sleep schedule. An earlier study showed that an intervention combining intermittent exposure to light therapy lamps during the night, wearing of dark spectacles in the morning and maintaining regular sleep hours during the day can significantly improve the adaptation of the biological rhythms of nurses working a regular night shift. This report describes a project aimed at testing these methods among 15 police officers assigned to rotating shifts. The improvements obtained were limited. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. xi, 102p. Illus. 180 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-659.pdf [in French]
Pallesen S., Bjorvatn B., Magerøy N., Saksvik I.B., Waage S., Moen B.E.
Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work
Night work is associated with various negative health outcomes as well as accidents and reduced productivity. The aim of this literature survey was to identify factors that may counteract the negative effects of night work. Studies were identified describing countermeasures such as proper personnel selection, bright light therapy, melatonin administration, naps, exercise, sleepiness detection devices, and the use of stimulants to improve wakefulness and hypnotics to improve daytime sleep. Some studies support countermeasures such as bright light, melatonin, naps, use of stimulants and proper work scheduling as a means to improve adaptation to night work. However, there is little evidence that such countermeasures reduce the long-term health consequences of night work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.109-120. Illus. 165 ref.
Measures_to_counteract.pdf [in English]
Gómez M.E., Sanchez J.F., Cardona A.M., Pioquinto J.F., Torres P., Sanchez D., Camargo L.M., Castañeda R.A., Villamizar R.H., Cremades L.V.
Health and working conditions in carpenter's workshops in Armenia (Colombia)
A study of the health and working conditions in 10 carpenter's workshops in the municipality of Armenia (Colombia) was conducted. Working conditions of the 177 most exposed workers were examined, and exposure to wood dust and noise, as well as lighting, were measured. The state of health was surveyed using a self-report questionnaire. Results show that personal protection was not used appropriately and that some were inadequate, that half of workshops had below the minimum allowable lighting limit level (500 lux) required, and that the noise level exceeded the permissible maximum limit value (85 dBA) in all the workshops.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.222-230. Illus. 39 ref.
Health_and_working_conditions.pdf [in English]
Morghen I., Turola M.C., Forini E., Di Pasquale P., Zanatta P., Matarazzo T.
Ill-lighting syndrome: Prevalence in shift-work personnel in the anaesthesiology and intensive care department of three Italian hospitals
In order to identify any signs and symptoms of the so-called "ill-lighting syndrome", this study was carried out on a sample of anaesthetists and nurses employed in the operating theatres and intensive care departments of three Italian hospitals. Data on the subjective emotional discomfort (stress) experienced by these subjects were collected by means of questionnaires. Workplace illumination levels were measured and correlations between discomfort and illumination were analysed using logistic regression. It was found that the percentage of high stress was reduced as the exposure to luminance was increased, although this finding was not statistically significant. The stress levels were found to be more heavily influenced by non-occupational factors and working conditions than by ambient lighting.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Mar. 2009, Vol.4, No.6, 6p. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-4-6.pdf [in English]
This leaflet on office lighting emphasizes the importance of non-reflective surfaces, desktop positioning from windows, light diffusion, elimination of glare and use of appropriate contrast on computer displays. It also includes a section on office and display screen ergonomics.
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2008. 2p. Illus.
Office_lighting_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Gervais R.L., Williamson J., Sanders V., Hopkinson J.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of the success in Great Britain of the Directive on minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment - A comparative assessment of the 1997 and 2007 evaluations
This current report involved a comparative evaluation of the impact, including the costs and benefits, of the Display Screen Equipment (DSE) Directive 90/270/EEC (see CIS 90-1069) in the United Kingdom, with the previous evaluation of the Regulations that was completed in 1997. The research is based on a structured sample of employers in the United Kingdom, in which data were collected from 1241 respondents. Overall, the results showed positive findings across a majority of the analyses. Contents: introduction; methodology; use of display screen equipment; perceived risks; alterations to workstations; daily routine of users; eye and eyesight tests; benefits and costs; the regulations; conclusions. The employers' questionnaires of 1997 and 2007 are included in appendices.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 79p. Illus. 6 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_622.pdf [in English]
Lin C.J., Feng W.Y., Chao C.J., Tseng F.Y.
Effect of VDT workstation lighting conditions on operator visual workload
This study investigated the effects of illumination on visual workload in visual display terminal (VDT) workstation tasks. Ten volunteer students performed VDT signal detection tasks under four light colors (red, blue, green and white) and two ambient illumination levels (20 lux and 340 lux). The dependent variables were the change of critical fusion frequency (CFF), visual acuity, reaction time, error rates and subjective visual comfort. Results showed that both visual acuity and subjective visual fatigue were significantly affected by the color of light. The illumination had significant effect on CFF thresholds and reaction times. Subjects prefer to perform VDT task under blue and white lights than green and red. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.105-111. Illus. 28 ref.
Pukkala E., Härmä M.
Does shift work cause cancer?
This editorial discusses some of the evidence linking shift work to the risk of cancer. Topics addressed include: critical review of a long-term population-based study in Sweden suggesting no effect of shift work in cancer risk; circadian rhythm; melatonin; exposure to artificial daylight.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2007, Vol.33, No.5, p.321-323. 18 ref.
Does_shift_work_cause_cancer_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Eclairage [in French]
Verlichting [in Dutch]
The objective of the SOBANE approach (screening, observation, analysis and evaluation) is to ensure occupational safety and health by means of a systematic analysis of occupational hazards. This booklet presents the SOBANE approach applied to lighting at the place of work. Following a review of general aspects of occupational safety and health management, it explains how to proceed with the observation, analysis and evaluation, together with the qualifications required for carrying out these steps. The following topics are summarized on information sheets: units of measurement; desirable lighting as a function of the type of work; general recommendations; working with computers; types of lamps; types of ceiling lamps; glare and visual fatigue.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2006. 60p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.emploi.belgique.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=5896 [in French]
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=5114 [in Dutch]
van Bommel W.J.M.
Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work
The effects of good lighting extend much further than generally believed. Recent medical and biological research has consistently shown that light entering the human eyes has, apart from a visual effect, also an important non-visual biological effect on the human body. As a consequence, good lighting has a positive influence on health, well-being, alertness, and even on sleep quality. Improved understanding of the effects of lighting requires new rules governing the design of good and healthy lighting installations. Thanks to the recent discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the eye, one can now begin to define these new rules that will allow the improved design of lighting installations.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2006, Vol.37, No.4, p.461-466. Illus. 32 ref.
Fall from a roof through a skylight
Chute de terrasse au travers d'un lanterneau [in French]
This article describes the fatal fall of a worker who walked on a skylight during roofing work. It analyses the causes of the accident and recalls the measures that could have prevented it.
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2006, No.89, p.35-36. Illus.
http://www.oppbtp.fr/publications/prevention_btp/oct-2006/fiche_accident.pdf [in French]
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Jahangir-Blourchian M.
Ultraviolet radiation exposure from UV-transilluminators
UV-transilluminators use ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to visualize proteins, DNA, RNA, and their precursors in a gel electrophoresis procedure. This study was initiated to evaluate exposures to UVR among university faculty members, research staff and students of a higher education institution using UV-transilluminators. Findings suggest that the use of UV-transilluminators exposes operators to levels of UVR in excess of exposure guidelines. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees and that exposure should be controlled by one or the combination of automation, substitution, isolation, posted warning signs, shielding and personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2005, Vol.2, No.10, p.493-496. Illus. 14 ref.
A new evaluation method for daylight discomfort glare
This article presents an improved method for the evaluation of glare consisting of a standard monitoring protocol and advanced formulae. The proposed method appears to yield sensible and consistent glare values when tested against an existing glare evaluation system. It has also been coded into a small programme to calculate luminescence values and used together with radiance to compute daylight glare indices. The method may be used for evaluating discomfort glare from daylight. Future developments of the method are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Apr. 2005, Vol.35, No.4, p.295-306. Illus. 19 ref.
García Leyte G., Martín Borrego J.Á., Ruíz Díez J.L., Ramos Learra A., Barbero Marcos J.A., Rubio Gómez J.
Lighting and occupational safety
Iluminación y seguridad laboral [in Spanish]
Lighting of premises is an important occupational safety factor. Based on the experiences of two large enterprises, this handbook discusses various aspects of the relationship between lighting, hazards and safety, as well as visual comfort and the quality of working conditions. Contents: light and its properties; the visual system; physical constants and basic principles; regulation and control of lamps and equipment; characteristics of different types of lights; safety of electrical installations in premises with explosion hazards; basic aspects of design (quality criteria, lighting criteria, emergency and safety lighting, measurement of lighting and luminescence, maintenance criteria, systems of operation, energy efficiency index).
Editorial Mapfre S.A., Paseo de Recoletos 25, 28004 Madrid, Spain, 2003. xxvii, 648p. Illus. 132 ref. Price: EUR 55.00.
Schierz C., Krueger H.
Advantages and disadvantages of intensive lighting for office work
Vor- und Nachteile intensiver Beleuchtung am Büroarbeitsplatz [in German]
It has been shown that lighting has an effect on the human body. During office work, lighting can have both positive and negative effects. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of intensive lighting with respect to visual performance, stimulation and workers' well-being. An increase in lighting intensity is advisable for certain complex visual tasks as well as for older workers. However, workplace problems often have several causes; consequently, lighting optimization should not preclude employers from carrying out a full ergonomic analysis of the workstation.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2002, Special issue, p.269-274. Illus.
Niemelä R., Rautio S., Hannula M., Reijula K.
Work environment effects on labor productivity: An intervention study in a storage building
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between productivity and the work environment before and after the renovation of a storage facility. The thermal environment, concentrations of dust and chemicals (organic solvents, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides), noise levels, lighting and labour productivity were determined before and after the renovation. As a result of the renovation, thermal conditions, air quality and lighting conditions improved notably. In addition, the employees' subjective evaluations showed a significant decrease in dissatisfaction ratings. Direct measures of labour productivity increased by about 9%. It is concluded that increased productivity is most likely related to the combined effect of the improved work environment, namely better thermal climate, reduced contaminant concentrations and better lighting conditions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.328-335. Illus. 16 ref.
Jørgensen F., Pedersen P.A.
Drivers' response to the installation of road lighting: An economic interpretation
An economic model of drivers' behaviour is introduced in order to explain recently published empirical findings according to which road lighting increases speed, decreases concentration and reduces accidents. The model, combined with the empirical results, indicate that drivers perceive speed and concentration as complementary safety variables, while common sense suggests that speed and concentration influence real accident rate as substitutable safety means. If this holds, a positive but concave relationship between subjective and objective risks exists, which means that as the objective accident risk rises, it has less influence on perceived risk.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2002, Vol.34, No.5, p.601-608. Illus. 23 ref.
Code of practice for illumination in industrial premises
This code of practice provides guidelines on the provision of appropriate lighting for optimum visual performance in indoor industrial premises. It covers the design, installation, maintenance and improvement of the lighting systems to ensure safety, comfort, well-being and productivity of the workers. The degree of lighting is recommended for different types of industrial areas, tasks and processes.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 2001. 62p. Price: SGD 54.00.
Newsham G.R., Veitch J.A.
Lighting quality recommendations for VDT offices: A new method of derivation
In an experiment in a mock-up office space, occupants were given control over dimmable lighting circuits after a day working under pseudo-random lighting conditions. Data analysis indicated that the lighting experienced during the day influenced the changes in lighting made at the end of the day. Occupants chose to reduce screen glare if any existed. Even after allowing for the effect of glare, desktop illuminance at day's end varied with the illuminance experienced during the day. Regression of these end-of-day choices relative to the illuminance experienced during the day can yield a preferred illuminance, equivalent to the daytime illuminance at which no change was preferred at day's end. Using this method, preferred illuminance in the range 200-500 lux and luminance ratio were derived. The deviation between participants' lighting preferences and the lighting they experienced during the day was a significant predictor of participant mood and satisfaction. The article is followed by comments by other experts in the field (D.J. Carter and P.Boyce), together with reactions to these comments by the authors.
Lighting Research and Technology, 2001, Vol.33, No.2, p.97-116. Illus. 28 ref.
Code of practice for the installation and maintenance of emergency lighting and power supply systems in buildings
This standard covers the visual conditions necessary to alleviate panic and permit safe evacuation of building occupants in the event of failure of the normal lighting. It also prescribes requirements for the equipment and installation methods used to provide the power supply for the emergency lighting.
SNP Corporation Ltd, 1 Kim Seng Promenade, #18-01, Great World City East Tower, Singapore 237994, Republic of Singapore, 2000. 56p. Illus. Price: SGD 47.00 (excluding GST).
Methods for measuring lighting at workplaces
Zasady badania oświetlenia na stanowiskach pracy [in Polish]
This booklet provides the information necessary to measure lighting levels at workplaces. It also presents methods for the measurement of artificial and natural lighting levels according to Polish standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 56p. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment and control of wood dust: Use of the dust lamp
Wood dust is a substance hazardous to health, and employers have an obligation under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) to make an exposure assessment and to implement prevention and control measures. A dust lamp is a practical tool for conducting exposure assessments. It produces a high intensity parallel beam of light and shows up fine dust not visible under normal lighting conditions. This information sheet describes dust lamps and provides guidance on their method of use.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2000. 2p. Illus. 13 ref.
Pawlak A., Wolska A.
General and local lighting in workplaces
Oświetlenie ogólne i miejscowe stanowisk pracy [in Polish]
Aimed at employers, occupational safety and health services, workplace designers and labour inspectors, this booklet provides guidance on lighting techniques, including rules and methods of designing the local and the general lighting at workplaces.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 55p. Illus. 18 ref.
Lighting and the visual environment
Eclairage et espace visuel [in French]
Lighting analysis brings together the knowledge required to define, create and control the lighting environment. It is based on an understanding of the physiology of the eye as well as of the physics of light itself. The lighting specialist must satisfy the requirements of visual performance, visual comfort and subjective assessment of users. The lighting analysis of an interior working environment is described. It consists of the examination of two visual sub-environments, the ergorama, which is related to the visual tasks themselves, and the panorama, which is what is seen during periods of eye rest.
Performances Humaines et Techniques, Mar.-Apr. 1999, No.99, p.19-26. Illus.
You can't do without lighting
L'indispensable lumière ... [in French]
The importance of lighting in the work environment is emphasized. To avoid visual fatigue, it is necessary for lighting to provide proper visual acuity and comfort, as well as contribute to a pleasant environment. The role of lighting specialists is described and examples of alterations of office lighting in order to improve worker comfort and satisfaction are provided. It is important that the lighting specialist be independent of lighting equipment manufacturers or their distribution channels.
Performances Humaines et Techniques, Mar.-Apr. 1999, No.99, p.14-15.
L'éclairage de sécurité [in French]
The purpose of safety lighting is to come into operation in case of a breakdown of normal lighting, to allow the evacuation of the occupants to the exterior of the building without panic. As a function of criteria defined in the regulations, safety lighting needs to be either one of signalling or one of ambience. Topics covered include: signalling lighting; ambience lighting; types of autonomous power supplies; types of buildings requiring safety lighting; classifications, standards and regulations applicable in France.
Face au risque, Sep. 1999, No.355, p.19-24. Illus. 4 ref.
Official Mexican Standard: Lighting conditions in the workplace [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana: Condiciones de iluminación en los centros de trabajo [México] [in Spanish]
This Official Standard establishes the minimum lighting conditions in the workplace, thus contributing to the maintenance of safe and healthy working conditions. Lighting levels are to be based on the nature of the work task. Methods for calculating minimum lighting levels, and for the measurement of lighting levels and reflexion factors are provided.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 23 Dec. 1999, No.17, p.47-56. 13 ref.
L'éclairage naturel [in French]
Topics: buildings; comfort criteria; data sheet; France; glare; glazing; illumination design; legislation; light measurement; natural lighting; rooflighting; solar radiation; windows; workplace design.
Travail et sécurité, May 1999, No.584, insert, 4p. Illus. 2 ref.
BGZ symposium "Emergency guiding systems"
BGZ-Fachkolloqulum "Sicherheiteleitsysteme" [in German]
Emergency guiding systems consist of signs which mark escape routes. A symposium addressing emergency guiding systems focused on the following subjects: visibility of the signs marking escape routes in case lighting fails or smoke develops; methods of marking escape routes such as using signs along the walls or floors of corridors, illuminated or luminous signs; symbols used to mark escape routes; the recent fire at Dusseldorf Airport; new methods to mark escape routes such as the use of illuminated signs which continue to glow when electricity fails; involvement of the local fire brigade in the planning of escape routes. Summary in English, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Dec. 1998. 66p. Illus.
Ergonomics in industry - Lighting
Ergonomía en la industria - Iluminación [in Spanish]
Topics: artificial lighting; ergonomics; glare; illumination levels; light measurement; lighting; reflection; visual comfort; workplace design; workplaces.
Protección y seguridad, May-June 1998, Vol.44, No.259, p.35-41. Illus.
Malchaire J., Piette A., Cock N.
Lighting - Strategy for the assessment and control of hazards
Eclairage - Stratégie d'évaluation et de prévention des risques [in French]
Verlichting - Stategie voor evaluatie en preventie van risico's [in Dutch]
Topics: Belgium; check lists; CRT display terminals; description of technique; ergonomic evaluation; illumination design; job study; light measurement; lighting and colour; lighting; training manuals; training material; visibility; visual comfort.
Federaal Ministerie van Tewekstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, 1040 Brussels, Belgium, 1998. 48p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Emergency way guidance lighting systems - Phase 1
Topics: emergency exits; escape and exit; escape routes; escape time; glossary; human factors; offshore oil extraction; optical signalling; penetration into smoke; safety lighting; smoke; visibility assessment; visibility.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. viii, 95p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 55.00.
Bean A.R., McFadden T.M.
New developments in CSP (Comfort, Satisfaction and Performance)
The CSP system is used for evaluating the likely acceptance of lighting schemes by office workers. The responses of office workers obtained in some new work on CSP are compared with the predictions obtained using the original CSP data. The results of the original work are also reconsidered and an alternative interpretation is suggested to simplify the application of the CSP in practice. Topics: artificial lighting; comfort assessment; evaluation of technique; illumination levels; luminance measurement; offices; prediction; subjective assessment; visual comfort; visual performance.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1998, Vol.30, No.3, p.126-132. Illus. 10 ref.
Küller R., Laike T.
The impact of flicker from fluorescent lighting on well-being, performance and physiological arousal
35 individuals were subjected to fluorescent light powered by conventional and high-frequency ballasts in a laboratory office on two separate occasions with one week in between. Only a few general effects were observed. However, when the light was powered by the conventional ballasts, individuals with high critical flicker fusion frequency responded with a pronounced attenuation of EEG α waves and an increase in speed and decrease in accuracy of performance. These results may be understood in terms of heightened arousal in the central nervous system in response to the pronounced light modulation caused by the conventional ballasts. In order to alleviate this potential stress source, it is recommended that fluorescent lighting be powered by electronic high-frequency ballast of good quality. Topics: arousal; artificial lighting; biological effects; cognitive performance; electroencephalography; flicker; fluorescent tubes; luminance; neuropsychic stress; subjective assessment; work capacity.
Ergonomics, Apr. 1998, Vol.41, No.4, p.433-447. Illus. 57 ref.
Çakir A.E., Çakir G.
Light and health - A study of illumination systems in German offices
Licht und Gesundheit - Eine Untersuchung zum Stand der Beleuchtungstechnik in deutschen Büros [in German]
Topics: artificial light; artificial lighting; CRT display terminals; ergonomics; Germany; illumination design; offices; questionnaire survey; visual comfort.
Ergonomic Institut für Arbeits- und Socialforschung Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Soldauer Platz 3, 14055 Berlin, Germany, 3rd ed,. Jan. 1998. approx. 200p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 65.00.
Zavalic M., Mandic Z., Turk R., Bogadi-Šare A., Plavec D., Gomzi M., Skender L.J.
Assessment of colour vision impairment in male workers exposed to toluene generally above occupational exposure limits
Topics: toluene; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; colour vision; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; lighting and colour; male workers; organic solvents; smoking; vision tests.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.48, No.3, p.175-180. Illus. 37 ref.
Zavalić M., Mandić Z., Turk R., Bogadi-Šare A., Plavec D.
Quantitative assessment of color vision impairment in workers exposed to toluene
Topics: toluene; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; colour vision; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; lighting and colour; neurotoxic effects; organic solvents; vision tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.33, No.3, p.297-304. Illus. 37 ref.
Boyce P.R., Beckstead J.W., Eklund N.H., Strobel R.W., Rea M.S.
Lighting the graveyard shift: The influence of a daylight-simulating skylight on the task performance and mood of night-shift workers
This experiment was designed to establish whether lighting provided by a daylight-simulating skylight could be used to enhance the task performance and mood of night-shift workers. Subjects performed a series of cognitive tasks, gave subjective ratings of their mood and had their core temperature measured six times during each shift, for three successive nights, under the same lighting condition. Four lighting conditions were experienced. The high, increasing and decreasing illuminance conditions produced higher core body temperatures and greater subjective arousal than did the low illuminance condition. The high- and decreasing-illuminance conditions improved the performance of complex cognitive tasks relative to the low and increasing illuminance conditions. There was no difference between the lighting conditions for the performance of simple cognitive tasks. The high illuminance condition led to a greater delay in going to bed following the shift than did the low-illuminance condition.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1997, Vol.29, No.3, p.105-118. Illus. 35 ref.
Calvo Sáez J.A.
Work with visual display terminals and workplace lighting
Iluminación de locales en los que se trabaja con ordenadores de pantalla [in Spanish]
Topics: artificial lighting; contrast; CRT display terminals; field of vision; fluorescent tubes; glare; illumination levels; light measurement; lighting; luminance; reflected light; visual comfort; working surfaces; workplaces.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1997, No.141, p.22-38. Illus. 8 ref.
Ergonomic design of lighting conditions
Aménagement ergonomique des conditions lumineuses [in French]
Replaces CIS 87-1110. Topics: encyclopaedia; ergonomics; illumination levels; lighting and colour; lighting; literature survey; luminance measurement; photometry; visual comfort; workplace design; workplaces.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1997, No.116, 17p. Illus. 33 ref.
Visibility of exit signs and low-location lighting in smoky conditions
Topics: escape routes; luminance measurement; safety lighting; smoke; visibility assessment.
Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Information Service, P.O. Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 1997. 32p. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/1997/p300.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Lighting at work
Guidance on the design of lighting at work (United Kingdom), 1997. Topics: artificial lighting; electric lighting equipment; glossary; hazard evaluation; illumination design; illumination levels; legislation; lighting; preventive maintenance; safety lighting; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1997. iv, 63p. Illus. 65 ref. Price: GBP 9.25.
Begemann S.H.A., van den Beld G.J., Tenner A.D.
Daylight, artificial light and people in an office environment, overview of visual and biological responses
In a long-term study of the responses of office workers to daylight and artificial light, identical cell offices were equipped with a ceiling-based lighting system which workers could adjust as they wished. Preferred lighting levels were higher than current indoor lighting standards and corresponded to levels where biological stimulation can occur. Results for two occupants showed striking differences in lighting settings corresponding to individual circadian rhythms and performance. Lack of light may negatively influence alertness, performance and the degree of well-being.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 1997, Vol.20, No.3, p.231-239. Illus. 9 ref.
Iwata N., Ichii S., Egashira K.
Effects of bright artificial light on subjective mood of shift work nurses
The effects of bright artificial light on the subjective mental state of ten female hospital nurses were assessed during two series of five consecutive workshifts: one normal, two night and two evening shifts. The subjects worked under normal lighting conditions (approximately 250 lux) during the first series, and were exposed to artificial light (brighter than 3,000 lux) for a total of 30min during the second series of shifts. Bright light tended to improve eagerness and reduce tension. Several psychological symptoms, such as vigour, eagerness, appetite and impairment, also improved in artificial light during the night shifts, but not during the evening shifts.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.41-47. Illus. 31 ref.
Armendáriz Pérez de Ciriza P., Rupérez Calvo M.J.
Optical radiation hazards from light sources
Riesgos por radiaciones ópticas procedentes de fuentes luminosas [in Spanish]
Topics: arc lamps; artificial lighting; discharge lamps; electric lighting equipment; eye injuries; filament lamps; hazard evaluation; infrared radiation; lighting; radiation injury; skin injuries; Spain; ultraviolet radiation; visible radiation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 26p. 29 ref.
Lighting and vision
Eclairage et vision [in French]
Topics: description of equipment; ergonomics; evaluation of equipment; eyes; glare; illumination design; job study; light measurement; lighting; physiology of vision; visual comfort; visual fatigue.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1996. 135p. Illus. 131 ref.
Deurer W., et al.
Improvement of working conditions, safety and health in monumental masonry using masons restoring cathedrals as examples
Verbesserung der Arbeitsbedingungen sowie des Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutzes für Steinmetzbetriebe am Beispiel einer Dombauhütte [in German]
The dust and noise levels as well as the work postures of monumental masons were determined on several workplaces in Germany. In addition, the air temperatures, humidity and illumination levels were measured. Optimized designs of the workplace and illumination are illustrated. Measures to reduce dust and noise exposure are described in detail.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 101110, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 231p. Illus. 125 ref. Price: DM 38.50.
Design of "Intelligent buildings" with improved use of daylight
"Intelligent Building" durch verbesserte Tageslichtnutzung [in German]
An innovative method of better using the daylight in buildings is described. The new natural lighting system takes into account the different needs of homes and offices. In offices attention is paid to providing visual comfort at work on visual display terminals. Special, patented mirrors are used to control solar radiation in summer and provide better use of it in winter. With these mirrors the daylight is directed to locations distant from the window. Solar radiation can be guided towards building structures such as concrete floor slabs which are capable of storing thermal energy.
Licht, Aug. 1996, Vol.48, No.7-8, p.588-596. Illus. 22 ref.
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