Hours of work - 251 entries found
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Arnold P.K., Hartley L.R., Corry A., Hochstadt D., Penna F., Feyer A.M.
Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue among truck drivers
Topics: Australia; dangerous occurrences; drivers; fatigue; hours of work; questionnaire survey; road transport; sleep deprivation; trucks.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1997, Vol.29, No.4, p.471-477. 6 ref.
Brodeur J., Vyskocil A., Tardif R., Perrault G., Drolet D., Truchon G., Lemay F.
Correction of acceptable exposure limits for non-conventional working hours
Ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles aux horaires de travail non conventionnels [in French]
Topics: Canada; dangerous substances; determination of exposure limits; harmful substances; night work; shift work; threshold limit values; work time schedules.
Travail et santé, Sep. 1997, Vol.13, No.3, p.39-42. Illus. 5 ref.
Night work or rotating shifts: Can the body adapt?
Travailler la nuit ou être affecté à des horaires changeants: l'organisme peut-il s'adapter? [in French]
Topics: Canada; circadian rhythm; health hazards; night work; shift work; work design; work time schedules.
Travail et santé, Sep. 1997, Vol.13, No.3, p.21-25. Illus. 4 ref.
Rosa R.R., Colligan M.J.
Plain language about shiftwork
Booklet on health and safety effects of shift work and improved work schedule design. Topics: circadian rhythm; shift work; sleep disturbances; social aspects; USA; work capacity; work organization; work time schedules.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, July 1997. vi, 38p. Illus. 8 ref.
Kageyama T., et al.
Commuting, overtime and cardiac autonomic activity in Tokyo
The relation between short-term heart rate variability (HRV) and commuting time or overtime was investigated in 223 Japanese white-collar workers. Chronic stress or fatigue resulting from long commuting time or extensive overtime appeared to cause a sympathodominant state in these individuals. Although these shifts in HRV are not direct indicators of disease, they may induce cardiovascular abnormalities related to the onset of heart disease.
Lancet, 30 Aug. 1997, Vol.350, No.9078, p.639. 4 ref.
Working Hours Act, with commentaries [Sweden]
Arbetstidslagen med kommentarer [in Swedish]
This act (SFS 1982:673, modifications until SFS 1996:360) contains: regular working hours and duty hours; overtime; additional hours in part-time employment; record-keeping; scheduling of working hours; exemptions by the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health; enforcement; penal sanctions; additional expenses connected with overtime work; appeals; regulation of working hours; regulations concerning the Working Hours Committee; EC directives on scheduling of working hours (93/104/EC). A change in this edition is that it is not possible any more to override the provisions of the EC directive on the scheduling of working hours in collective agreements.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 10364 Stockholm, Sweden, 9th ed., 1997. 60p.
Frieling E., Pfitzmann J., Pfaus H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Work organisation and working hours in the field of research and development - An empirical analysis of mechanical and electrical engineering
Arbeitsorganisation und Arbeitszeitsregelungen im F&E-Bereich - Eine empirische Analyse in der Metall- und Elektrobranche [in German]
Topics: computer aided design; electronics industry; flexible working time; Germany; machinery industry; part-time employment; questionnaire survey; statistical aspects; work organization; work time schedules.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. xi, 240p. Illus. 113 ref.
Improving shift workers' health and tolerance to shiftwork: Recent advances
Topics: biological effects; hours of work; ILO; implementation of control measures; individual susceptibility; international agreements; literature survey; medical supervision; night work; shift work; social aspects; work capacity; work organization; workers participation.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 1996, Vol.27, No.1, p.5-8. 19 ref.
Proctor S.P., White R.F., Robins T.G., Echeverria D., Rocskay A.Z.
Effect of overtime work on cognitive function in automotive workers
Topics: aptitude tests; behaviour study; cognitive performance; extra work; fatigue; hours of work; motor vehicle industry; psychological tests; vigilance; work organization.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1996, Vol.22, No.2, p.124-132. 35 ref.
Williamson A.M., Feyer A.M., Friswell R.
The impact of work practices on fatigue in long distance truck drivers
Topics: Australia; drivers; fatigue; perceptual-motor performance; pulse rate; road transport; subjective assessment; vigilance; work capacity; work time schedules; workbreaks.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 1996, Vol.28, No.6, p.709-719. Illus. 30 ref.
Kleinbeck U., Wegge J.
Absenteeism in organizations: Motivational approaches to identify determinants and suggestions for health promotion in the workplace
Fehlzeiten in Organisationen: Motivationspsychologische Ansätze zur Ursachenanalyse und Vorschläge für die Gesundheitsförderung am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
From a review of recent research findings on the causes of absenteeism it is concluded that not enough attention has been paid to the connection between absenteeism and conditions in the workplace. When employees are not motivated enough by their work they may stay away from work for a day or two every now and then and blame it on minor health problems. In order to cut this kind of avoidable absenteeism it is recommended to make work more appealing to employees. In addition, employees should be informed about the consequences of absenteeism to the organization.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 4th Quarter 1996, Vol.40, No.4, p.161-172. 66 ref.
Hayashi T., Kobayashi K., Yamaoka K., Yano E.
Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure
Blood pressure measurements over a 24h period were compared among several groups of male white-collar workers: overtime groups (average 60 hours or more overtime per month) and control groups (average 30 hours or less overtime per month). For those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24h average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups. For a group who periodically did overtime work, the 24h average blood pressure and the heart rate during the busy period increased. The burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.38, No.10, p.1007-1011. 14 ref.
Maximum performance time and heart rate: A theoretical approach
Durée limite de travail et fréquence cardiaque - Approche théorique [in French]
Maximum performance time decreases with work intensity. This relationship characterizes endurance and it varies from person to person. The knowledge of this individual endurance relationship allows: from the occupational health point of view, to predict the intensity of effort not to be exceeded for a specific duration; from the performance point of view, to predict the optimal intensity of effort according to its duration. Heart rate is used to estimate the relative work load. An exponential endurance time/relative intensity relationship is hypothesized and the logarithmic rather than arithmetic mean of instantaneous heart rate is therefore recommended to estimate average work intensity. The individual exhaustion relationship is calculated from this heart rate logarithmic mean. This method takes into better consideration peak values for intense activities, particularly in lactic anaerobia.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.6, p.419-428. Illus. 50 ref.
Seitz D., Hofmann K.
Effects of various work time schedules on cooks
Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Arbeitszeitmodelle bei Köchen [in German]
The effects of 3 work time schedules on the social life and health of 45 male and 6 female cooks in the hotel industry in Germany were studied with the help of questionnaires. Of the participants 22 worked during the day between 6 am and 5 pm, 12 alternated between 2 shifts from 6 am to 2 pm and 2 pm to 10 pm, 17 worked from the morning to the early afternoon and in the evening with a 2 to 3 h break in between. The latter 2 groups were significantly more negative than the first group about the usefulness of their spare time to make and maintain social contacts. There was no difference between the 3 groups with regard to psychosomatic disorders.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Jan. 1996, Vol.50 (22 new version), No.1, p.13-19. Illus. 35 ref.
Iskra-Golec I., Folkard S., Marek T., Noworol C.
Health, well-being and burnout of ICU nurses on 12- and 8-h shifts
Report on the effects of shift work schedules on the health, sleeping habits and the psychological and social well-being of two groups of intensive care unit nurses. The 12h shift nurses experienced more chronic fatigue and anxiety than those on 8h shifts. Job satisfaction was independent of shift duration.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.10, No.3, p.251-256. 25 ref.
Social tolerance of working time scheduling in nursing
In a study of 297 German nurses, tolerance of different working time schedules (WTS) was analyzed for six factors: job security and access to the labour market; income; health; family relationships; participation in social life; degree of autonomy for WTS. Results show: dominance of health-related and social aspects in the social tolerance of working time scheduling; large differences in stress, burnout and well-being for nurses on different WTSs linked to day-time, shiftwork and permanent night work; strong covariate effects of autonomy on working time scheduling as well as strong covariate effects of sex on the influence that different WTSs exert on stress, burnout and well-being.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.10, No.3, p.238-250. Illus. 54 ref.
Koike M., Kamikubo T.
A study on the full application of the Labour Standards Law in forestry
Rōdō kijun hō no ringyō eno kanzen tekiyō ni kansuru ichi kōsatsu [in Japanese]
Because forestry is an outdoor activity, the Japanese Labour Standards Law, as it applies to forestry, must be revised to take care of its special features. This paper examines the proposed modifications. Particular attention must be made to the introduction of labour-saving machinery, necessitated by the need of the industry to stay competitive. A coherent national approach is needed to take into account the changing nature of forestry work and the need to preserve the environment.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Nov. 1995, Vol.71, No.11, p.462-467. 18 ref.
Nishiyama K., Fukutome K., Yamashita H., Taoda K., Kitahara T., Watanabe S.
Night and shift work conditions and health in the Japanese chemical and allied industries: Results of a questionnaire study
Kagaku kōgyō kanren rōdōsha no shin'ya kōtai kimmujōken to kenkō: shitsumonshi chōsahō ni yoru kentō [in Japanese]
Survey of members of a union representing about 7% of the regular workers in the sector. Data were obtained from the union, and from 4045 male workers, including 1844 shift workers, and 873 women, including 16 shift workers. Because of the small sample of female shift workers, the study focused on the male group. There were 79 rotating shift systems and 4 regular night duty systems. Although shift workers complained more frequently than day workers of cumulative fatigue and expressed more anxiety about their health, there was no difference between the groups in health status. Shift workers complained more often of problems with work schedules and of shortcomings in the work environment. The proportion of smokers was higher among the shift workers. Both shift and day workers averaged 6.7h/day of sleep at home, but the former reported poor environments for daytime sleeping after a night shift. Those who could nap for more than 2h during a night shift reported less fatigue than other shift workers. Workers in the 5-team, 3-shift system promoted by the Japanese union movement did not necessarily enjoy better health or better working conditions. Where such systems were adopted without increasing the number of shift workers, increases were reported in work intensity, working hours, double shifts and duty calls on days off.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Aug. 1995, Vol.71, No.8, p.311-333. Illus. 10 ref.
Working time around the world
This report provides an overview of working time legislation throughout the world, and focuses on trends in regulation and practice in 16 countries. Basic legal provisions in 151 countries are tabulated with a summary of the main findings. Potential health hazards of some flexible working time measures which allow long hours in a day or during one or two weeks are outlined.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1995, Vol.14, xi, 398p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 50.00.
Three-year follow-up study of health conditions among dental technicians
Shika gikoshi no kenko jotai ni kansuru sannen kan ni watarutsuseki chosa [in Japanese]
To provide detailed data on the health and working conditions of dental technicians in Japan, 39 male members of a professional association responded to questionnaires and underwent medical examinations in 1991 and 1994. The mean working time per day fell from 13.3h to 12.1h. Good health habits (longer sleep, more exercise, less smoking) became more prevalent, but satisfaction decreased. Numbness in the arms and fingers was positively correlated with daily working hours but not with length of career. However, vibrotactile threshold did increase with length of career. The prevalences of cough and sputum were 10% and 20%, respectively. Small opacities were seen in chest x-rays in 20% of the cases; their number increased with length of career. This suggests that dust exposure is responsible for the respiratory symptoms. Further improvements in the working conditions of dental technicians are necessary.
Journal of the Kurume Medical Association, 25 Jan. 1995, Vol.58, No.1, p.13-24. Illus. 25 ref.
Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation professionnelle
Length and organization of working hours
Durée et aménagement du temps de travail [in French]
Topics: comment on law; compensatory leave; flexible working time; France; hours of work; legislation; part-time employment; shift work; work organization; work time schedules; work-rest schedules.
La Documentation Française, 21-31 Quai Voltaire, 75344 Paris Cedex 07, France, Dec. 1994. 126p. Illus. Price: FRF 50.00.
Sleep and hours of work - Survey conducted in the framework of an industrial physician's work plan
Sommeil et horaires de travail - Enquête réalisée dans le cadre du plan d'activité du médecin du travail [in French]
Study conducted by 16 industrial physicians on the prevalence of sleep disturbances among the 25,000 workers of the national commodity/food market at Rungis, France. Occupations vary greatly from wholesale trade, transport, restaurants, self service food stores, retail stores, warehouse work to construction, tertiary sector (banking, insurance, computer work, etc.). Work patterns also vary greatly, as do hours of work (day-work, night-work, shift work (2 X 8, 3 X 8) as well as irregular shifts). The prevalence of sleep disturbances is high whether it relates to sleep quantity or quality, and is related to other disorders such as overweight, stress, high blood pressure, alcoholism, pathopsychologic disturbances and disruptions in family and social life.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.281-288. Illus. 16 ref.
Council Directive 94/33/EC of 22 June 1994 on the protection of young people at work [European Communities]
Directive 94/33/CE du Conseil, du 22 juin 1994, relative à la protection des jeunes au travail [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive specifies that the Member States shall take the necessary measures to prohibit work by children, that they shall ensure that work by adolescents is strictly regulated and that young people are protected against economic exploitation and against any work likely to harm their safety, their health or their physical, mental, moral or social development or to jeopardize their education. The general obligations on employers are described as well as the type of work prohibited. Special provisions apply to working time, night work, rest periods, annual rest and work by adolescents in the event of force majeure (unexpected emergencies). A non-exhaustive list of agents, processes and work likely to entail specific risks for young people is given in annex.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 20 Aug. 1994, Vol.37, No.L.216, p.12-20.
http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31994L0033&model=guichett [in English]
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo
The hours we work: New work schedules in policy and practice
Las horas que trabajamos: nuevos horarios en las políticas y en la práctica [in Spanish]
Spanish version of ILO Conditions of Work Digest published in English as The hours we work: New work schedules in policy and in practice (see CIS 91-2082).
Condiciones de trabajo, 1993. No. 5, 294p. 54 ref. Price: CHF 45.00.
Altmann N., Bieber D., Deiss M., Döhl V., Sauer D., Schraysshuen T.
Changes in the conditions of work by innovative ways of inter-company work distribution (Parts supply industry)
Veränderung der Arbeitsbedingungen durch neuartige Formen der zwischenbetrieblichen Arbeitsteilung (Zulieferindustrie) [in German]
The effects of new cost-saving measures by car manufacturers on work organization, conditions of work and personnel qualifications in the parts supply industry are described. Logistics, quality assurance, development and production of new products were studied. The role of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing was taken into consideration. Conditions in Germany were compared with those in Japan. Information was obtained from the literature and from case studies of 2 car manufacturers and 87 suppliers in Germany. It was found that suppliers are increasingly under pressure concerning their inability to come to terms with new technologies, their use of outdated machinery, their inability to deliver in time, the high rate of faulty products delivered and the low qualification of their personnel.
Institut für Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung e.V., Jakob-Klar-Strasse 9, 80796 München, Germany, 1993. 277p. 142 ref.
Council Directive 93/104/EC of 23 November 1993 concerning certain aspects of the organization of working time [European Communities]
Directive 93/104/CE du Conseil, du 23 novembre 1993, concernant certains aspects de l'aménagement du temps de travail [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive lays down minimum safety and health requirements for the organization of working time. It sets minimum periods of daily rest, weekly rest and annual leave, provides for breaks and a maximum weekly working time and covers certain aspects of night work, shift work and patterns of work in all sectors of activity.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 13 Dec. 1993, Vol.36, No.L.307, p.18-24.
Hornberger S., Knauth P.
Health and social effects of shift schedule changes on shift workers
Gesundheitliche und soziale Auswirkungen von Schichtplanumstellungen auf die Schichtarbeiter [in German]
Five groups of shift workers in the chemical industry were changed to three new schedules of shift rotation marked by a fast rotation between early, late and night shifts with rest periods of different lengths. A questionnaire survey of the workers revealed that the majority favoured the new schedules, The changes in the frequency of fatigue, insomnia, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders and the impact on the workers' social life of the new shift schedule are described. Summaries in English and German.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1993, Vol.47, No.4, p.206-212. Illus. 10 ref.
Saito M., Asano S., Nozawa K.
Fire fighters' physical and mental fatigue in 24-hour shift work
24-Jikan kakujitsu kinmusha no hirō tokusei - shōbō taiin o taishō to shite [in Japanese]
Heart rate, blood pressure at rest, handgrip force, vertical jumping, body flexibility, physical working capacity, perceived exertion during bicycle exercise and subjective symptoms of 14 firefighters (aged 29-48) were measured for 10 consecutive days during which the subjects alternated between 24h on duty and 24hr off. The only statistically significant change over this period was a slight decrease in the height to which subjects could jump. Perceived exertion increased over the observation period for subjects in their 40s and decreased for the younger ones. Subjective symptoms of physical, mental and sensory fatigue increased over the 10 days, i.e., the 24hr off-duty period was insufficient for recovery. The 24hr shift, which involves mainly sedentary work at night, seems to produce psychological discomfort but to have little physical effect.
Hiro to Kyuyo no Kagaku, 1 June 1992, Vol.7, No.1, p.63-74. Illus. 11 ref.
Tripartite Meeting on Conditions of Employment and Work of Performers - Final Report
Réunion tripartite sur les conditions d'emploi et de travail des artistes interprètes - Rapport final [in French]
Final report of the Tripartite Meeting on Conditions of Employment and Work of Performers organised by the International Labour Office in Geneva, Switzerland, from 5 to 13 May 1992. Contents: employment and unemployment; labour relations and determination of conditions of employment; working time and remuneration; performers' rights as regards the uses of their performances; social security and problems associated with fluctuating earnings; health, safety and working environment.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1992. 47p. Annex. Price: CHF 15.00.
Poole C.J.M., Evans G. R., Spurgeon A., Bridges K.W.
Effects of a change in shift work on health
Aspects of health were studied in a sample of factory workers who changed their pattern of working from "fortnight about" to three advancing shifts. Within the same factory and doing similar work there was a comparison group who were working permanent days only. The change in shifts was associated with more difficulty with sleep, more indigestion, higher alcohol consumption, reduced alertness and a worse social life. There was more minor psychiatric disturbance in those who worked three shifts than in those who worked days only.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.42, No.4, p.193-199. 23 ref.
Relationship of ergonomic stressors to birthweight and gestational age
Women in many occupations are exposed to ergonomic stressors (eg, prolonged standing, physical exertion, and long work weeks). After a consideration of the major methodological problems encountered in studying effects of ergonomic stressors on birthweight and gestational age, epidemiologic studies that have addressed this issue are reviewed. No individual ergonomic stressor has been consistently associated with effects on gestational age. However, most studies which have attempted to look at the cumulative effect of several stressors report that women in the highest exposure category are at higher risk of giving birth prematurely. In contrast, data regarding an association with birthweight are more variable, and firm conclusions cannot be drawn. While future studies that assess exposure to ergonomic stressors with a more comprehensive and quantitative approach are needed, current evidence is sufficient to suggest that clinicians should take ergonomic stressors into account in the assessment of their patients' risk for preterm delivery.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.73-83. 36 ref.
Preventing short-term strain through time-management coping
Report on a project investigating the effectiveness of time-management coping in the prevention of strain due to role overload. Structural regressions, a form of causal-correlational analysis, were used on repeated-measures questionnaire data from 96 working adults attending evening degree classes in business administration. Results showed that time-management techniques significantly lowered anxiety, but not depression or somatic symptoms. In addition, the effect of coping on axiety remained significant when social desirability was controlled. Anxiety did not influence subsequent coping, and no significant moderator effects were found.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.169-176. 21 ref.
Biological rhythms: Implications for the worker - New developments in neuroscience
This report discusses biological rhythms: what they are, how they are controlled by the brain, and the role they play in regulating the physiological and cognitive functions. Its focus is on the examination of the effects of non-standard work hours on biological rhythms and how these effects can interact with other factors to affect the health, performance and safety of workers. The United States federal regulatory framework related to work hours and the current status of biological rhythm and shift work research are also described. Comparative data on shift work from different countries is also provided. Glossary of terms.
US Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328, USA, 1991. vi, 249p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Hoff A., Ebbing U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Organisation of shorter working hours based on human needs
Menschengerechte Umsetzung von Arbeitszeitverkürzungen [in German]
In a food-processing plant, consultations took place in order to reorganise work time schedules according to the needs of the workers subsequent to a reduction of the work-week to 38h. In the plant, 278 men and 252 women alternated between two shifts, 71 men between three shifts and four men worked the night shift. In discussions with these employees the 2-10p.m. shift proved to be the most problematic one. Considerations of the social aspects and the health effects of various work-time schedules led to a proposal to cut this shift by 30min. Night shifts were also rearranged. Detailed summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 74p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 19.00.
Act No.91-1 of 3 January 1991 concerning the development of employment by training within companies, help with social and occupational integration and the arrangement of working hours, for the implementation of the third employment plan [France]
Loi n°91-1 du 3 janvier 1991 tendant au développement de l'emploi par la formation dans entreprises, l'aide à l'insertion sociale et professionnelle et l'aménagement du temps de travail, pour l'application du troisième plan pour l'emploi [France] [in French]
In addition to the provisions concerning occupational training, social integration and working hours, this Act amends the Labour Code. The application of the provisions of the Labour Code concerning safety and health matters is extended to include personnel and trainees in workshops of public technical or professional educational establishments. A new article L. 231-2-2 provides for the establishment of committees of health or safety in each technical or professional college. A correction to this text appears in the Journal officiel of 20 January 1991, p.1055: p.231, 2nd column, article 10, 1st line, instead of "L. 322-4-12", read "L. 322-4-13" and 2nd and 3rd lines, instead of "L. 322-4-13", read "L. 322-4-14".
Journal officiel de la République française, 5 Jan. 1991, Vol.123, No.4, p.231-234.
Working conditions and health among night workers in the Japanese service industry
Sābisu sangyō ni okeru shinya rōdō no rōdō eisei [in Japanese]
This questionnaire survey was conducted to clarify the relationships between night work conditions and psychosomatic complaints in the service industry. The subjects were full-time workers (N=307) and part-time workers (N=300) who were working in 3 service industries in which business hours were prolonged after 10 p.m. or covered a full 24 hours: convenience stores, family restaurants and fastfood restaurants, business hotels. 37.8% of full-time workers, and 81.7% of part-time workers expressed satisfaction with night work. The major reasons were "higher salaries", "more free time for themselves" and "suitability to their life styles". However, the job scope and responsibility of night work were much heavier than those of day work. 32.9%-43.4% of subjects excluding hotel clerks experienced night-work in addition to scheduled working days during the month preceding the study. As for psychosomatic symptoms, 64% of the subjects complained that they felt "a tendency to become fatigued", and it was the most frequent complaint. Factors related to night work which increased psychosomatic complaints were "working in family restaurants or fastfood restaurants", "doing same jobs at night as during the day", "night work in addition to scheduled working days", "less opportunity to take rests or naps during night work", and "difficulty to be granted their requests to decide working schedules".
Ōhara shakai mondai kenkyūjo zasshi - Journal of the Ohara Institute for Social Research, 25 Nov. 1991, No.396, p.62-72. 6 ref.
Performance, alertness, and sleep after 3-5 years of 12h shift: A follow-up study
Control room operators at a continuous processing plant have been working a 12h/3-4 day rotating shift schedule for over 3 years. After 7 months on this schedule, initial assessment indicated decrements in performance and alertness, and a mild to moderate sleep debt, when the 12h shift schedule was compared to the previously-worked 8h shift schedule. In an effort to track long-term adaptation to the schedule, a 3-5 year follow-up evaluation using the same set of measures was conducted. Long-term follow-up testing revealed persistent decrements in performance and alertness attributable to 12h shifts, and 1-3h reduction in total sleep time after 12h night shifts. Little deterioration in performance or alertness was observed across the workweek, which suggested day-to-day recovery from the extended workshift. The popularity of the 12h shift schedule at this worksite indicates that the workers are willing to tolerate extra fatigue to derive other benefits from this schedule.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1991, Vol.5, No.2, p.107-116. Illus. 19 ref.
Working time in posts and telecommunications - Report III
La durée du travail dans les postes et télécommunications - Rapport III [in French]
Working paper and report prepared by the ILO for its Joint Committee for Postal and Telecommunications Services (Geneva, 1991). Chapter 1 of this report outlines the specific context of working time in the postal and telecommunications services, focusing on the special needs of this sector, the implications of recent innovations and the characteristics of its labour force. Chapter 2 examines the regulation of several important aspects of working time such as normal hours of work, overtime, rest periods, annual leave, public holidays, maternity leave, and it highlights differences in regulations between postal and telecommunications services. Chapter 3 deals with the organisation of working time. It examines night and shift work, part-time work and temporary and casual work. Special attention is paid to innovative experiences such as flexible working time, modular working time systems, job sharing, compressed work-weeks and telework. The report ends with a summary of the main points made in each chapter and a list of suggested points for discussion.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. iii, 58p. Price: CHF 15.00.
Tarumizu K., Hagibara A., Morimoto K.
Working hours and commuting time from the point of view of occupational health management - A study on the influence on lifestyle
Shokuiki no kenkō kanri kara mita rōdō jikan to tsūkin jikan - raifusutairu e no eikyō ni tsuite no kōsatsu [in Japanese]
A survey was conducted among non-outdoor company workers on the influence of working and commuting time on lifestyle. Lifestyle was assessed in terms of daily habit items - smoking, drinking, exercise, sleeping hours, obesity, breakfast-taking, nutritional balance - and social life items - motivation to work, stress, social support, relaxation at home. Only 4.3% of workers worked more than 11 hours daily, while the majority worked 8 hours. When working time exceeded 10 hours, both daily habits and social life tended to become unsatisfactory. The commuting time, which was relatively short in general due to the adoption of flexible working hours, had no significant effects on lifestyle. Even in a community where working and commuting time was not excessively long, working hours had a significant effect on lifestyle, which should be considered in the health management of workers.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Mar. 1990, Vol.39, No.3, p.163-171. Illus. 31 ref.
Müller B.H., Peters H., Hettinger T.
Tabular surveys as a method of evaluating stress at work
Übersichtstabellen als Mittel für die zusammenfassende Bewertung der Belastungssituation [in German]
The methods of determining stress at work, environmental conditions at the workplace and the work organisation are outlined. They comprise measurements, objective observations and subjective assessments of the health risks, the job satisfaction and the physical workload. An evaluation of stress factors encountered at various jobs in the iron and steel industry is presented in tabular form as an example.
Die BG, Nov. 1990, No.11, p.670-674. Illus. 12 ref.
The hours we work: New work schedules in policy and practice
This issue of the ILO's Conditions of Work Digest analyses in detail the new practices in the organisation of working time. It explores the motivations for changes, the principles underlying the schedules, their economic and social impact, and policy implications. It contains: an introduction that identifies trends and issues and offers an international perspective; the latest developments in legislation and collective agreements on a wide variety of topics, including flexibility in daily and weekly hours, night work and part-time work; 30 detailed case studies in various industries and services of 9 industrialised countries; policy statements from governments, employers' and workers' organisations on such issues as flexibility and fragmentation of working time, as well as legislative proposals illustrating trends in governments policy; a comprehensive analysis of manuals and guidelines, describing their features and comparing the advice they offer concerning the many forms of working time arrangements, and on the best way of introducing new approaches.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1990, Vol.9, No.2, ix, 258p. Illus.Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 45.00
The strain of commuting to work
Belastungsdimensionen arbeitsbedingten Pendelns [in German]
Census data of 1988 are used to show that in the Federal Republic of Germany about 10.5 million employees commute more than 50km and/or more than 60min to work. This represents an increase of 90% within the last ten years. The stress and strain aspects are discussed in the light of an empirical regional study. Of 308 commuters using the train from Fulda to Frankfurt 63% rated the perceived strain unbearable or heavy. Details are given on: profession; reasons for commuting; physical, mental, social, temporal and economic implications of commuting.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1990, Vol.44, No.4, p.234-239. 15 ref.
Shift work planned according to the criteria of labour science reduces burden on employees
Schichtarbeit, nach arbeitswissenschaftlichen Kriterien geplant, reduziert die Belastungen für die Beschäftigten [in German]
Work-rest schedules for shift work including night work are presented. They take into consideration work weeks as short as 36 hours and recommendations by studies of numerous shift workers, to reduce sleep disturbance, fatigue, impairment of social life and of circadian rhythm. A new system of scheduling irregular shift work is outlined. It is presently being tested by employees of a television station in Germany.
Arbeit und Ökologie-Briefe, 1990, No.3, p.11-14.
Brodeur J., Laparé S., Krishnan K., Tardif R., Goyal R.
The problem of adjusting threshold limit values (TLVs) for non-conventional work schedules: utility of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling
Le problème de l'ajustement des valeurs limites d'exposition (VLE) pour des horaires de travail non-conventionnels: utilité de la modélisation pharmacocinétique à base physiologique [in French]
In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model was used to simulate exposure to selected solvents for variable lengths of time, with the use of a computer programme and data from published literature. Results are reported for a 12-hour and an 8-hour workshift. For all the solvents studied, the percentage of correction of TLVs fell within a fairly narrow range of 57-65%. Although the method of PB-PK modelling is generally to be preferred to that of calculation by simple proportions, results of the study suggested that, in case of urgent needs, the corrected TLVs obtained from simple proportional adjustment (67%) can be satisfactory, at least for the solvents examined in this study.
Travail et santé, Summer 1990, Vol.6, No.2, p.S.11-S.16. Illus. 27 ref.
Conditions of employment and work of journalists
Conditions d'emploi et de travail des journalistes [in French]
This report prepared by the ILO to serve as a basis for the Tripartite Meeting's discussions held in Geneva, Switzerland, 21-29 November 1990 is based mainly on information received from governments, employers' organisations and trade unions. Main topics covered: entry into the profession and employment status, labour relations, the determination of conditions of employment, working time and pay, technological and structural change, special risks facing journalists, social security and training facilities.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1990. 114p. Price: CHF 20.00.
The application of 8-hour occupational exposure limits to non-standard work schedules offshore
This paper reviews general methods for adjustment of 8-h occupational exposure limits to offshore work schedules and recommends toxicokinetic models for calculating adjustment factors. These factors may be used to develop exposure limits whose aim is to provide the same degree of worker protection offshore as the original limits. A general formula for regular, repetitive work is used to calculate adjustment factors as functions of biological half-lives for 2 different offshore work schedules. In both, the work period is 12h a day for 14 consecutive days but the off-duty period between tours of duty is either 2 or 3 weeks. The worst case adjustment factor is 0.60, occurring at biological half-lives of 78 and 76h, respectively. At lower biological half-lives, the adjustment factors are identical for the 2 work schedules, whereas at higher biological half-lives they differ.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1990, Vol.34, No.1, p.13-17. 8 ref. Illus.
Thurman J.E., Trah G.
Part-time work in international perspective
Le travail à temps partiel dans le monde [in French]
Part-time work is condemned by many as a threat to full-time jobs, a precarious form of employment and a source of unequal treatment of women workers. It is also widely defended as a regular, well-protected way to reconcile the needs and preferences of workers with the operational requirements of enterprises, to create jobs, and to benefit workers with family responsibilities, workers approaching retirement and other special groups. There are now more than 50 million part-time workers in the industrialised market economics alone, and in some countries nearly half of all working women are part-timers. This article examines the reasons of part-time work; the level of legislative protection; national programmes which increase access to part-time employment; and the differing forms of part-time work in practice.
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, 1990, Vol.129, No.1, p.23-40. Illus.
Meal and work breaks
Spise- og hvilepauser [in Norwegian]
This training booklet reproduces the text of the Working Environment Act, paragraph 51, No.1, concerning workbreaks, and provides information and guidelines on the interpretation of the text. Coverage: the timing of breaks; breaks during continuous work; breaks during overtime work; standard on canteens; distance from the workplace; use of restaurants, cafeterias etc; tasks away from the workplace; barracks used as canteens; breaks considered as leisure time; breaks considered as working time; availability of employees during breaks.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Mar. 1989. 8p.
Work on Sundays and holidays: exceptions are no longer up to date
Sonn- und Feiertagsarbeit - Ausnahmeregelung nicht mehr zeitgemäss [in German]
This review of present legislation regulating work on Sundays and holidays in the Fed. Rep. of Germany shows: Sunday work is permitted if it fulfills essential needs of society. Employers demand that it may also be permitted if it helps industries to compete on world markets.
Der Arbeitgeber, 1989, Vol.41, No.20, p.718, 720, 722-723. 12 ref.
Rosa R.R., Colligan M.J.
Long workdays versus restdays: assessing fatigue and alertness with a portable performance battery
A test battery for assessing psychological and behavioural fatigue was used to compare restdays to a workweek of five 12-h days at a simulated data-entry job. The observed increase in data entry errors across the workday and the workweek, as well as subjective reports of increased tiredness on workdays, indicated that the work regimen was fatiguing. Test battery performance results paralleled those observations. On workdays, grammatical reasoning was faster but less accurate than on rest days; digit addition was slower; simple, dual and choice reaction times were slower; hand steadiness decreased.
Human Factors, June 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.305-317. Illus. 23 ref.
The Working Hours Act, with commentaries [Sweden]
Arbetstidslagen med kommentarer [in Swedish]
This act (SFS 1982:673, modifications: SFS 1986:56) contains: regular working hours and duty hours; overtime; additional hours in part-time employment; record-keeping; scheduling of working hours; exemptions by the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health; enforcement; penal sanctions; additional expenses connected with overtime work; appeals; regulation of working hours; regulations concerning the Working Hours Committee.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 10364 Stockholm, Sweden, 4th ed., 1988. 32p.
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