Hours of work - 251 entries found
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The Working Hours Act, with commentaries [Sweden]
Arbetstidslagen med kommentarer [in Swedish]
This act (SFS 1982:673, modifications: SFS 1986:56) contains: regular working hours and duty hours; overtime; additional hours in part-time employment; record-keeping; scheduling of working hours; exemptions by the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health; enforcement; penal sanctions; additional expenses connected with overtime work; appeals; regulation of working hours; regulations concerning the Working Hours Committee.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 10364 Stockholm, Sweden, 4th ed., 1988. 32p.
Ikeda M., Satō K., Oshima M.
Physiological workload of train drivers on a suburban commuter railway
Toshikinkō tsūkinsen densha untenshi no seirigakuteki-futando ni kansuru chōsa [in Japanese]
A study of the difference in physiological workload between two groups of motormen (drivers of electric trains). The first group consisted of those engaging in daytime duties (7:00-15:00) and the other of those on duty from 18:00 to 13:00 of the next day, including 5 hours sleep in the middle of the night. Critical flicker fusion frequency values for the second group were lower than those for the first and brain activity levels for the second group were also slightly lower than those for the first. Nevertheless, the physiological condition of those in the second group returned to their standard levels after working hours. Therefore, fluctuations in these values were within the permissible range.
RTRI Report, Mar. 1988, Vol.2, No.3, p.13-16. Illus. 6 ref.
Rotational shiftwork: A summary of the adverse effects and improvement strategies
Travail de poste par roulement: sommaire des effets néfastes et des stratégies correctives [in French]
Information note. The shiftworker is at risk for health problems because of irregular patterns of eating, working, socialising, and sleeping. The results can adversely affect physical and psychological health. Special care must be taken by both the shiftworker and the employer to prevent as many of the adverse effects as possible. Design of the shift schedule to make it compatible with the body's circadian rhythms is an extremely important factor. Cooperation of the employer, the shiftworker, and the family of the shiftworker is essential.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 14p. Illus. 29 ref.
New legislation concerning road crews
Neues Fahrpersonalrecht [in German]
Comments on CEC Directive 3820/85, concerning the working time of road-transport drivers, which become part of Federal German legislation in 1986. Where existing regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany are stricter than the directive, they remain in force.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.11-14.
Act No.87-423 of 19 June 1987 concerning the length and organisation of working time [France]
Loi n°87-423 du 19 juin 1987 relative à la durée et à l'aménagement du temps de travail [France] [in French]
This Act modifies various aspects of the French Labour Code: flexibility in working hours; recovery of hours lost in a labour dispute; cyclical work organisation; weekly days of rest; work by women.
Journal officiel de la République française, 20 June 1987, Vol.119, No.141, p.6648-6650.
The extended workday - Health and safety issues
La journée de travail prolongée - Questions d'hygiène et de sécurité [in French]
Whether the advantages of the longer periods of time off outweigh the disadvantage of less free time on extended workdays depends on the mental and physical demands of the job and the worker's lifestyle and responsibilities. At present there is no clear evidence that the extended workday adversely affects health and safety. The main health and safety issues are fatigue, increased risk of accident and injury, changes in patterns of exposure to chemicals and physical hazards and the effects on social and family life. Where the extended workday is used, close monitoring is required of employee acceptance, health and safety.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Dec. 1987. 7p. 10 ref.
The extended workday - Health and safety issues
This discussion covers the factors to be considered in evaluating work schedules of up to 12h. per shift and it offers guidelines for implementation. Covered are: fatigue, social life, safety, exposure to physical and chemical hazards, choice of jobs for these schedules, and guidelines for the extended workday.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Dec. 1987. 7p. 10 ref.
Lorry driver's time habits in work and their involvement in traffic accidents
Using representative samples of drivers operating in freight transportation, the sociological features of lorry drivers, the process of formation of this group, and their work conditions are described. As 'normal' durations and rhythms of work are known, it was possible to calculate the risk exposure to road accident involvement and to compare it to the time features of the driver's activities prior to the accident. The risk of an accident increases with the number of hours worked, and when working at the end of the shift or at night. However, the relation between the duration of the work periods and the accident risk is not the same for different types of drivers. Certain are exposed to a higher global risk level, but apparently find various 'resources' to fight fatigue for the most dangerous periods. Thus it is necessary to take account of physiological mechanisms on one hand, and of acquisition modes of 'know-how' which may compensate for fatigue, on the other.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1987, Vol.30, No.9, p.1323-1333. Illus. 11 ref.
Working hours - Assessing the potential for reduction
This book discusses the relevant economic theory, empirical research, public policy, and industrial relations of shorter work hours. Covered are: reduction, economics and the enterprise (income and leisure, fruits of productivity, macro-economic models and their limits, assessment of capability); arguments in favour of and against hours reduction (contribution to health and quality of life, unemployment, opposition to reduction, potential common ground between advocates and opponents); productivity improvements (distinction among improvements, excessive hours, motivation to improve efficiency, time management and utilisation, automation, productivity and negotiated change); hours, wages and collective determination (bargaining problems, covert wage adjustments, insufficiency of agreements, new forms of collective determination, individual options, innovations and the problem of scale); assessing the potential by reduction of excessive hours, progressive reduction, accelerated reduction and reduction through individual options.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1987. 103p. 81 ref. Price: CHF 20.00.
Queinnec Y., Teiger C., Terssac G.
Working at night - but under what conditions ?
Travailler la nuit ? Mais dans quelles conditions ? [in French]
On the basis of an initial survey, the difficulties encountered by shift workers in the exercise of their activity and the consequences of working at unusual hours are discussed. Analysis of the data indicates that there is no single solution, nor even a set of satisfying solutions from which firms could select the answer to their particular problems. The arrangements suggested for each parameter are presented in the form of options, the advantages and disadvantages of which are analysed to help in the working out of a balanced solution based on the available information.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1987, No.128, Note No.1642-128-87, p.429-445. Illus. 9 ref.
Chicano Javega E.
National and international legislation concerning the regulation of working hours and rest
Legislación nacional e internacional sobre ordenación de los tiempos de trabajo y descanso/Legislación nacional e internacional sobre ordenación de los tiempos de trabajo y descanso [in Spanish]
Study of European and Spanish legislation concerning the regulation of working hours. It covers the first laws in this field that appeared in the United Kingdom from 1802 onwards and follows the general process of reducing working hours up to the present. The last part of the article is dedicated to an analysis of the decrease in accident frequency that could be explained by this process.
Salud y trabajo, Jan.-Feb. 1986, No.53, p.59-69. Illus. 8 ref.
Grau Rios M.
The reduction of working hours due to a toxic environment or difficult working conditions: Technical and legal aspects
La reducción de los tiempos de trabajo por condiciones tóxicas o penosas: aspectos técnicos y legales/La reducción de los tiempos de trabajo por condiciones tóxicas o penosas: aspectos técnicos y legales [in Spanish]
This article reviews different health hazards at work and their measurement and control as well as the time aspect of exposure to harmful chemical substances and physical factors. The reduction of working hours is the best solution for the reduction of exposure to health hazards when other preventive measures are not sufficient or when the work in itself is particularly arduous or tiring. The last part of the article comments on Spanish legislation concerning the reduction of working hours due to these harmful factors.
Salud y trabajo, Jan.-Feb. 1986, No.53, p.49-58. Illus. 10 ref.
Ardanza Goytia L.
The problem of night and shift work and its effects on health
Problemática del trabajo nocturno y por turnos y su incidencia en la salud/Problemática del trabajo nocturno y por turnos y su incidencia en la salud [in Spanish]
Discussion of different systems of shift work and shift rotation (rotation frequency, number of days off between two different shift hours, the duration of the shifts) and the negative health effects associated with shift work.
Salud y trabajo, Jan.-Feb. 1986, No.53, p.35-47. Illus.
Flexibility in working time
The first part of this issue of the ILO's Conditions of Work Digest consists of "fact sheets" which summarise the legislative framework regulating working time in 31 industrialised countries and provide examples of flexibility in collective agreements and entreprise-level practices; the 2nd part is an annotated bibliography, and the 3rd one is a glossary giving definitions of the most widely used terms related to working time. Topics covered: working time issues (including hours of work, shift work, part-time work and flexible hours), work organisation and job content, the impact of new technology and quality of working life, working conditions of women and other specific groups (including child labour), work-related welfare services and facilities, shop floor participation in the improvement of working conditions.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1986, Vol.5, No.2, 394p.
Decision No.1582 of 17 May 1986 of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers regarding the regulation of hours of work [Syrian Arab Republic]
Décision n°1582 du 17.5.1986 de la Présidence du Conseil des Ministres comportant réglementation du travail des ouvriers [République arabe syrienne] [in French]
Syrian law applying to working hours (length of the workday, rest periods, meal times); special measures for young workers.
Recueil des lois et de la législation financière, 4 June 1986, No.23, p.28-29.
Annoted bibliography on working time
Bibliographie annotée sur le temps de travail [in French]
Two-part bibliography. The 1st part includes publications on the reduction of working time, concentrating in particular on the effects of such reduction on employment, and on such practices as part-time work, work-sharing, job-sharing, job-splitting and flexible work arrangements. The 2nd part, on shift and night work, covers the design of shift systems, the effects of shift work and night work on workers' health and family life, and current practice and recent innovations in various countries and economic sectors.
International Labour Office, ILO Publications, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1986. 100p. Price: SF.17.50.
Estryn-Behar M., Fonchain F.
Sleep disturbances in hospital staff performing continuous night work
Les troubles du sommeil du personnel hospitalier effectuant un travail de nuit en continu [in French]
In a large hospital in Paris (France), medical examinations provided a basis for a comparative study of the undesirable and reversible effects of continuous night work; the same staff members were examined during a period of continuous night work and after changing to day work. An average sleep deficiency of 2h per day of professional activity was observed during the period of continuous night work (5h 28min, compared to 7h 43min during the period of day work). Marked disturbances of alertness and mood were noted during the period of night work. This indicates that the two periods of work have different effects, although they are often considered to be equivalent in the hospital environment. Chronic sleep deprivation may have negative effects on the quality of care administered by the staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1986, Vol.47, No.3, p.167-172. Bibl.
Centre de recherche de droit social, Université Lyon III
Le temps de travail [in French]
This monograph analyses the different legal aspects in France of: organisation of working time (year-round organisation, week-by-week flexibility, compressed work week); intermittent work; reduced working time (collective agreements on the reduction of working hours, prolonged lay-offs due to economic reasons and their compensation); participation of employees' organisations and of government in the setting of working hours.
Editions législatives et administratives, 19 rue Péclet, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, 1985. 190p. Price: FRF 110.00.
Regulating hours of work in the road haulage industry: the case for social criteria
La réglementation de la durée du travail dans les transports routiers: l'importance des critères sociaux [in French]
If the regulations concerned are effectively to protect the safety and well-being of drivers, more attention should be paid to such psychosocial factors as the reduction of fatigue, the provision of adequate rest, sleep, hygiene and food, and norms of work in this industry should be better harmonised with those that are accepted in society at large. The following aspects were analysed: evidence on safety and the promulgation of legislation; evidence on hours of work and driving safety (relationship between working or driving hours, time of day, fatigue, length of the working week and accident risk), provision for rest, sleep, hygiene and nourishment, social norms of work and leisure, enforcement of the regulations. Guidelines are suggested for the design of regulations on night work, shift work, and working and driving time.
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, Sep.-Oct. 1985, Vol.124, No.5, p.577-592. 31 ref.
Working conditions in the retail industry
Les conditions de travail dans la distribution [in French]
Study of work organisation in supermarkets. 4 examples: Sunday work; flexible work scheduling (adaptation of working hours to suit individual convenience within a team of cashiers); part-time work; receiving of incoming goods. The introduction of new technology (management computers) is also discussed.
Lettre d'information de l'ANACT, Jan. 1984, No.82, p.1-9. Illus.
The new Swedish Working Hours Act
This act, which came into force 1 Jan. 1983, covers: regular working hours and duty hours; overtime; additional hours in part-time employment; record keeping; disposition of working hours; exemptions by the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health; enforcement; penal sanctions; overtime charges; appeals; interim provisions.
Arbetsmarknadsdepartementet, 103 33 Stockholm, Sweden, Jan. 1984. 12p.
Mecacci L., Zani A.
Morningness-eveningness preferences and sleep-waking diary data of morning and evening types in student and worker samples
A questionnaire was distributed to 300 students and 175 workers of the same mean age to determine their "morningness-eveningness" preferences. Morning and evening type samples obtained from these larger populations were requested to keep logs of daily bed and rising time for 2 weeks. In comparison to students, workers had a distribution significantly skewed towards the morningness scores. Differences were found between the expressed preferences and the sleep-waking diary data in workers, but not in students. The acquisition of a regular job seems to induce a change in sleep-wake behaviour, particularly in evening workers.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1983, Vol.26, No.12, p.1147-1153. 17 ref.
(Bundesministerium für Wirschaft)
Mine regulation relating to health protection against heat (Mine regulation on microclimate) of 9 June 1983
Bergverordnung zum Schutz der Gesundheit gegen Klimaeinwirkungen (Klima-Bergverordnung - KlimaBergV) vom 9. Juni 1983 [in German]
This mine regulation (effective 1 Jan. 1984), issued in accordance with the Federal Law on Mines of 13 Aug. 1980, is applicable to all underground extractive operations, and distinguishes between salt mines and others. Subjects covered are: permissible climatic values during work, taking into consideration non-mechanised work; additional rest periods; period of acclimatisation; special age groups of miners; emergency tasks; temperature measurement; preventive medical examinations; temperature and health service records. An effective temperature diagramme (according to Yaglou) and medical examination forms are appended.
Bundesgesetzblatt, Teil 1, 15 June 1983, No.25, p.685-692. Illus.
Mine regulations concerning climate
Die Klima-Bergverordnung [in German]
Review of German Federal legislative texts and of their provisions for work at high temperature. The new mine regulations (June 1983) concerning climate were issued pursuant to the federal mine law, and so replace the regulations of the various Länder; they cover all underground work. Maximum periods of work are specified for: (a) coal and metal ore, and (b) salt mines. In case (a) work periods shall be reduced progressively with increasing temperature from 25 to 30°C (effective temperature), with work above 30°C prohibited entirely except under special circumstances. In case (b), work periods shall be reduced progressively with increasing temperature from 28 to 52°C (dry-bulb temperature), with work above 52°C prohibited except under special circumstances. Other aspects covered: non-mechanised travel of workers, workbreaks, acclimatisation, age restrictions on employment, rescue work, employer responsibilities (temperature monitoring, health monitoring).
Bergbau, 1983, Vol.34, No.10, p.492-494. 8 ref.
4th Statutory Congress. Supplement to report on activities 1979-1981
4ème Congrès statutaire. Supplément au rapport d'activités 1979-1981 [in French]
Report of a symposium organised at The Hague, Netherlands (19-23 April 1982) on the theme "Problems of workers in the large cities of Western Europe". The discussions of occupational health and safety (p.57-72) covered: the programme of action of the Confederation (ETUC) with respect to occupational medicine, demands of the ETUC for effective protection against harmful chemical agents, the programme for combatting occupational cancer, demands for improvement of working conditions in connection with new technology, and reorganisation of work schedules.
European Trade Union Confederation, rue Montagne aux Herbes Potagères 37, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1982. 143p.
Night work and alternating schedules
Le travail de nuit et les horaires alternants [in French]
A study of work schedules as they relate to circadian biological rhythms. Physiological and medical effects of night work: general features of biological rhythms, the waking state and sleep, work and fatigue; exhaustion and occupational diseases of the night worker (general morbidity, pathogenic factors, other aetiological factors, the case of smokers). Socio-familial disruptions occasioned by night work. Problems of adaptability (psychological and physiological, medical selection). Conclusions and specific proposals for work organisation.
R. Leonard, 26 rue des Clercs, 7000 Mons, Belgium, 1982. 78p. Illus. 101 ref.
Act concerning hours of work on board inland navigation craft
Laki työajasta kotimaanliikenteen aluksissa [in Finnish]
Lag om arbetstiden på fartyg i inrikesfart [in Swedish]
This Act dated 26 Mar. 1982 (entry into force 1 May 1982) applies to salaried workers and lays down: ordinary hours of work (max. 8h/day and 40h/week); work-time organisation and shifting of working hours; exemptions; emergency hours; hours worked overtime (max. 16h/week, not more than 14h/day); daily rest periods (workbreak of at least 20min/6h); weekly rest (at least 30h); compensation for hours worked overtime (cash, time off); work on holidays; relief-crew system; work-time schedule. CIS has only the Swedish-language version.
Suomen asetuskokoelma - Finlands författningssamling, 2 Apr. 1982, No.248, p.563-568. Internet: http://www.finlex.fi/linkit/sd/19820248 (Finnish); http://www.finlex.fi/linkit/fs/19820248 (Swedish)
Kauppinen-Toropainen K., Vartia-Huomanen M., Heiskanen J., Hyyppä M., Hänninen V., Ilmarinen J.
Shift work and inconvenient hours of work
Vuorotyö ja epämukava työaika [in Finnish]
Aspects covered by this literature review: statistical data on shift workers and types of shift work in Finland; circadian rhythm related to physiological and psychological functions; short-term and long-term adaptation to changes in work shifts; disorders and sleep deprivation due to incompatibilities between inconvenient hours of work and physiological, psychological and social circadian rhythms; gastric disorders due to irregular meals and psychic disorders (fatigue, irritation, restlessness, depressiveness, loss of concentration ability); effects on leisure time activities and family life. To diminish the problems of shift work and inconvenient hours of work, it is necessary to take into account the time factors in shift changes, shift duration, shift schedules, frequency of rotation and number of night shifts.
Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1981. 158p. Illus. 204 ref. Price: Fmk.30.00.
Nursing aids and night nurses
Aides-soignantes et infirmières de nuit [in French]
Survey of the various systems of working hours in a number of French hospitals and the characteristics of the female workers employed (age, length of time employed, etc.). Analyses of the workload involved in hospital night work (patient supervision, planned or emergency patient-management activities, physical and mental stress). Effects of working hours on the non-professional life of the women involved (questionnaire survey on 3 groups).
Collection études et recherches. Agence nationale pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 16-20 rue Barbès, 92210 Montrouge, France, 1981. 77p. 38 ref.
Dimich H.D., Sterling T.D.
Ventilatory function changes over a workshift
33 production workers at 3 chemical plants were examined for changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1 and % of maximal mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75) resulting from their rotating 3-day, 12h work-shift schedule. An average workshift decrease of 1.1% was observed in % FVC and % FEV1 values and 2.1% in % FEF25-75. Workers on the evening shift (6pm-6am) showed the largest decrease in lung function over the shift. A work week effect was shown in that no recovery in mean % FEV1 and % FEF25-75 was shown by the last working day. Diurnal variation in respiratory function was regarded as being only partly responsible for the observed workshift effect.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1981, Vol.38, No.2, p.152-155. Illus. 15 ref.
The 4-day 10-hour working week
A propos de la semaine de travail de quatre jours de dix heures. [in French]
MD thesis. Part 1: history of, and background material on, the 4x10h working week (extent of the system in the world); statutory (especially in France) and sociological aspects (motivation for management and workers, problems of dividing time between work, commuting and home life, including domestic tasks). Part 2: medical aspects of the system: sleep disturbance, reduction of sleep time, physical and nervous fatigue, risk of occupational accidents, problems of toxicity levels to be reconsidered in view of the new hours of work.
Université de Paris-Sud, Faculté de médecine de Paris-Sud, Paris, France, 1980. 71p. 39 ref.
McEvan Young W.
Shift work and flexible schedules: are they compatible?
Le travail par équipes et les horaires variables sont-ils compatibles ? [in French]
Aspects considered: rise in incidence of shift working in Western industrial society; disruption of normal social and family life; disruption of circadian rhythms and sleep; gastric disorders; general problem of matching work and leisure needs; rearrangement of shift schedules (slow and fast rotation); personal flexibility schemes; flexible-time manning and fulfilment of the work-year contract; manning levels in shift production; rounding down and rounding up; the work-year contract in concept and in practice (description of experience in 2 firms).
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, Jan.- Feb. 1980, Vol.119, No.1, p.1-17. 26 ref.
International Labour Conference, Geneva, 1979.
Convention 153 and Recommendation 161, concerning hours of work and rest periods in road transport [ILO]
Convention n°153 et Recommandation n°161 concernant la durée du travail et les périodes de repos dans les transports routiers [OIT] [in French]
The Convention adopted 27 June 1979, covers the following aspects: scope (categories of drivers covered; taxi, ambulance, urban transport or fire-fighting vehicle drivers may be excluded at the Government's discretion); consultation with employers' and workers' associations; hours of work (definition, normal hours, overtime); maximum period of continuous work without a break (4h); daily spreadover; maximum total driving time (9h per day; 48h per week); daily and weekly rest; exceptions and overtime; supervising measures; means and methods of application (control book, inspection, penalties, temporary exceptions in the case of accident, breakdown, force majeure). The Recommendation supplementing it, adopted on the same day, specifies measures to be taken for giving effect to the Convention.
Official Bulletin - Bulletin officiel, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1979, Vol.62, Series A, No.2, p.70-76 and 80-85.
Hours of work and rest periods in road transport.
La durée du travail et les périodes de repos dans les transports routiers. [in French]
This report was prepared on the basis of the replies received from 63 member states to a questionnaire inviting observations or amendments on the proposed international instruments (a Convention and a Recommendation) submitted as a basis for discussion and possible adoption by the Internaitonal Labour Conference at its 65th Session (Geneva, June 1979). For the first report on this question, submitted to the 64th Session, see CIS 77-1736. In the present report the substance of the Governments' replies to each question are reproduced (including a joint reply from the 9 member states of the EEC), with commentaries on their observations. The texts of the 2 proposed international instruments are appended, covering the following aspects: scope (categories of drivers covered; e.g. taxi, ambulance, urban transport or fire-fighting vehicle drivers may be excluded at the Government's discretion); consultation with employers' and workers' associations; hours of work (definition, normal hours, overtime); maximum period of continuous work; daily spreadover; driving time; daily and weekly rest; exceptions and overtime; supervising measures; means and methods of application.
Report V(2), International Labour Conference, 65th Session, 1979. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1979. 79p. Price: SF.15.00.
Hours of work and rest periods in road transport.
La durée du travail et les périodes de repos dans les transports routiers. [in French]
This booklet summarises the report of the committee which, at the 64th Session of the International Labour Conference (Geneva, June 1978) examined this question with a view to the adoption of an international instrument. The conclusions of the Conference for the second discussion at the 65th Session (Geneva, June 1979), the record of the discussion, at the 64th Session, of the committee's report and the proposed conclusions are reproduced. The booklet also reproduces the proposed texts of an international Convention (scope (urban transport may be excluded); limitation of continuous driving to 4h without break; maximum driving time, including overtime, 9h daily or 48h weekly; mandatory rest period of 11h in any 24h period; exceptions; record-keeping; inspection, etc.) and of a Recommendation: consultation of employers and workers, normal hours of work (definition; limitation to 40-48h weekly, 8h daily; attendance or stand-by limited to 10-12h daily); maximum period of continuous work without a break (5h); daily spreadover; driving time without a break (maximum 4h); daily rest (11h); weekly rest (24h preceeded by 11h); exceptions and overtime; supervisory measures; application of the Recommendation by laws and regulations.
Report V (1), International Labour Conference, 65th Session, 1979. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1978. 64p. Price: SF.15.00.
Threshold limit values for extraordinary work schedules.
A rationale is presented for a modification of theshold limit values, based on preventing the body burden of the substance from rising above that due to a standard work schedule. Formulae are given for calculating an appropriate TLV-multiplying factor from the biological half-life of the substance, based on simple exponential accumulation and decay. The limitations of the formulae are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1978, Vol.39, No.4, p.345-348. 5 ref.
Hickey J.L.S., Reist P.C.
Application of occupational exposure limits to unusual work schedules.
A one-compartment model is described for adjusting exposure limits of air contaminants to work schedules other than an 8-h, 5-day week. The model takes into account biological uptake and excretion mechanisms. Graphs were developed for determining adjustment factors for several such exposure schedules and a general formula is provided for other situations. A worst-case adjustment factor is provided for use when the half-life of the substance in the body is unknown. Applications of the model to inert and reactive gases and vapours, and particulates, are discussed. Consideration is given to limitations of the model, determination of substance half-life, and comparison of the model with published data.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1977, Vol.38, No.11, p.613-621. Illus. 26 ref.
Further comments on novel schedule TLVs.
In the United States, industry is increasingly turning from the traditional 8-hour-day, 5-day-week work pattern to novel work schedules (4x10h; 3x12h alternating with 4x12h; etc.). The original concept (see CIS 76-460) for the development of exposure limits for such novel work schedules is discussed. It is suggested that additional factors to be considered are: the individuals who are at increased risk with respect to the pollutant in question; the possible influences of rotational changes and disrupted circadian rhythms on the health status of workers; the type of toxicological response the TLV is designed to prevent and the degree of safety margin built into the TLV; the metabolic rate and fate of the substance in the individual.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1977, Vol.38, No.9, p.443-446. 24 ref.
Hours of work and rest periods in road transport.
La durée du travail et les périodes de repos dans les transports routiers. [in French]
Preliminary report for communication to governments, with a view to a first discussion of this subject at the 1978 International Labour Conference for possible adoption of an international standard (ILO Convention or Recommendation). The report contains a questionnaire addressed to national authorities of ILO Member States; replies will be summarised in a second report. Aspects covered: national provisions (concept of hours of work); truck drivers' normal weekly and daily hours of work; distribution, calculation of average hours; exceptions; driving time; daily, weekly rest periods; supervisory measures; existing international and regional standards (ILO, EEC, etc.); table of international and regional provisions concerning hours of work and rest periods; possibilities of further international action.
Report VII(1), International Labour Conference, 64th Session 1978. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1977. 77p. Price: SF.17.50.
Rutenfranz J., Knauth P., Colquhoun W.P.
Hours of work and shift work.
This paper concentrates largely on shift work (types of shift systems - with or without night work, effects on health and on family and social life, etc.). Criteria are proposed for optimal shift-work schedules: (1) single night shifts are better than consecutive night shifts; (2) at least 24h free time should be allowed after each night shift; (3) the cycle of a shift system should not be too long; (4) the length of the shift should be related to the type of work; and (5) as many free weekends as possible should be arranged with continuous shift work. In view of the extraordinary stress inflicted on people by shift work and night work, the authors suggest that the reasons given for the introduction of these systems of work should be carefully examined in each instance. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Ergonomics, May 1976, Vol.19, No.3, p.331-340. Illus. 40 ref.
Rules concerning work and rest in international road transport in Sweden
Regler för arbete och vila vid internationella transporter i Sverige [in Swedish]
These rules are based on an agreement signed in 1970 which admits the use of personal control books issued by EEC countries as well as Swedish control books. Examples of how to fill in daily and weekly report sheets are followed by definitions, rules concerning manning of large vehicles (which must have a crew of 2 drivers when the distance driven exceeds 450km a day), minimum age (21 years for trucks weighing over 7.5t), longest continuous period of driving without a break (not to exceed 4h), daily (8h) and weekly (48h) driving times for drivers of heavy vehicles, duration of breaks and rest periods (daily and weekly), and rules for entries in personal control books. (This brochure is also available in English (ADI 115) and German (ADI 114)).
ADI 113, National Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1976. 8p. Gratis.
Flexible working hours
L'horaire variable. [in French]
MD thesis. History. Definitions. Legislative aspect of the introduction of flexible working hours (FWH) in French undertakings, illustrated by 5 examples of firms or administrative offices in the Bordeaux region. Analysis of positive consequences of FWH for the individual and the community. FWH allow the work to be adapted to the physiological rhythm in a large measure. By eliminating time pressure, it has a positive effect on nervous strain.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1975. 65p. 17 ref.
Rutenfranz J., Werner E., Nachreiner F., Frielingsdorf R., Romahn R., Knauth P., Kuhlmann W., Klimmer F.
Shift work in continuous production processes
Schichtarbeit bei kontinuierlicher Produktion [in German]
Analysis of surveys in some 2,000 workers in the chemical and iron and steel industries with various forms of shiftwork: time-budget studies in relation to continuous work methods; sociopsychological, occupational psychological and occupational medical factors in the chemical industry; personal and social data and occupational and operational data in the iron and steel industry. Inquiries among executive staff and councils of workers' delegates on problems related to continuous shift work specific to their branch are assessed, and the extent of recourse to continuous working methods in European countries compared. Finally, problems involved in introducing the 40-h week in plants with continuous production are assessed and solutions proposed.
Forschungsbericht Nr.141, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach, 4600 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1975. 431p. Illus. 79 ref. Price: DM.29.50.
Higgins E.A., Chiles W.D., McKenzie J.M., Iampietro P.F., Winget C.M., Funkhouser G.E., Burr M.J., Vaughan J.A., Jennings A.E.
Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine, Washington, D.C.
The effects of a 12-hour shift in the wake-sleep cycle on physiological and biochemical responses and on multiple task performance.
Results of observations made in 3 groups of 5 subjects (age 20 to 28). The first 4 days of the experiment they slept at night and worked during the day, on the 5th night they slept 3h before starting a 10-day period in which the cycle was altered by 12h. The total fatigue for the awake periods was not altered; the times within days for greatest fatigue were changed and 9 days were required for a complete reversal of the daily pattern. Mean rephasal times varied for different parameters in ascending order as follows: heart rate, norepinephrine, epinephrine, potassium, sodium, internal body temperature, and 17-ketosteroids. Performance data were based on the Civil Aeromedical Institute Multiple Task Performance Battery. No critical tasks should be performed during the first awake period following a 12-h change. After the first full sleep, performance is satisfactory. For the first week after the change, 8h should be the maximum working period.
AD-A021 518/6WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, Oct. 1975. 28p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$4.00/Microfiche US-$2.25.
Research for a better work environment. A summary of reports on four central research areas.
These 4 reports were presented in 1973. The report on scheduling hours of work is devoted to shift and other working-hour arrangements. It contains a survey of international research, information gathered from union and employer representatives and an inventory of current and planned research in Sweden. The sectoral studies report covers environment improvement: the preparation of a research programme for detailed investigation of specific industries, trades and occupations, a priority ranking of industries to be studied, and a programme for following up research results. The report on the chemical pollution in the work environment had the following objectives: to survey research in Sweden, to map problem areas and assign priorities, to ascertain research potential and to submit proposals for measures needing Work Environment Fund support. The occupational accidents report covers 1971 data, accident research approaches and models, research and study programmes in Sweden and proposed research policy.
ASF Reports 1973: 1, 2, 3 and 4, Swedish Work Environment Fund (Arbetarskyddsfonden), Liber Förlag, Fack, 16289 Vällingby, Sweden, Mar. 1975. 92p. 34 ref.
Brief R.S., Scala R.A.
Occupational exposure limits for novel work schedules.
Novel work schedules such as 4x10h/week or 3x12h for 3 weeks and 4x12h for 3 weeks are now being introduced in the United States. Modified occupational threshold limit values can be calculated from the formulae suggested in this report. The system must however be applied cautiously, with good medical surveillance.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1975, Vol.36, No.6, p.467-469. 3 ref.
Gricevskij M.A., Lomonova G.V., Frolova I.N.
Role of toxicological research in establishing a rational system of working hours in the chemical industry
Rol' toksikologičeskogo issledovanija v obosnovanii racional'nogo režima truda v himičeskoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Results of 2 series of animal experiments undertaken to ascertain the effects of different timetables of daily and weekly exposure to hazardous chemical substances (daily exposure for 3 hours on 6 days and for 6h on 3 days per week). The authors used trichloroethylene (concentration ca. 0.16mg/l) as noxious substance. Analysis of the results showed that prolonged daily exposure on 3 days per week produces more marked toxic effects than a shorter daily exposure on 6 days per week.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.10-13. Illus. 11 ref.
Safety in transport systems and hours of work
Bezopasnost' transportnyh rabot i režim truda [in Russian]
The following conclusions were drawn from an analysis of incidents on in-plant railway systems in 2 iron and steel works: the optimal duration of a shift as regards physical workload is 7.5 to 8.2h; during 12h shifts, about 50% of all incidents reported occur in the last 4 hours of the shift.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Jan. 1974, No.1, p.36-37.
Flexible working hours - Their effects on conditions of work, and the psychology and physiology of workers
L'horaire variable ou libre - Ses incidences sur les conditions de travail, la psychologie, la physiologie des travailleurs. [in French]
This MD thesis reviews the experience with this type of work schedule, the use of which is spreading: background, definitions, methods of application, recording and checking of hours worked, applicability, French statutory provisions, stages in the introduction of such schedules in an undertaking, results of experience with flexible working hours as regards the workers and the undertaking, unions' opinions, effects on work in different occupational categories (women, young persons, old or handicapped workers) and on the social and economic environment (leisure time, commuting). In the light of this experience, the effects of flexible working hours on the workers' physiology and psychology, the role of plant physicians and future prospects are examined.
Université de Paris - Val-de-Marne, Faculté de médecine de Créteil, Créteil, France, 1974. 88p. 78 ref.
Szczerbiński R., Swiec R.
Analysis of the relationship between occupational accidents, the human biological rhythm and productivity
Analiza wypadków przy pracy w powiązaniu z rytmem biologicznym człowieka i wydajnością pracy [in Polish]
1572 accident records in plants manufacturing mining machinery were statistically surveyed to determine optimum working hours. Physiological aptitude for work was plotted against occupational accidents for the different hours worked by the 3 shifts; accidents and productivity were assessed for each day of the week and month of the year. It was established that it is in the period between 9 and 16 h that physiological factors combine best with a working environment from the point of view of safety and productivity. Suggestions are made concerning rest periods and work organisation.
Ochrona pracy, July 1973, Vol.27, No.7 (314), p.8-10. Illus. 3 ref.
(Ministère du travail, Ottawa)
Regulations respecting the hours of service for motor vehicle operators engaged in inter-provincial trade or the transportation of mail and the returns to be made by motor carriers (Canada motor vehicles operators hours of service regulations)
Règlement concernant la durée du service des conducteurs de véhicules automobiles occupés au commerce interprovincial ou au transport du courrier et les rapports exigés des transporteurs routiers (Règlement du Canada sur la durée du service des conducteurs de véhicules automobiles) [in French]
Issued pursuant to the Canada Labour Code, Part IV (Safety of Employees), these regulations apply to the hours of service for motor vehicle operators engaged in inter-provincial trade or the transportation of mail (with certain exceptions such as disaster relief) and the returns to be made by motor carriers. Except in certain circumstances, operators must not commence a workshift without at least 8 consecutive hours of duty. Hours of service are limited on 10h driving and 10h total duty in a workshift to a maximum of 60h on duty during a work week, unless precluded by unusual operational requirements; mechanical failure, special cargoes; adverse road, traffic, weather conditions. Operators daily logs and carriers' records of operators' hours of service must be maintained. Replaced by CIS 86-1483.
Canada Gazette - Gazette du Canada, 25 Oct. 1972, Part II, Vol.106, No.20, p.1885-1895.
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